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ascertained that those practitioners whon William Norris, { Coilege of Surgeous

We beg to conclude by stating, that it REPORT OF THE NATIONAL VACCINE ES. appears to us, ibis waste of human life can

TABLISHMENT, THE YEAR 1815; be prevented only by such legislative DATED 31st MAY, 1816.

enactments as will entirely put a stop to

inoculation for the small-pox. To the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Sid

The Board is happy in stating, that it mouth, Principal Secretary of State for the liome

has no occasion to ask Parliament this Department. &c. &c. &c. National Vaccine Establishment, Leicester- usually granted.

year for any sum of money beyond that Square, May 31, 1816.

(Signed) J. Latham. My LORD,

(President of the Royal College of Phy. Within the last year the surgeons of our

sicians) President. different stations in London have vaccinated Henry Cline, Master of the Royal College 6,581 persons, and have distributed to the

of Surgeons. public 32,821 charges of vaccinelymph. IVe Cannot state precisely what the sixty-eight William Lumbe, M. D.

Henry Halford, M. D.

Censors of the honorary and corresponding vaccinators

Roval College may have etected in the country, as returns 11. Core, N.'D.

Joseph Agar, M. D.

of Physicians. are not always sent: however, we have

Governors of the Royal we have supplied with lymph bave vacçi James Earie, nateci 49,667 in the course of the year. By order of the Board, We have the satisfaction of informing

James Herrey, M. D. Registrar. your lordship, that we have furoisted the means oi'uisseminating this blessing in the island of Si. Domingo; and that the director

Palace of Sans Souci, Feb. 5, 1916, has received the annexed letter from the

13th Year of our ludependence. goverument of Ilayti on that suloject.

The King of Hayti to Mr. James Vinore, Director It is equally gratifying to us to state, thal of the British National Vaccine Establishment, by the ingenuity of Mr. Giraud of Faver. &c. &c. sham, means have been devised of preserving Sir, Mr. Prince Sanders bas presented the lymph in a fluid state ; by which we me with the work which you sent me on have just reason to hope that it may be the small-pox: I have accepted this work found eificient iu any climate, and for any with pleasure, and thank you infinitely for space of time.

your honourable and obliging attention, Your lordship has probably been in. ind the interest which you evince for the formed, that in consequence of the de. Hlavtians. cisive measures adopted in iu Russia, Swe The precious discovery of Vaccination is den, Germany, France and Italy, the smail

too iniportant to human life, and does 100 pox has become a very rare disease in those mucb bonour to humanity, not to induce countries, and that, by like means, it is no me to adopt it in my kingdom. On the longer known in ('eylou and at the Cape arrival of Włr. Prince Sanders, I put Vacci. of Good Hope. It is a source of sincere nation in use with a view to make it geueregret to us, that it should not be equally so rally followed by the Haytiau practitioners

, in this kingdonn; and still more so, as this - we have an innumerable quantity of is not attributable to tbe casual occurrences children to vaccinate. oi that disease; but, we believe, entirely to It is my intention to give every possible the practice of inoculation, which seems to latitude to the happy results of this immorbe acihered to on interested or mistaken tal discovery, which I had not hitherto motives,

been able to put in practice in consequence in Edinburgh, Glasgow and Norwich, of the disappointnient which I met with in Inoculation is disused, and, in consequence, the applications I made at Jamaica, St. the sinail-pox is scarely known in the Thomas, and in the United States of Amecomutry about Aberystwith in Wales, and rica, relative to this object, the salutary efB:wtry in Yorkshire, it has entirely dis- fects of which I am well acquainted with. appeared. The reverse is found uuniappliy | This benefit will still add to the gratitude to be the case in Portsmouth, Bristol and of the Haytians for the great and magnaLondon. In the metropo'is alone, the vimous British nation. mortality by small-pox nay be estimated I have charged Mr. Prince Sauders at a thousand annually perhaps throughout to testify to you personally my sincera the United Kingdom it is not less that ten thanks. times that number.



The rivers of lava are the less abundant ON THE NATURE OF VOLCANOES. if a great quantity of scuriæ and small

stones are thrown out during the eruption. From the Analysis of the Labours of the Royal | The whole cone is covered with those Institute of France, for 1815. By M. Cuvier. small stones, which are soon changed by Among the most perplexing, as well as the acid vapours, and assume those lively

and variegated colours which make them remarkable phenomena of the globe, are look like bunches of flowers at a distance, those terrific fires, which, with respect and which have inclined naturalists to supto the surface of the earth, are sub-pose that the crater is filed with sulphur; terraneous; but with respect to the whole which is so far from being true, that it is

even very rare that sulphurous vapours are mass of the globe are superficial. The perceived in it: on the contrary, there rise principle on which they maintain their strong and continual exhalations of muricombustion--the great numbers of them atic acid, and sea salt is every where conwhich have left traces of their existence,

creted throughout. although apparently extinguished, at pre M. Mesnard de la Groye thence takes sent the number of them yet in activity, occasion to divide volcanoes into two with the supposeable consequence, if all classes ; those in which sulphur performs were extinguished, are matters of great muriatic acid prevails. It is among the

an essential part, and those in which the curiosity and concern to the Geologist. latter that he classes Vesuvius. Nature neither had, originally; nor has now, any operative agency, in vain. Does

He also notices the continual smoke

which rises from the rivers of lava, and their number increase or diminish? Is

which announces great humidity. This their power greater or lesser? Are their smoke is in fact purely aqueous. No flames eruptions more or less frequent ? The are seen; but sands and burnt stones; and more we know of the globe, the more ex

the reverberation of the internal furnaces on tensive is our list of volcanoes. Hitherto, The lava flows very slowly: its edges when

the vapours which issue, causes this illusion). they have defied our researches, and eluded cooled form an embankment for it, and the arrangement of our systems : will it keep it above the level of the soil, which is be always thus ?

covered with scoriæ ; it is very difficult to

get a sight of its Auid parts. We kuow The following paper comprises remarks besides, that its heat has nothing in it sion this subject, distinguished by their in- milar to that of glass in fusion; for when genuity and interest:

it envelops trunks of trees, it does not

char them to the centre. M. de la Groye The mysterious nature of Volcanoes, is also of opinion that the lava owes its those immense foci of heat, far removed fiuidity to some principle which is confrom all the conditions which keep up heat sumed by the very act of fusion, and to at the surface of the earth, will be still a this circumstance is owing the difficulty of long time one of the great objects of the fusing again that which has once cooled. curiosity of natural philosophers, and will | The full mass, the part not swelled up into excite their efforts so long as any hopes of scorixe, has a stoney aspect : this is what success remain. A young mineralogist as the Germans call grauslein. The author zealous as he is learned, M. Mesnard de la compares the periods of the fusion of the Groye, having had occasion in 1812 and lavas with those through which the salts 1813 to observe several of the phænomena pass, which fuse after being swelled up. of Vesuvius, drew up a journal of them He relates some curious facts with respect with great accuracy, intermixed with many to the prodigiously long duration of their original suppositions and ideas.

heat, and thence concludes that they bear Since the enormous diminution which within themselves the principle of their the cone of the volcano underwent in 1794, own heat, and that they do not possess a when it suuk more than 400 feet, all the heat simply communicated. To all these eruptions have taken place from its summit; remarks M. de la Groye acids a very dewhich seems to have prevented them from detailed account of the grand eruption of being so abundant and so destructive as 1810, which produced an infinity of ashes those which issued from its sides. The bot- and small stones, but the lava of which tom of the crater rose, and it is not unlike did not reach the length of the cultivated ly that it will be filled.


be the first introduction of a qualification to REPORT FROM THE COMMITTEE ON THE

kill game.) By the 32 Henry VIII. c. 8, a peGAME Laws.

nalty upon selling gaine was first enacted; but

this was a temporary law, which was suffered The Committee appointed to take into consi

to expire, and the sale of game was not again deration the Laws relating to Game, and to

restrained ull the ist James I, c 27. By the 3d report their observations and opinions there - James I, c. 11, the qualification to kill game upon from time to time to the House, have

was increased to 401: in land, and 2001. in perconsidered the matters to them referred, and

sonal property. By the 22 and 23 C. II, cap, agreed upon the following Report:

27, lords of manors, not under the degree of

esquire, may by writing under their hands Your Committee, in investigating this impor- and seals appoint gamekeepers within their tant subject, proceeded in the consideration of respective manor., who may kill conies, hares, the present existing laws for the preservation &c. and other game, and by the warrant of a of game; their adequacy to their professed Justice may search houses of persons prohibited object; their policy and justice; and their ef to kill game.-It appears to your Committee, fects upon the habits and morals of the lower that the statute 22 and 25 C. İl, is the first inorders of the community. In considering the stance, either in our statutes, reports, or law existing state of the law upon this subject, treatises, in which lords of manors are distintheir aitention was naturally directed, in the guished from other land owners, in regard to first place, to its state in the early periods of the gaine. The same statute, section 3, confines common law; and in that your Committee knds the qualification to kill game to persons havconcurrent and undisturbed authorities for con- ing lands of inheritance of 100l. per ammum, or templating game as the exclusive right of the leases of 1501. (10 which are added other desproprietor of the land ratione soii. In a law of criptions of personal qualifications); and perCanute's (vide 4th Institutes, p. 230,) your sons not having such qualifications are declared Committee fond that he thus expresses himself: to be persons not allowed to have or keep gamePræterea autem concedo ut in propriis ipsius pre-dogs, &c. The 22 and 23 C. II, c. 25, was foldiis quisque tam in agris quam in syltis eacitet lowed by 4 and 5 W. and M. c 23, and the agitetque feras; and in Blackstone, Il. p.4155, 29 Geo. 'II. c. 12, which enacted penalties Sit quilibet homo chgnus venatione sua in sulk against unqualified, and, finally, against qualiet in agris situ propriis et in dominio suo. In the fied persons, who shall buy, sell, or offer to preamble of the staiutes 1th Hon. VII. c 17. sell, any hare, phea ant, partridge, &c. Sia parliamentary recognition of the common law milar penalties are therein enacted against unis most distinctly made, and in mequivocal qualified persons having game in their posseslanguage. It states, that persons of litile sub. sion.-Such appears to your Committee to be stance destroy pheasanis and partridges upon the state of the laws respecting game, as they the lordships, manors, lands, and tenements at present stand The various and numberless of divers owners and possessioners of the same, statutes which have been enacted upon the subwithout license, consent, or agreement of the ject, and to which your Committee have not same possessioners, by which ihe same lose not thought it requisite to allude, have not been only their pleasure and disport, that they, unobserved by them ; but seeing that they their friends, and servants should have about are merely supplementary to those to which hawking, hunting, and taking or the same, but your Committee has made reference, they have also they lose the profit and avail that should not felt it important to enter into a detail of grow to their household, &c.

their enactments. Your Committee cannot but In the 4th Institutes, p. 304, it is laid down, conclude, that by the common law, every posthat seeing the wild beasts do belong to the pur sessor of land has an exclusive sight ratione soli lieu men ratione soli, so long as they remain in to all the animals feræ nature fouod upon his his grounds he may kill them, for the property land ; and that he may pursue and kill them ratione soli is in him. In 11 Coke's Reports, himself, or authorize any other person to purP. 870), it is laid down, but for hawking, hunt sue or kill them; and that he may now by ing, &c. there needeth not any license, but the common law, which in so far continues every one may, in his own land, sue them at unrestrained by any subsequent statute, sup: his pleasure, without any restraini to be made, port an action against any person who shall if not by parliament, as appears by the s'atuteś tak, kill, or chase them. The statutes to 11 lien. VII c. 17, 23 Eliz. c. 10, and 3 which your Committve have referred have, in James I. č. 13.

limitation of th common law, subjected to pe. In Sutton and Moody's 5 Modern Reports, p. nalties persons who, not having certain qualie 375, Holt, Chief Justice, says, the conies are fications, shall exercise their common law as much his, in his ground, as if they were in a right ; but they have not divested the pos. warren, and the property is ratione soli. So in sessor of his right, nor have they given power the Year-book, 12 Hen. VIII. pl. 10, if a man to any other person to exercise that right withstart a hare in his own ground, he has a property out the consent of the possessor. It appears in it ratione soli.

to your Committee, that the 22 and 23 C. II. Ju linitation, and to a certain degree in deroga-has merely the effect of exempiing from tion of the common law, a variety of statutes thosc liabilities which were previously enacted has subjected to penalties persons who, not against unqualified persons, such gamekeepers having certain qualifications, shall even upon as shall receive exemption from them by the their own lands kill any of those wild animals lords of manors (and which exemption the said which come under the denomination of game. lords of manors are thereby empowered to give),

By the 13 Richard II. stat. 1, c. 13, laynien but that the restraints upon the sale of game nor having 40s. per annum, and priests no ha- equally affect the entire community. Your vilg 10l. per annum, are prohibited from taking Committee conceive, that in the present state or destroying conies, hares, &c. under pain of of society there is little probability that the a year's imprisonment (this statute appears to laws above referred to can continue adequate to

It can

the object for which they were originally enact- | killed. The Fantees, on learning the aped. The commercial prosperity of the coun. proach of the Ashantees, assembled in try, the immense accumulation of personal property, and the consequent habits of luxury and great numbers, to give tbem battle; but indulgence, operate as a constant excitement their resolution failed them, and they were to their infraction, which no Legislative inter- happy to save themselves by flight. Men, ference that your Committee could recom women, and children, fed in crowds to mend appears likely to counteract. It appears, Cape Coast Castle for shelter; about the that under the present system, those possessors of land who fall within the statutable dis

14th April, the Ashantees still continuing qualifications, feel little or no interest in the to proceed towards the coast, messengers preservation of the game; and that they are were sent by the Governor in Chief of the less active in repressing the baneful practice of British settlements to the Captain to inpoaching than if they remained entitled to kill quire the cause of his approach. The anand enjoy the game found upon their own lands. Nor is it unnatural to suppose, that

swer returned was, that he was determined the injury done to the crops in those situations to pursue Quow, Saffaroutchie. Cudjoe where game is superabundant, may induce the Coomah, and Coffee, Ashantee-men, to possessors of land thus circumstanced, rather whatever place they might retreat; that io encourage than to suppress illegal modes of should they throw themselves into the sea, destroying it. The expediency of the present restraints upon the possessors of land appears bury themselves in the earth, or secrete further to your Committee extremely problema-themselves in a rock, thither he would fol. tical. The game is maintained by the produce low them. of the land, and your Committee is not aware On a conference being obtained, the Capof any valid grounds for continuing to withhold from the possessors of land the enjoyment taiu of the Ashantee army was assured that of that property, which has appeared by the the men he was in quest of were not in Cape common law to belong to them. The present

Town. The Fantees made peace by paysystem of game lawş produces the effect of en- ing a hundred ounces of gold. couraging its illegal and irregular destruction, by poachers, in whom an interest is thereby

AMERICA : UNITED STATES. created to obtain a livelihood by systematic

Inundation. and habitual infractions of the law. hardly be necessary for your Committee to

At New Orleans, so late as May 22, all point out the inischievous influence of such a hopes of resisting the torrent which broke weate upon the moral condunt of those who wl through what is called the Crevasse, has dict themselves to such practices; to them may been relinquished. This volume of water be readily traced many of the irregularities, and most of ihe crimes, which are prevalent among

is represented to be 200 feet wide and 20 the lower orders in agricultural districts. Your deep: so immense a body, bursting with Committee hesitate to recommend, at this irresistible force, cannot, it appears, be relate period of the session, the introduction of strained ; and they must wait for the falling any immediate measure upon a subject which of the Mississippi to repair damages, and affects a variety of interesis; but they cannot re-embank the Great River more securely. abstain from expressing a sanguine expecta. The water covers about one third of the tion, that by the future adoption of some measure, founded upon the principle recog.

town. The Joss and inconvenience must nized, as your Committee conceive, by the be great to the inhabitants. The apprecommon law, much of the evils originating hension is, that when the waters shall sink in the present system of the game laws may be

to the usual level, the hot sun acting upon ultimately removed. Upon mature consideration of the premises, your Committee have the inundated parts, may cause a pestilencome to the following Resolution :

tial disorder. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Conflagration. It is stated in an AmeriCommittee, that all game should be the proper can Paper, under the date of Easton, May ty of the person upon whose lands such game the 3d, that for several days the surroundshould be found.

ing country had been darkened by clouds of snoke, which evidently proceeded from

the Blue Mountains; the bushes and trees National Register :

on which had been on fire for upwards of FOREIGN.

a week. The fire, it is said, first commenced in the vicinity of Roscommon,

about fourteen miles from Easton, and ad. AFFAIRS IN AFRICA.

vanced rapidly with the wind, which blew Cape Coast Castle, April 22.—The Ash- from that quarter towards the upper parts antee forces, amounting to npwards of of the mountains, extending itself over the 20,000 men, were met by the people of country about twenty or thirty miles, conAdjamoucooa and Agoonah, who, after suming property to a considerable amount. fighting bravely, were entirely routed, with The fire was not extinguished, but raged the loss of many killed, and several made in some parts of the mountains with the prisoners. The Ashantees also had many greatest fury. It is a curious fact, that se


veral hundred rabbits, those shy and harm

Pictures cleaned and renewed. ess tenantsof the woods, ran from their Antwerp, July 6.-A chemist in this city perilous situation, as the fire approached has discovered a means to remove from the them; but encountering the face of man, pictures restored by France the modern they retreated and perished in the flames! varnish, and to leave the ancient varnish, Ertraordinary Severe Weather.

under which the painting has resumed all Boston, JUNE 20.—There has been re- its pristine splendour. markable weather since June commenced ;

Increase of Suicides. frust on eight nights, which has destroyed

Brussels, July 14.-The French Journals many of the tender vegetable tribe. Snow

announce to us suicides from time to time. fell in the town on Saturday; and at Wis. It would appear that profound demoralizacasset it snowed for several hours in suc- tion, oblivion of religion, and of all the ducession. The occurrence is uncommon, but ties that a man owes to his family and his cannot excite any distrust of the goodness country, have made equally alarming strides of the God of the Harvest.

in the Netherlands; for the number of suiFrom the last American papers it ap- cides that have come to the knowledge of pears that the weather still continued ex

the officers of police, for the last nine traordinary cold. In June, a variety of months, in six of the southern provinces birds, among which are the humming bird, alone, amounts to no less than 37. Anthe marten, and the beautiful scarlet spar- other crime, that of sacrilege, become exrow, were so benumbed as to be taken by tremely frequent of late, leads to a similar the hand; and great numbers had actually conclusion. No fewer than fifty churches perished with cold.

have been broken into and robbed during Steam Boat blown up by its own machinery. the same period. A melancholy catastrophe bas taken place on board a steam boat: the follow

Religious Persecution. ing are the particulars :

From a Letter, dated Canton, Jan. 1, 1816. New York, JUNE 17.-The whole

In June last there was a persecution cartown was alarmed by the explosion; every ried on against the Roman Catholics of physician, with a number of the citizens, Sce-cliueul. The Viceroy or that province went immediately to their relief. On going begins bis Report by saying, that the relion board, a melancholy and really horrible gion of the West denominated the religion scene presented itself to view ; six or eight of the Lord of Heaven, is a depraved or were nearly skinned from head to feet, and irregular religion, particularly injurious to others slightly scalded, making in the the manners and hearts of men. He wbole seventeen. In stripping off their that in the 15th year (five years ago) 2,000

says, clothes, the skin peeled off with them to a

families recanted, and since upwards of considerable depth ; added to this melan

200 families. He recently apprehended 72 choly sight, the ear of the pitying specta- persons, and seized 53 books. It is, howtor was pierced by the screams and groaps ever, distinctly stated, that in the books of the agonizing sutferers, rendering the seized there were not found any expres. scene horrible beyond description.

sions that could be construed into an oppo

sition to Government. He closes his ReNew Bank opened.

port by saying, that be suspects there is The accounts from Vienna of July 1, an some European among the mountains of nounce that the opening of the Bank took Sze.chuen, though he has not been able to place that day, and that the exchanges apprehend him. were made at the open bureau; this opera His Majesty begins his reply, by notiction caused the course of exchange to rise ing the blind obstinacy of men; that 240.

though their persons be involved in the net

of the law, when once a notion of ascendInundations of Rivers.

ing to Heaven takes possession of the mind Arnheim, July 8.-- The water in the they are regardless of death. Rhine contiuues to rise, and is now at 17 The two leaders who would not recant, feet. This continued increase, which also Choo.yung and Tung-gaen, are ordered to takes place on the Waal, has had the fatal be strangled immediately; 38 others, who consequences that might be expected. A also refused to recant, are ordered to be great quantity of land has been overflowed. sent to Tartary as slaves; among these are Happily we do not hear of any more cattle several women, and an old man of 80. Wobeing lost; they were, however, saved in men and old men are in many cases almost places with great difficulty, and even lowed to redeem themselves by paying a at the risk of the lives of the owners, from fine; but in this case it is directed that the rapid advance of the food.

they shall not be allowed to do so. Fus



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