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Do you not think that the educating of cular regard for them, in small numbers. the poor, and their acquirement of know. There also the observance of the Sabbath, ledge, will tend much to lessed the poor and the progress of the children in relia rates of parishes ?-1 should think very sion, are mure watched over, than in much; because it tends directly to lessen any great general setools can be the case. those vices which throw the poor upou our

So that it National se hoo's should spread parishes, and creates that proper spirit of over the whole Metropolis. I still ihink independence and desire to do for 'then they would not supe sede Sunday school selves which directly leads to exertion. It instruction. As to a plan of mere megives them also the feeling that they are chanical iustruction, without the great nien, and reasouable beings; it raises ihem principles of Christianity beng also inabove the mere animal, and gives them a

culcated, I canuoi lut view it as preg. desire to appear creditable in their neigli maut with very daugerous consequences to bourhood and comections ; it qualities the putrije. chiidren for filling up stations which they

Do you not think that the continuance otherwise could not bil; and it particularly or the Laucasie 10 prau preserves a forms that habit of iuxiustry and of rego competition !-- should ibuk so. And lar employment which bars out many of yet it is an awkward thing to say sı, when those vices w bich interrupt the happines' approve of the one so mu: bano e than of the poor, aud reduce them to abject of the other; and yet I must 10.1k, considependence.

vering what human nature is, and how Does it fall within your knowledge that things generaily go on, it must be the case there is a great want of accominoitation that the continuance of the Lancasterian for the poor in places of worship in the schoois is necessary to preserve the Na. Establishment? – Most deplorabit. In the tional ones in their full vigour. parish where I reside there are about 30,000

And you think that coorpetition is bene. inhabitants, and there are only, so far as I

ficial to both systems, iu pronroting acremember, four places of worship in the tivity and iudustry ?-Yes, I should think Established Church, viz. the mother-church it is. of St. Andrew's Holborn, the church or

Is it said, “ the clergy of the Church St. George the Martyr, and two chapels: of England have the countenance and I do not suppose these four places would

of the state.” support

Be it so: what hold above 6,000 or 7,000 persons altoyether, leaving 21,000 without the possibilito couristenance, what support, other than of attending divine worship in the Churci general liberty, which tobody withholds of England in our parish.

inom the Catholics, bave other dissen. Have you formed any opioion of the ters? How do they manage? What is coniparative merits of the Lancasterian and

Their character? Mr. Jannes Millar the National system of education ?-1 shou dates it in these words : say, that certainly I conceive the benefits What objection have the Disseuters to of knowledge to the lower orders to be so send t eir children to the schovis upon the incalculably valuable, that I would risk National plan, supposing they were not any thing as to the mode of communicating wuliged to attend church on a Sunday, or it. in order that they might receive that to learn the catechism I believe almost bewefit. At the same time I think it o all the Disseviers that I know auy thing of, high importance to inspire the great moss provide for ibe education of their own of your population already members of the Chiurem; they must be very poor indeed Church of England, with a fixed and en if they do not. lightened regard to their own religious es Are you a Dissenter yourself?-I am. tablishment; and I cousider further, the Our principal object is rather for others particolar principles of religion upon which to be educated; we wish Caito il's, and our church is founded, to be su essentia: otbers, completely to get the benefit of iu• to that religion, that I regard the National struction. system, when it can be obtained, as ban. Do you mean that all Protestant Dissening incomparable advantages over the Briters have the means of education for their tish aud Foreign system. I am of opiuiou children, of all classes? I know of nove also, that the present system of Suudiy of them tbal do not get their chiidren 10schools, and especially si hoo's for religious stiuted, of the lowest order of all that I instruction on Sundays, is necessary where know. they cau be had, because there you have Are you not alluding to some particular your children addressed individually and class --No, I speak generally. specifically, by persous who have a parti Do you mean that all over London the



Dissenters of the lowest classes have the sert, than for an Irishman, in the memeans of education ?-I should think, un tropolis of the British empire, under the less they were very poor iudeed, generally controul of bis Priests !

What effects have you observed resultDoes it not follow, that if Dissenters ing from education upon the savage nations have the means of education, every person in Southeru Africa --I should first state, has the means of education ?- mean the there are part of three nations who are caDisseuters in general; I speak of the per: pable of reading, the Hottentots, the Grisons who are careful in providing means of

quas, and the Namacquas; a considerable education for their children.

number of those pations have been taught Do you allude to the poorer classes of by the missionaries to read, and, from the Dissenters ? — There are none so very poor statement of those missionaries when I was that they could not do sometising if they present with them, they considered their chose.

reading as particularly conducible to proDo you mean that Dissenters have better mote civilization. meaus of education for the poor, than

I got twelve of the Hottentots wbo acmembers of the Church - Not so much

companied me in the interior of Africa, that: but, I think they make greater exer

on our returu to Cape Town), fully instruct. tious; I do not think they have bettered in the British sistem of education, on

purpose that they might coumenie, upon If this be true, what prevents the that plan, a school at Bribe:sdorp, which Catholic from doing the sanie? How is about 550 miles from the Cape. long shall the difference continue to the

About four months ago, I received a let. disadvantage of the sons of Sr. Peter :

ter respetug thai school, stating ihat upThe Irish, for instance, do not want

wri's of sixty Cottentots, who ten months

trore knew not their letters, could read talent: all the world does them that the Duish Test:nent as weil as the misjustice. Accident has given a spirto sionaries that taleot: accident of apother kind You found the Hottentots as quick in may, and, under Providence, will, give receiving their educaiion, as the people in a scupe to it; and future historians will | England ?- Nearly so; it brings them into have to congratulate the sister island on

a uew world to be able to kuow what a the return of learning, respectability, book says, it is completely a new world. and distinction, to the natives of Erin. Ji may mention here, that I have fouud Says Mr. Cainpbell, known to the pub-coureption of a savage how a book spake.

nothing so difficult as to convey to the lic by his “ Travels in Africa,"

I attempted with the King of Lattakoo, to Oue circumstance that led the Catholics make him understand it, but he 'and his in Ireland in a certain district, I think it principal men all shook their heads, and was in the vicinity of Belfast, to wish to said it was impossible to understand it; obtain reading for part of their family, was I took a journal that lay before me, in the issuing the one-shilling, the two-shil which I had inserted, from the lips of his ling, and five-shilling notes; there were uncle, the names of his forefathers, who instances of men going with their cow to had been kings before him (the goverumarket, and bringing home a five-shilling ment is hereditary;) this I read to the note iustead of a five-pound one; in con king and his chiif men, on which they persequence of this, they resolved that at least ceived that I had fornierly stated the truth, one of their children should be able to but had no idea bow the book gave me read, to accompany them to market, to dis that informatiou ; the King inquired if it tinguish notes ; the priests could never would be possible for them and their successfully oppose that measure; and that children, by the instructions of a white was the commencement in Ireland of aman, to understand what books “ said" desire among the lower orders of Catholies (there is no other way of conveying readto read.

ing, they can form no idea of what reading Certainly, the Irish are not inferior is, it is only speaking ;) he antt his people to the Horientits in respect to talent; seemed highly gratified when I stated, that but, they are in respect io the means of in the course of a few moons after the

arrival of a teacher, they should be able cultivating that talent. To say all in one

to understand reading as well as myself. word, there is a better chance for a wild The missionaries have not yet arrived Hottentot, a Kaffer, or a Bish-man, that there, so that I can give no idea of the he should acquire instruction in his de- success.




Total Annual





| Rent Charge.

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7 63




Counties of
£. d. £. d.

d. £. 8. d. Bedford 119 18 8 333 5 8

75 15

528 19

5 Berks 261 7 3 1,168 11 7

353 1

1,782 19 10 Bucks

377 4 6 934
6 10 171 17 21

1,483 8 61 Cambridge 139 4 4 831 6 10 120 125

1,111 3 Chester ...

213 12
293 13 4

224 18 7 632 3 11 Cornwall 179 8 2 197 13 10

42 5 6 419 Cumberland

23 17 6

117 17 4 Derby

9. IS
1,111 16 8

117 8 7

1,324 3 3 Devon

313 10 6

1,140 13 10 260 1 8 1,716 6 103 Dorset

146 13
1,529 5 1 140

1,816 3 7 Durham

141 5
72 10 -
13 4

226 19
230 10 41 1,380 12 8 291 4 11}

19,02 8 Gloucester 428 13 4 1,525 4 5

310 14

2,264 11 93 Hereford 53 9 91 345 16

3 4


9 51 Hertford

8:21 13
104 2

1,129 48 Huntingdon

217 6
248 9

22 7 9

487 17 3 Kent

622 5 2 1,203 6 978 4 2,8113 6 Lancaster 695 4 11 2,272 15 1 203 1 O

3,171 1 Leicester..

275 10
1,214 16 3 435 15 6


1 113 Lincoln

101 8 4 1,817 14 11 279 5 2,198 3 81 Middlesex 1,480 5 4 2,692 7 6

823 18 2

4,996 11 Monmouth

121 2


671 18 Norfolk 123 17 10 729 13 31 278

1,131 11

1 Northampton

183 4 6 1,757 811 295 8 2,235 15 1 Nortbumberland

71 10
173 8

289 18 Nottingham

93 14
374 13


526 17 Oxford

127 11
361 11
175 15

664 14 15 Rutland

4 18 6

54 18 Salop

141 3 4
684 11


921 14 8 Somerset..

420 17 U}
1,296 17

310 14 4 2,928 9 3 Southampton

931 2 8
717 12 10 459 18

2,108 13 6 Stafford 149 6 1,323 19 5

148 12 4 1,621 12 3 Suffolk

89 6 4 1,614 11 212 13 6 1,916 94 Surrey

1,413 13 2

154 15 1 2,444 14 3 Sussex

410 19 6
796 3 5
260 10

1,467 12 11 Warwick

325 15 10 1,411 13 11 663 19 10 2,404 9 Westmoreland

19 17 2
117 17

137 14 2 Wilts ....

534 9

185 15

1.074 8 Worcester 222 12 61 2,798 14 1

39 10 8 3,660 17 32 York, East Riding 236 18 71 494 19 2

148 2

N. Riding
104 18 1 1.358

7 5 364 15 2 1,888
W Riding

695 2 33 3,287 7 5 6:20. 15 75 4,003 5 3 Total England....£ 12,415 17 42,638 13 5 / 9,601 1111 | 64,655 12


9 9

9 Brecon



131 6 8 Cardigan.

9 14

44 14 Carmarthen


13 5
28 15

2-2 5

2 13 4

24 18 Denbigh

57 3
78 79

135 10 9 Fliut

67 6

57 14

166 Glamorgan

7 10
141 12 6

174 2 6 Merioneti

28 16

27 6 8

71 2 Montgomery

227 2

43 8

76 15 2 Pembroke

87 4

57 2

156 Radnor

154 2

172 2 Total Wales £. 468 8 2

178 8


3 Total England and Wales .. £. 12,884 5 2} | 43,272 43 | 9,779 10 3} | 65,935 15 10


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try, they might, properly enough, perThe Representative History of Great haps, have insisted on the immutability

Britain an i Irelund: being a History of of their institutions; but, if the circuidthe House of Commons, and of the stances of their country, like all other Counties, Cities, and Boroughs, of the things under heaven, were the subjects United Kingdom, from the earliest of vicissitude, on what principle could Period. By T. H. B. Oldfeld. Six they indulge the imagination that their volumes. Price £3 12s. London, Bald. change, whether with design to improve

descendants should refrain from all win, Cradock, and Joy. 1816.

the political systein generally, or with When the violence of the French Re-design to adopt it to events rising fresh volution burst on the astonished world, with every shifting age? In fact, the anthose who were but partially informed tients never enteriaiued notions so abon the probable consequences, proclaim- surd: and those who look back to past ed their rapturous expectations without ages, wishing to enjoy parts of what, reserve. Instead of waiting to witness in their imagination, was good, must the course it might take, they called on

allow us to say, that unless they are all nations to imitate the exanple, and willing to take the whole, as things change---or, in the party language of then stood, their appeal is entitled to the day, 10 reform the tyranny under little attention. which they groaned. It cannot be de There is every reason to believe that nied, by any rational mind, that the the States of Europe, in what the Rofluctuating course of human affairs, in- mans—and we from theri, bave been variably brings with it a variety of im- pleased to call their barbarous state, disperfections and weaknesses : peither can

cussed their national affairs in national it be denied, that the energies of the assemblies. This we learn from Tacitus ; human intellect are constantly employed and there are remains of these instilaa in counteracting this principle of deteri- tions in Germany, Bohenia, Hungary, oration, by endeavouring to convert it to and other countries to this day. advantage. Times change, and with When the army of the Franks passed them manners.

the Rhine, the monarch consulted the It was not to be expected that our

army on measures to be taken. That own constitution, especially the popular these measures were made known to the part of it, the representative, should whole, as Gregory of Tours says, in escape from this phrenzy of reforma- universis Leudis ium sublimibus quam tion; and the publication before is was puuperibus, - of all ranks, high and then compiled with a view to forward the low, is credible enough; though it cangood work of restoring it, to what the not be thought that the voice of the writer supposed it to be, many centuries chiefs was not predominant in the issue. ago. If the


bad been honest, And we find the monarch answering to and the conduct of the author had been a proposal of importance, that he must impartial, we should have hailed the consult the general assenbly of the communication with joy. But, the pur- Frank people, before he could give a pose could not be pronounced honest, determinate answer.* The admission of in the sense of benevolent, till it had the Bishops somewhat yaried the compare been proved, that what was suitable to sition of the States General, but did not the state of society and of the country, greatly cbange it. in antient times, is suited to the state of When Pepin desired to divide his dothe country now. Our forefathers might, minions between Carloman and Charlewith the greatest propriety, establish magne, he convoked an Assembly of the proceedings and principles for themselves :----they were competent judges * Conventum nobilium debere eam of their then situation, and of the pur. aggregure Francorum, et communi statu poses they intended to answer. Could de omnibus consulere rebus : se rero they also have conferred immutability judicio illorum, in omnibus pariturum, on the then circumstauces of their coun nec preceptis promisit obstaturum.

Franks, and the Bishops, at St. Denis. others but possessors of land, who could The Assembly consented, and the par- claim the legislative and judicial privi. tition was made : bul, the Bishops were leges. Arts and commerce had not then now summoned as lords of territory, in created viher ranks to assunie the exaddition to their spiritual character. Inercise of this invaluable blessing." 806 Charlemayne also desired to divide “ As land was the only original posseshis Realm ; but, not without the univer- sion of our Saxon ancestors, it was this sal consent of his people :---ut plenitur species of property alone, which could omnes consentire debeunt. Aud when entitle them to the right of freemen." in 813, he wished to place the Imperial Now, is he thinks proper to annul arts crown on the head of his son, Louis le and commerce, and to reduce all proDébonnaire, he held a national assein-perty to that of land alone, as in tho bly at Aix la Chapelle, in which he de- Saxon times, then let him fairly restore manded from each member individually, the Saxon constitution, as a proper acwhether it was his pleasure that he companiment to his favourite siate of should confer the title of Emperor on things. But, that he will persuade the his Son ? Having received a unanimous present, or any succeeding generation, answer, Yes, he pronounced him his to realize a dream so destructive, can associate in the empire; and directed excite no apprehension, even among the him to go to the Altar, and take the most ignorant. crown from off it, and place it on his The character Mr. Oldfield gives of head, 6. This was to shew,” says Me- the Saxons, as a band of robbers, obzerai, " that he held it from God, by the taining settlements by violence, at the voice of his people."*

expense of the original possessors, the But, it cannot be imagined, that every Britons, is little calculated to raise fa. individual of the French people could vourable anticipations of the purity of assist at St. Denis, or at Aix la Cha- their institutions, political or legislative. pelle, or at any other council, though call. That what they had acquired by rapine ed General : the chiefs or principals, they would secure by enactment, canthe leading personages, only, could not be doubted ; but, in the mean while, transact the business, really; and this ap- what became of the rights and privipears, as history gradually opens on us, leges of that prior population, which with further particulars. So Louis VIII. they allowed to remain among them? speaks of the advice and consent of his What was good for the Saxons, was Archiepiscoporum, Episcoporum, Com- surely bad for the Britons; what estabitum, Baronum, ei Militum regni lished these, most certainly subjugated Franciue ;---in which list, however, the those : and, as to the principle of unimilitary, not the populace, the land versal suffrage, supposing in might, by holders, not the husbandmen, are the possibility, extend to the lords and masparties considered. And much the same ters, the conquerors, the Saxons ; did it was the estimation of ranks, in our own include the labourers, the menials, the island : those Britons to whom it is cus

Britons ? tomary to trace up principles, differed

Mr. Oldfield is desirous of displaying little or nothing from their continental an acquaintance with the state of the neighbours.

Britons before the arrival of the Saxons; Mr. Oldfield informis us, that “

and he talks of Hu the mighty, the and agriculture being the chief employ-Cymri, and Dyonual Muelmwd, as if ments of the Saxons, there were he believed, or could persuade his reader

to believe, that he understood the subThis fact is thus described by Tegan, ject on which be discourses. No such the Historian. Interrogans omnes à thing; and, to supply a part of his demaximo usque ad minimum, si eis pla- ficiency, we adduce the following evicuisset ut nomen suum, id est Impe-dence, from Roberts's Chronicle of the rutoris, filio suo tradidisset : illi omnes Kings of Britain.---Appendix, No. V. responderunt, Dei esse admonitionem

The following Triad exhibits the original illius rei. De Gestis Ludovici, cap. 6. mode, and improvements upou this mode, in Annal, Pith, tom. 13.

of collecting the popular sutirages, in order



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