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769) Lefébilre on the Systems of Tournefort, Linnæus, and Jussieu. [770

whom the prevailing opinion has geneConcordance, &c. Agreement of the three rally ascribed the discovery of a happy

Systems of Tournefort, Linnæus, and theory for the arrangement of the minot Jussieu, by the Foliary system, applied organs of the plant, by means of this to the plants which grow spontane- leading part, the corolla.

But what 'busly around Paris, &c. By Louis entitles M. Lefébure to particular consi

deration is his discovery, that so far from Lefébure.

the respective systeins of Linnæus and The author assures us that by means Tourrtefort being irreconcileable, as has of his System, the generic name, and the constantly been affirmed, and even with proper place in the Systems of those out the suspicion of Linnæus himself, illustrious Botanists, whose names he the system of the later Botanist is the commemorates, may be deterınined at simple continuation, or perfect compleonce. Assuredly, this is saying a great tion, of the theory proposed by the fordeal; but if it be nearly the truth, it mer. accomplishes a purpose that has long It is, says M. L. necessary only to ap: been a desideratum among the Students ply the twenty-four classes of Linnæus in Botany. As it would give us sincere to the families of Tournefort, ranged in pleasure to see the systems of these the order assigned them by the foliary authors harmonized, and as Nature, system, to perceive that all the families though she seem to lend herself to all or genera, are exactly characterized. systems, has really no system, that has It is altogether surprising, that long been, as yet, discovered, we give a place as these systems have been in the hands to this work; believing, that if it prove of botanists by profession, and of ama. to be of half the utility intended and teurs of great abilities, this union, withi affirmed by M. Lefébure, to make it the means by which it is accomplished, known to the public is a.-service both should not have occured to the minds to the science and to the world.

of any. But, the author accounts for The principles of this theory were de- this by the inattention shewn to the leuf; veloped in four discourses, delivered at without the assistance derived from that the Atheneum, at Paris ; they drew nu- part, he acknowledges that he himself merous and attentive auditories, and had should not have happened upon it. The the reputation of being so clear, and sa facilities afforded by this arrangement tisfactory, that not only were the rudi- are so great, that the siudy of some years ments completely understood, but their is reduced to the mere exercise of the accuracy was imniediately felt and ac- understanding, with an attentive study knowledged. Hitherto, the leaf of the of a few hours' duration. Simpic inplant has been excluded from all sys- spection of a plant performs the rest, aftems, as unworthy of forming part ofter the student possesses -the key: the theory; yet it is the intermediate Nothing better, certainly; can be adoptlink, that according to the author, comed than the systems of Tournefort and bines the whole.

Linnæus, which depend on the conformPlants are divided into two classes : ation of the parts of the flower and fructia the first comprizes all those which bear fication ; but if it be true, that a certain flowers on their stem :- the second class arrangement of the leaves is uniformly contains those which have no flowers on followed by a conformable character of the stem, and whose leaves grow around the corolla, it must be acknowledged the bottom of the plant. These classes that a considerable advance has been are divided into three orders, according made in the science, since the leaves a re as the leaves are inserted :- one by one, not only more obvious, but are open to tbe first order ;-two by two, the second observation for a much longer time, than order ;-three by three, the third order. the flowering parts of most, not to say of

These orders are subdivided into twelve all, plants which are known. tribes, the distinguishing of which is de This theory has, as yet, met with no rived from the form of the corolla, as opposition"abroad; and we are desirous employed in the system of Tuurnefort, to of submitting it to the test of strict exaVol. V. Lit.Pan. 23. N. S. Aug. 1816.

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mination by the Botanists of our own / uncertainty, for the sublime expectations country; for which purpose, we have of Christianity. He became a teacher availed ourselves of the assistance of a of his own nation, wrote several pinas foreign pen.— Time, no doubt, will do tracts, and was equally diligent and corjustice to the parties concerned.


After Pitambura's death his widow was

baptized, and has for five Brief Memoirs of four Christian Hindoos, ligion by her conduct

. fier affection for

adorned relately deceased. Published by the her husband, and her patient attendance on Serampore Missionaries. Serampore

him in his long affliction, were truly exemprinted. London, reprinted, for Gale came forward and made an open profession

plary. Soon after his death she voluntarily and Fenner. 12mo. price 3s. 6d. of the gospel; to do which, in a country 1816.

where females are held in such a state of et

treme exclusion, is an act of real fortitude; Of these converts one was a Brahmin, as such persons must renounce all their another was of the Writer caste; the former habits of life, before they can appear other two were Shudras. Pitambura- among Europeans, and be baptized, before

hundreds of spectators. Singhu, (the first in the tract) died at Serampore, August 20, 1805, aged about A person of a very different kind was sixty years. That a man of observation Rughoo-Nath. He was and sense should be completely disgust A póór illiterate idolator, unable to read ed with the idols of Hindostan, and with or write ; and, in his case, as in that of all the prefigate manners of the idolators, the heathen, his natural conscience had been generally speaking, can occasion but lit exceedingly darkened and seared by their

" abominable idolatries." He was an entie surprise; indeed, we have every rea thusiast in idolatry; bis back was killed with son for concluding that many thousands scars, from the hooks by which he had been of Hindoos are dissatisfied with the reli- so frequently suspended in swinging on the gion they find themselves bound to pro infamous charuka.* Added to all this, be fess, because they can do no otherwise. Hepce, sects denying the distinctions of

* " The man who is to swing (says Mr. caste, and renouncing the worship of Ward), prostrates himself before the tree; idols, have obtained many followers in mark where the hooks are to be put. Ano

with his dirty fingers makes a India, and the principle has been, for ther person gives him a sidurt slap on his some time, making great progress. back, and pinches up the skin hard with his

It may be conjectured, that the vio thumb and fingers ; while another presses Jence of their Mohammedan conquerors. the hook through, taking hold of about an bas acted with the most repulsive power inch of the skin; the other book is then in on the Hindoo mind; and should the like manner put through the other side of smallest approach to such methods of the back, and the man gets up on his feet. propagating a Religion, be patronized face. He then mounts on a man's back, or

As he is rising, some water is thrown in his among any other authorities, there can is elevated in some other way, and the be no doubt, but what the aversion they strings which are attached to the hooks to would engender would be fully equal to his back are tied to the rope at one end of wbat now exists.

the horizontal bamboo, and the rope at the Pitambura is an instance of this dis other end is held by several men, who, position. He applied to many to be

drawing it down, raise up the end on whiclr taught divine things; he could learn but with that rope the machine is turned. In

the man swings, and by their running round little, very little; and that to no good swinging, the man describes a circle of abouc purpose. He first became acquainted thirty feet diameter. Some swing only a with the Gospel, in 1801, by means of few minutes, others half an hour br more. a small tract, which excited his disdain, I have heard of some who have continued as coming from an Englishman ;-for, swinging four hours. About the year 1800, even the dress of the English is offens five women swung in this manner, with

books through their backs and thighs, at şise to Hindoos. He afterwards

changed Kidderpoor, near Calcutta. It is not very his inind; then visited Serampore, and, uncommon for the flesh to teht, and the perat longih, quitted his slate of miserable son to fall. Instances are related of sucla

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778) Récit Historique sur la Restauration de la Royauté en France. (774 lived in adultery many years, and wallowed into the vortex of Hell. It was tine that in the Glthiest vicés.

God should work in some such way, and It does not appear to the reason of bring forth a seed to serve him out of the man in what degree a practice so repug; its toleration of sin, by its easy ways of re

very heart of the idolators, for idolatry, by nant to Humanity can promote Eternal moving it, and by its public spectacles, has Salvation : yet, perhaps these sufferings drawn the world after it; hence the Hin. are light, to some of those adopted among doos worship their Ramus and Krishnus, the Catholics; but, for which there is the-Musulmans their peers* (saiots); the no pretençe whatever in the Gospel of native Catholics, their crucifixes and Virgin Christ.

Murys, and in the houses of Europeans their A Brahmin of twenty-one years, is the trous worship.

Hindoost'hanee miştresses carry on idolalast, and the most interesting of these We are ashamed to see Europeans in memoirs. At such an early age he, pro- such company ; ere long, perhaps, the bably, was not initiated into all the vices Christian world may justify a different of his caste ; but, that he was not an picture: Hope may live to see more than ignorant person, as many among them Despondency can now deem credible. are, the following extract will evince, He saw plainly that there was nothing in Récit Historique sur la Restauration de la all that the Hindoo gods were said to have Royauté en France, le 31 Mars, 1814, done that would be of use in the salvation of soulş. Be it so,' he would say, ' that Rama

By M. de Pradt, formerly Archbishop did this, and Krishna that, and Doorga the

of Mechlin. Paris printed. London other-Supposing all this to be true, that reprinted, for Booth. Svo. pp. 103. Rama fought for, and obtained his wife ; that Kristma killed king Kungsha and got

1816. bis throne; that Doorga killed a number of Whether it be quite fair to view a WriUSOOTASwhat good do these things do you ter's motives in his book, to watch him or med I, who am a sinner, find nothing bere by, which my sias will go away, and I

* The Musulmans present offerings to get heaven ; but Christ bore our sins, their these peers, and perforin religious cerernoguilt, and punishment, and hence HE is the nies to them as the Hindoos to their gods. Saviour, for his work was for us, and for our The Portuguese Catholics find complete subsalvation. He came for no other purpose

stitutes for their former idols in the images not like Rama for a wife-not like Krishna of the Virgin, &c. On Palm Sunday they for å kingdom ; not like Doorga to kill present flowers and buds of the date tree to psooras and drink their blood, but to seek the crucifix, before which these things are and save that which was lost, and to be laid for a time, and the priest distributes the come the ransom for sinners.".

branches of this tree as holy things among Not only by his words did he confess the people who go to church. At the same Clorist before the brahmuns, and in the very time he gives them water in which the cruteeth of those who hated him for Christ's citix has been bathed, They take these sake, but his Christian walk confirmed bis home, and preserve or use them as sacred jestimony, that his Christian profession was things, in the same way that the Hindoos genyine. He possessed tenderness of con- carry home flowers, fruits, &c. that have science, amongst a people who make sin been offered to their gods. The Catholic their play thing, and amongst whom this priest marks the foreheads of the people with sentiment is universal, that sin is the play the ashes of the date tree. The Hindoos of the gods 'He regarded truth amongst a

mark their foreheads with the dirt of the nation of liars, whose very gods were ljars, Ganges. The Catholics visit the shrines of and whose shastrus, in certaju cases, de saints. The Hindoos have their holy places, clare the innocence of lying. He was The Catholics have their holy water. The man of integrity, amongst a nation who Hindoos sprinkle themselves with the waters value themselves on their dexterity in the of the Ganges. The Catholics pray to the arts of deception and fraud. Divine grace saints, as persons placed betwixt God and thus changed his nature and bis habits, and them. This is the Hindoo idea of the gods. enabled him to make head against sin, The Hindoo repeats the name of his god, which runs through the plains of Bengal counting the seeds in his mala : the Catholike a mighty torrent, carrying all before it lic repeats the name of the Virgin, counting

with his bead-roll. The lower orders regard persons perishing on the spot." History of St. John as a god or saint who presides over Iliadoos, vol. II. p. 582.

fire, and they let off fire-works to his honour.

while perusing the course of his history, When my turn to speak arrived, I burst and to institute that cautionary check out by a declaration that we were all Royo. which the detection of a certain some alists: that all France was the same as we thing by which his pen is influenced, were: that if France had not manifested naturally commands, is more than a

this disposition, the prolonged negotiations Irodest reviewer is at all times prepared they had by their tediousness slackened

at Chatillon, must bear the blame: that 19 discuss. “ If I may not be allowed to every thing : that the same was the feeling state the share which I had in that most of Paris, generally; that the city would proimportant transaction, I shall continue nounce this opinion, so soon as called on to silent; and I presume that the loss of do so, and that it might be done safely; and the information in my power, will be according to the influence that Paris had heavily felt by the world at large, who exercised over France, during the Revoluare now concerned in this affair; and by and be every where followed.

tion, the example would decide the nation, posterity, which, of all things, would be delighted with my evidence, my opinion,

This was true cnough : proper meaand my sanction."

sures were taken to encourage the BourWhen a man is pleased with himself bonite disposition in Paris; and Napo. he is a much happier being than the leon was builed from his throne, — but not dull dolt who captiously wonders what with sufficient violence to break his neck; he can find to be pleased at; when he which would have saved the lives of tens, publishes his self-satisfaction, be in and perhaps of hundreds of thousands. creases his happiness in proportion to

M. de Pradt seems to have been useful every copy, sold-say a thousand times; among bis brethren of the Clergy; and

- In the name of Christian charity, how he certainly did an essential service to then can a reader endure the thought of those who were confined for refusing to mortifying his tunity! by exclamation i pray for Napoleon. We give bim full --Js it doing as he would be done by? credit for these benevolences; and are To this disposition of M. de Pradt; we mendation, in our esteem, of no light

happy to close the article with a comare indebted for the pamphlet before in which there is soine truth, and much import. self-suficiency. The best part of it is

There is an English translation of this the writer's account of what passed in work published, which may claim its thic Council of the Kings, at Paris, and place among materials for bistory of the share taken by Talleyrand and these cventful times. l'ouche in the restoration of the Bourbons. As to the steps previously taken Useful Knowledge; or, a Familiar and by this writer, in conjunction with a select few, we happen to know, that they

Explanatory Account of the various were later by many months than some

Productions of Nature, Mineral, Vegeothers; and that Napolcon was perfect

table, and Animal, which are chiefly ly correct in scolding his legislative body employed for the use of Man. By for their disloyalty! His crossing the the Rev. W. Bingley, A.M. F.L.S. Niemen vastward was the signal for ac

3 vols, 12mo. price Il. ls. Baldwin tive, but concealed, operations in the west.

and Co. London. 1816. • M. de P. tells us that the foreign Sovereigns thought it impossible to displace Compendiums of a kind like the preBuonaparte; and therefore intended to sent, are acceptable services to General make peace with him, taking proper se- Knowledge. 'l'hey assist the conceptions curities : that they appeared to be of this of youth; and they refresh the memory opinion wo allow : ile reality of it, we of those who have been instructed. The doubt.

quantity of matter comprised in these The council was not satisfied with the volumes renders them cheap; and by a assurances of Talleyrand, it seems, till I, judicious mode of reference, they contain with Baron Louis, was introduçcd; and more than they seem to do. Correctness our opinions, effected the restoration of should be their merit; and for this, we the Royal luasily.

mast rely on the well-known ability of

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777] Rev. W. Bingley's Account of the various Productions of Nature, 1778 their author, who is no novice in this stone ;-that they all resemble each other, branch of literature. Beside this, Selec. and all are composed of the same ingretion is another branch of merit ; for, all dients. substances and productions used by man, fallen from the air have been preceded by

The greater part of the stones which have in all stages of his existence, could hard- the appearance of luminous bodies, or mely be introduced in three small volumes. teors. These meteors have burst with an

We cannot expect in such abridg. explosion, and then the shower of stones has ments, where no superfluous words may fallen to the earth. Sometimes the stones be admitted, that fullness of definition or have continued luminous until they sunk indescription, which the mature Philoso- to the earth, but most commonly their lumipber has a right to demand; it is suffi- nousness disappeared at the time of the excient, if it answer general purposes. We plosion. Their motion through the air iş

surprisingly rapid, in a direction nearly hori commend these volumes, therefore, as zontal, but they seem to approach the earth answering their title; of elaborate and before they explode. In their flight they cxtensive researches they do not boast. have frequently been heard to yield a loud

The Contents of the first volume, are whizzing sound. They are hot when they Minerals : Stones, Earthy, Soft, and Sa. first reach the earth; and exhibit, on their line; then Salts, Combustibles, Metallic surface, visible marks of fusion. Substances, Rocks, and Water in Gene these stones, it is recorded that, on the 7th

Amongst numerous other instances of ral. The second volume contains Vege of Norember, 1492, betwixt eleven and tables, divided into the twenty-four classes twelve o'clock at noon, a dreadful clap of of Lionæus. The third contains Animals; thunder was heard at Ensisheim, a consider-, -Birds, Amphibia, Fishes, Insects, and able town in Alsace, and a huge stone was Worms.

seen to fall on a field lately sown with It is scarcely possible to fix on one

wheat. On several of the neighbours going subject in preference to another in these feet in depth, and the stone, when dug out,

to the place, the hole was found about three multifarious Volumes: but, as an arti weighed two hundred and sixty pounds. It cle which is neither mineral nor terres was preserved in the cathedral of Ensisheim trial, perhaps not even belonging to our until the beginning of the French Revoluglobe, though found upon it, we in- tion, wbeu it was conveyed to the public sert our author's account of Meteoric Library at Colmar. There are in the British Stones.

Museum (saloon, case 32) two small pieces

of this stone, and fragments of several other Meteoric Stones, are a species of iron ore, meteoric stones which have fallen in differwhich have, at different times, been known ent parts of the world. to fall from the atinosphere.

Two stones fell near Verona in Italy, in They have been seen only in shapeless the year 1672, one

of which weighed masses, of from a few ounces to several hun three hundred, and the other two hundred, dred pounds in weight. Their texture is pounds. granular. They are covered externally with The origin of these stones is involved in a thin blackish crust, and are internally of great obscurity. Some writers have conan ashy grey colour, mixed with shining mi- ceived that they might be projected from nute particles.

distant volcanoes; others, that they may There is sufficient evidence to shew that have been detached from rocks, and had solid masses of stone have been observed to their substance considerably changed by a fall from the air at a period considerably concurrence of natural causes; others, that anterior to the Christian era. Notwith- they may have been generated in the air by standing this, so very extraordinary was the a combination of mineral substances; and phenomenon, that, until the year 1802, it others, that they may have been projected was generally regarded by philosophers as a from the moon. The latter was the opinion vulgar error. Mr. Howard in this year sub- of La Place the astronomer, who says that a mitted to the Royal Society a paper which mass, if thrown by a volcano from the moon, contained an

accurate examination of the with a certain velocity of about a mile and testimonies connected with events of this half per second (which he conceives possikind, and in this paper described a minute ble to be done) it will thence be projected analysis of several of the substances which beyond the sphere of the moon's attraction, had been said to have fallen in different and into the confines of that of the earth. "parts of the globe. The result of his exa- The consequence of which will be, that the mination was, that all these stony bodies mass must presently fall to the earth, and difier completely from every other know become a part of it. Vol. I. pp. 109, &c,

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