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Dissenters of the lowest classes have the sert, than for an Irishman, ia the memeans of education ?-1 should think, un tropolis of the British empire, under the less they were very poor iudeed, generally controul of his Priests ! SO.
What effects have you observed result. Does it not follow, that if Dissentersing from education upon the savage nationg have the means of educatiou, every person in Southern Africa :--I should first state, has the means of education? -I mean the there are part of three nations who are ca. Dissenters in general; I speak of the per pable of reading, the Hottentots, the Giri. sons who are careful in providing means of
quas, and the Namacquas; a considerable educatiou for their children.
bunber of those vations have beeu taught Do you allude to the poorer classes of by the missionaries to read, and, from the Dissenters ? — There are none so very poor statement of those missionaries when I was that they could not do something if they present with them, they colisidered their chose.
reading as particularly conducible to proDo you mean that Dissenters have better
mote civilization. means of education for the poor, than
I got twelve of the l'ottentots who ac. members of the Church? --Not so much
companied me in the interior of Africa, that: but, I think they make greater exer. tious; I do not think they have bettered in the British sistem of education, on
on our return to Cape Town, fully instruct.
purpose that they might Connect, upon If this be true, what prevents the That plan, a school at Bribe sdorp, which Catholic from doing the same? Hou 1: alout 570 mins from the Cape. long shall the difference continue to the
About four months ago, I rei rived a letdisadvantage of the sons of St. Peter?
ter respetug thai school, stating that upThe Irish, for instance, do not want
utri's of sixty Cottentots, who teu months
to ore knew not their letters, could read talent: all the world does them Thai
toe Durah Test went as well as the misjustice. Accident has given a spirtosiow:ries. that talent: accident of another kind You found the Hottentots as quick in may, and, under Providence, will, give receiving their education, as the people in a scope to it; and future historians will | England ?- Nearly so; it brings them into have to congratulate the sister island on
a new world to be abie tu huow whata the return of learning, respectability, book says, it is completely a new world. and distinction, to the natives of Eri. Il may mention bere, that I have found Says Mr. Cainpbell, known to the pub-cou eption of a savage how a book spake
nothing so difficult as to couvey to the lic by his “ Travels in Africa,"
I attempted with the King of Lattakoo, to Ove circumstance that led the Catholics make him understand it, but he and his in Ireland in a certain district, I think it principal men all shook their heads, and was in the vicinity of Belfast, to wish to said it was impossible to understand it; obtain reading for part of their family, was I took a journal that lay before me, in the issuing the one-shilling, the two-shil which I had inserted, from the lips of his ling, and five-shilling notes; there were uncle, the names of his forefathers, who instances of men going with their cow to had been kings before him (the goveramarket, and bringing home a five-shilling ment is hereditary;) this I read to the note iustead of a five-pound one; in con- king and his chief men, on which they per. sequence of this, they resolved that at least ceived that I had formerly stated the truth, one of their children should be able to but had no idea how the book gave me read, to accompany them to market, to dis. that information; the king inquired if it tinguish notes ; the priests could never would be possible for them and their successfully oppose that measure ; and that children, by the instructions of a white was the commencement in Ireland of a man, to understand what books " said" desire among the lower orders of Catholics (there is no other way of conveying readto read.
ing, they can form no idea of what reading Certainly, the Irish are not inferioris, it is only speaking ;) he and his people to the Hollent)ts respect to talent; seemed highly gratified when I stated, that but, they are in respect io the means of in the course of a few moolis after the
arrival of a teacher, they should be able cultivating that talent. Tosiy all in one
to understaud reading as well as myself
, word, there is a better chance for a wild | The missionaries have not yet arrired Hottentot, a Kaffer, or a Bish-man, that there, so that I can give no idea of the he should acquire instruction in his de- success.
£. d. Bedford
119 18 8} Berks
261 7 3 Bucks
377 6 Cambridge
213 12 Cornwall
179 8 2 Cumberland
23 17 6 Derby.
94 IS Devon
313 10 61 Dorset
146 13 Durham
141 5 Essex
230 10 Gloucester
428 13 Hereford
53 9 91 Hertford
203 9 Huntiugdon
217 6 Kent
622 5 2 Lancaster
4 11 Leicester.
275 10 2 Lincoln
101 8 4 Middlesex
1,480 5 4 Monmouth
123 17 10 Northampton
183 4 6 Nortbun berland
71 10 Nottingham
93 14 Oxford
127 11 Rutland
4 18 6 Salop
420 17 11} Southampton
931 2 8 Stafford
149 6 Suffolk
89 6 4 Surrey :
410 19 6 Warwick
32 15 10 Westmoreland
1. 17 2 Wilts
354 4 Worcester
222 12 64 York, East Riding
236 18 71 N. Riding
104 18 1 W Riding
695 2 3 Total England. .£ 12,415 17
WALES : Anglesey
85 6 8 Cardigan...
9 14 Carmarthen
43 Carn rvon
2:2 5 Denbigh
57 3 Flint
67 6 Glamorgan
7 10 Merionetu
28 16 Montgomery
22 7 2 Pembroke
87 4 Radoor
£. d. f. d. £. d. 333 5 8
528 19 5 1,168 11 7
1,782 19 10 934 6 10 171 17 2
1,483 8 61 831 6 10
120 12 5
1,11 3 293 13 224 18 7
632 3 11 197 13 10
42 5 61
419 7 63 70 24
117 17 • 1,111 16 8
117 8 7 1,324 3 3 1,140 13 10 200 1 8 1,716 6 103 1,529 5 1 140
1,816 3 7 72 10 13 4
226 19 1,380 12 8} 291
19,02 8 1,525 4 5
2,264 11 93 345 16 4
84 3 4
5 821 13 8
1,129 4 248 9
22 7 9
487 17 1,203 6} 978 4 2.803 6 2,272 15
203 19 3,171 1 91 1,214 16 3 435 15 6 1.926 1,817 14 !1 279 5 2,198 3 81 2,692 7
4,996 11 121 2
671 18 729 13 31 278
1,131 11 1 1,757 811} 295 I 8 2,235 15 173 8
289 18 374 13
526 17 361 11 175 15
664 14 13 45
54 18 6 654 11
921 14 8 1,296 17
310 14 4 2,928 3 717 12 10 45!) 18
2,108 13 6 1,323 19 5
1,621 12 3 1,6!4
212 13 6 1,916 1,413 13 2
154 15 1 2,444 14 3 796 3 5 260 10
1,467 12 11 1,411 13 11 663 19 10 2,404 9 7 117 17
137 14 2 534 9
1,074 8 2,798 14 1
39 10 8 3,060 17 494 19 2 148 2 4
881) 14 1,358 7 5
364 15 2 1,888 3,287 7 5 6:20 15 7} 4,003 5 32 42,638 13 5/ 9,001 1111 | 64,655 12
try, they might, properly enough, perThe Representative History of Great haps, have insisted on the immutability
Brituin ani Irelund: being a History of of their institutions; but, if the circumthe House of Commous, and of the stances of their couutry, like all other Counties, Cities, and Boroughs, of the
things under heaven, were the subjects United Kingdom, from the earliest
of vicissitude, on what principle could Period. By T. H. B. Oldfield. Six they indulge the imagination that their
descendants should refrain from all volumes. Price £3 12s. London, Bald.
change, whether with design to improve win, Cradock, and Joy. 1816.
the political sysiein generally, or with When the violence of the French Re design to adopt it to events rising fresh volation burst on the astonished world, with every shiftiny age. In fact, the apthose who were but partially informed
tients never entertained notions so abon the probable consequences, proclaim- surd : and those who look back to past ed their rapturous expectations without ages, wishing to enjoy paris of what, reserve. Instead of waiting to witness in their imagination, was good, must the course it might take, they called on allow us to say, that unless they are all nations to imitate the exainple, and
willing to take the whole, as things change---or, in the party language of then stood, their appeal is entitled to the day, to reforın the tyranny under little attention. which they groaned. It cannot be de There is every reason to believe that nied, by any rational mind, that the the States of Europe, in what the Rofluctuating course of human affairs, in- mans—and we from them, bave been variably brings with it a variety of im- pleased to call their barbarous state, disperfections and weak nesses : neither can cussed their national affairs in national it be denied, that the energies of the assemblies. This we learn from Tacitus; human intellect are constantly employed and there are remains of these institain counteracting this principle of deteri- tions in Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, oration, by endeavouring to convert it to and other countries to this day. advantage. Times change, and with When the army of the Franks passed them manners.
the Rhine, the monarch cousulted the It was not to be expected that our
army on measures to be taken. That own constitution, especially the popular these measures were made kuown to the part of it, the representative, should whole, as Gregory of Tours says, in escape from this phrenzy of reforma- universis Leudis ium sublimibus quam tion; and the publication before ils was puuperibus, -- of all ranks, high aod then compiled with a view to forward the low, is credible enough; though it cangood work of restoring it, to what ihe not be thought that the voice of the writer supposed it to be, many centuries chiefs was not predominant in the issue. ago. If the purpose had been honest, And we find the monarch answering to and the conduct of the author had been
a proposal of importance, that he must impartial, we should have hailed the consult the general asseinbly of the communication with joy. But, the pur Frank people, before he could give a pose could not be pronounced honest, determinate answer.* The admission of in the sense of benevolent, till it had the Bishops somewhat yaried the comple been proved, that what was suitable to sition of the States General, but did not the state of society and of the country, greatly change it. in antient times, is suited to the state of When Pepin desired to divide his dothe country now. Our forefathers might, minions between Carloman and Charlewith the greatest propriety, establish magne, he convoked an Assembly of the proceedings and principles for themselves ---they were competent judges * Conventum nobilium debere eam of their then situation, and of the pur- uggregare Francorum, et communi statu poses they intended to answer. Could de omnibus consulere rebus : se cero they also have conferred immutability judicio illorum, in omnibus pariturum, on the then circunstauces of their coun nec preceptis promisit obstaturum.
Franks, and the Bishops, at St. Denis. I others but possessors of land, who could The Assembly cousented, and the par- claim the legislative and judicial privi. tition was made : bul, the Bishops were leges. Arts and commerce had not then dow summoned as lords of territory, in created viher ranks to assume the exaddition to their spiritual character. In ercise of this invaluable blessing." 806 Charlemagne also desired to divide . As land was the only original posseshis Realm; but, not without the univer- sion of our Saxon ancestors, it was this sal consent of his people :---ut plenitur species of property alone, which could onines consentire debeunt. Aud when -ntitle them to the right of fret men.” in 813, he wished to place the Imperial Now, if he thinks proper to annul arts crown on the head of his son, Louis le and commerce, and to reduce all proDébonnaire, he held a national assein-perty to that of land alone, as in tho bly at Aix la Chapelle, in which he de- Saxon times, then let him fairly restore manded from each member individually, the Saxon constitution, as a proper acwhether it was his pleasure that he companiment to his favourite state of should confer the title of Emperor on things. But, that he will persuade the bis Son! Having received a unanimous present, or any succeeding generation, answer, Yes, he pronounced him his to realize a dream so destructive, can associate in the empire; and directed excite no apprehension, even among the him to go to the Altar, and take the most ignorant. crown from off it, and place it on his The character Mr. Oldfield gives of head, This was to shew,” says Me- the Saxons, as a band of robbers, obzerai, " that he held it from God, by the taining settlements by violence, at the voice of his people."*
expense of the original possessors, the But, it canuot be imagined, that every Britons, is little calculated to raise faindividual of the French people could vourable anticipations of the purity of assist at St. Denis, or at' Aix la Cha- their institutions, political or legislative. pelle, or at any other council, though call. That what they had acquired by rapine ed General : the chiefs or principals, they would secure by enactment, canthe leading personages, only, could not be doubted; but, in the mean while, transact the business, really; and this ap- what became of the rights and privipears, as history gradually opens on us, leges of that prior population, which with further particulars. So Louis VIII. they allowed to remain among them? speaks of the advice and consent of his What was good for the Saxops, was Archiepiscoporum, Episcoporum, Com- surely bad for the Britops; what estabitum, Baronum, ei Militum regni lished these, most certainly subjugated Franciae ;---in which list, however, the those : and, as to the principle of unimilitary, not the populace, the land versal suffrage, snpposing it might, by holders, not the husbandmen, are the possibility, extend to the lords and masparties considered. And much the same ters, the conquerors, the Saxons ; did it was the estimation of ranks, in our own include the labourers, the menials, the island: those Britons to whom it is cus
Britons? tomary to trace np principles, differed
Mr. Oldfield is desirous of displaying little or nothing from their continental an acquaintance with the state of the Deighbours.
Britons before the arrival of the Saxons; Mr. Oldfield informs us, that "
and he talks of Hu the mighty, the and agriculture being the chief employ-Cymri, and Dyvnual Muelmwd, as if ments of the Saxons, there were he believed, or could persnade his reader
to believe, that he understood the sub* This fact is thus described by Tegan, ject on which be discourses. No such the Historian. Interrogans omnes d thing; and, to supply a part of his demarimo
usque ad minimum, si eis pla- ficiency, we adduce the following evicuisset ut nomen suum, id est Impe-dence, from Roberts's Chronicle of the ratoris, filio suo tradidisset: illi omnes Kings of Britain.---Appendix, No. V. responderunt, Dei esse admonitionem
The following Triad exhibits the original illius rei. De Gestis Ludovici, cap. 6. mode, and improvements upon this movle, iz Andal, Pith, tom. II.
of collectiog the popular sutirages, in order
domestic excellence : says one inscrip-| costly and magnificent monument, whattion : “ The Senate and the People ever opinion may prevail as to the taste ( honor) the duughter of Theogiton, of its workmanship. There is no inthe wife of :
on account of stance known of a triumphai arch that her virtue and her morlesty.” Another
was more richly adorned with sculpinforms is, that " Churopeina, daugh- ture
The piers all around ter of Tiberius Claudius Didymus, a were adorned with three compartments of priestess of Diuna, is honoured by the basso relievos, one above another, each Thrrontuns for her virtue, and reli- relief being four feet two inches derp, gious attendunce on the Deity.” These divided by others that were twelve inchies erections by the voice of the conimu- deep, covered with foliage and flowers." nity, to virtur', modesty, and devotion, Unfortunately, the playne rager in appear not a little singular, in a country this quarter of the city, which is pritiwhere there is as much of either, and cipally inhabited hy Jews; as was also of all, these excellent qualities, as in any the case in Stuart's time, and occasioncountry on the face of the earth. Yeted liis precipitate departure. had these very people their weak side;
Thessalonica is a considerable city, for, on the other hand, we find them re.. having a population of sixty thousand cording, that, “ on the fiftrenth day of souls, of which about half the nutzber the month clutcumenios (October) Phi- are Turks; the Greeks are about sirlorenus bring Archon, Alexon, the son
teen thousand; and the Jews twelve of ishodon, delicates his own slure Di- ihousand; with a mixed population of onysiu, us sucred 10 the God Serapis, Vegroes and Gipsits, amounting to two she huring remained blumeless with him thousand more. This city is enriched all her life.” Was this a favour 10 iliely the export trade ; ils principal como slave? Was the temple service more modities cousist of cotton, wool, tobacco, honourable, or lighter, than that of an bees-wax, and silk. It is the port for ordinary master? Or was it a gift 10 all Macedonia. The imports are printhe Godd, of a property no longer valu, cipally from England. West India cofable to himself, this slave having liveil fre is often sold in the Levant, under out her best days in his service? If it the name of Mucha coffee, (particularly were a tolen of gratitude, would not li
at Smyrna,) whence it is sometimes berty have been the preferable way of shipped, and brought back again to shewing that sensibility ?
England, under that name. We follow this learned traveller, with
Here, owing to the plague, our tragreat attention, in his Volume, from vellers could not purchase a proper Greece, to Macedonia, and admire with dress for the interpreter; but were comhim the snowy summits of Mount Olym- pelled to clothe him coarsely, to avoid pus; but our space here, forbids us from infection, with a rough shepherd's cloth, judulging ourselves. As he approaches which was fumigated, and passed through Thessalonica, the terror of the plague, water. then ragiog there, almost checks our
We cannot stay to wander with our hopes of his visit to it; although we much Author, where Euripides wandered, an wish that one traveller were permitted the banks of the lake Beshec, nor tu by prudence to examine this city, with visit the ruins of Amphipolis, nor to out reserve.
speculate on the dirt and unseemlioess Stuart had brought us acquainted of Turkish Khans in some places. In with that interesting Antiquity known his approach to Constantinople, he by the pape of the Incantada ; but, found ihe country in rebellion, and his we do not recollect, that he mentions situation at Fairy, was strikingly pethe Rotunda, an edifice resembling the rilous. Pantheon, at Rome; or the triumphal The Metropolis of the Turkish Enarch erected in honour of Octavius and pire, and—if the Turks say trur, the Anthony, after the baitle of Philippi ; very centre and seat of Orthodox Isla. and another to Constantine, which is al mism, is Constantinople; but it was most entire.
“ It was certainly a most more interesting to our traveller as a