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double columns, fifty-eight lines to the full page, side-notes in small Gothic type, but headings and

Beplies. marginal references in Roman letter. The text differs from that of the Bible of 1595, so far as I

VATICAN EMERALD, have observed (except for slight variations in

(8th S. viii. 347, 412, 450.) spelling), only in this point, that this prints

Your correspondent LADY RUSSELL may be glad within brackets such words as are not in the to have further particulars about the emerald which original Greek, which the other gives in Roman adorned the tiara of Pope Julius II. The Pope type. I should judge this Testament to have been used this tiara for the first time on 26 Nov., 1503, printed by the Barkers, because the same tailpieces on the occasion of his coronation, and it was the occar in both volumes, and in a few cases the only tiara that was saved during the great sack of capitals are identical. The Testament has the Rome under the Constable de Bourbon in 1527. heading of fol

. 109 verso misprinted "1 Tthessa. It was Pope Gregory XIII. who enriched it by the lonians." Mr. Dore (Old Bibles,' p. 275, 899.) addition of the emerald, which he had placed on enumerates several editions of the Bishops' trans- the summit, surmounted by a cross enriched with lation of the New Testament printed alone, but diamonds, and on the emerald was engraved his most of these appear to have been small in size.

name, Gregorius XIII. P.O.M.This tiara My queries are (1) What is this edition? (2) What weighed 716., and the emerald 404 carats. is its value ? The edges are rather frayed at Clement XI., on the occasion of the threatened beginning and end, but except for the defects men- invasion of Saxony in 1712, due to the contioned it is in very fair and clean condition. It is version of Prince Frederick Augustus to Cathodoosely bound in a stiff wrapper.


licism, offered to sell, if necessary, this tiara, that Brighton,

he might provide pecuniary assistance to the young

prince's father, King Augustas. SWINNERTON FAMILY. — Wanted, name and

In 1789 Pius VI. had the tiara altered, and it address of the present possessor of the evidences

was reset by Carlo Sartori, the Pope's jeweller, of the descent of the Swinnertons which were with the addition of 3 diamonds of large size, collected some forty years ago by (it is supposed) 36 smaller ones, 24 large balas rubies from Mogul, James Swinnerton, proprietor of the Macclesfield 22 large Oriental sapphires, 12 rabies, and a Courier, who died s.p. in 1881, and who repre- large number of pearls, with this inscription in sented in the male line the Swinnertons of Yew diamonds : “Es munificentia Pii VI. P.O.M.” Tree, in the manor of Whitmore, and through Pius VI. was, as is well known, forced by the them probably also the Swinnertons of Swynner- French to dispose of this tiara, as well as most of ton, the Swinnertons of Eccleshall, and the Swinner- his treasures, to pay in part the six millions of tons of Butterton, all in co. Stafford. F.S.A.

francs required by the treaty of Tolentino in 1797. POEM WANTED.-Could any reader inform me

Napoleon I., in the month of June, 1805, sent as

a gift to Pius VII. a new and magnificent tiara, on where the poem 'Sigurd the Volscian' appeared ?

the summit of which again appeared the celebrated Supposed to be in a magazine in the last

three or emerald of Gregory XIII. It was presented to H. M. S.

the Popo by Cardinal Fesch, the Emperor's minister " BRUCOLAQUES."—Will M. Gasc, or any one

plenipotentiary, and the Pope, in his letter of else, kindly tell me the meaning of this

word? It thanks, dated 23 June, 1805, informed the Emis not in my French dictionaries. It occurs in peror of his intention to use it for the first time at François Coppée's very striking and interesting Paul. When the Pope was taken prisoner in 1809

the Papal Mass on the Feast of SS. Peter and drama 'Pour la Couronne,' I. ii. From the con: by the Emperor, this tiara was seized by General text it appears to have something to do with Miollis, together with other treasure, and taken magic or witchcraft. Bazilide à Benko says :

back to Paris ; but, on the restoration of the

monarchy and the return of the Pope to Rome, it C'est bien. Tu nous diras, ce soir, tes nouveaux airs- was restored to him by Louis XVIII. Tu sais, ces chants roumains, ces légendes valaques On the death of the Pope, his relations now laid Qui font peur. Mauvais oeil, sorcières, brucolaques

claim to it, and a compromise was arranged, by Ces contes affreux qui donnent des frissons.

which they were accorded the sum of twelve JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

thousand scudi by the Roverenda Camera AposRopley, Hants.

tolica. The tiara now became the property of the

Holy See. Its vicissitudos do not end even P.S.-Since writing the above, I have met with here, for during the insurrection of 1831 Pope the word again in Victor Hugo’s ‘Masferrer,' Gregory XVI. was obliged to conceal it, and the part v. ('La Légende des Siècles ) :

chamberlain to whom it was consigned placed it in Le combat d'un satyre avec un brucolaque. a box and buried it for safety in the Vatican

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gardens, and on its removal afterwards to the Papal treasures of the Vatican ; meanwhile, I question sacristy it was found to be so much injured that the truth of the legend of the gift. it had to be thoroughly restored. This work was While Innocent VIII. was Pope (A.D. 1484entrusted to Annibale Rota, the Pope's jeweller, 1492), the Emperor of the Turks was Bajazet II. on 28 Dec., 1833, and Monsignor Patrizi, the (A.D. 1481-1512). At the time of the death of his maggiordomo, had the satisfaction, on 16 March, father, Mahomet II., he was Governor of Amasia, 1834, of placing it once again in the Papal sacristy. and, instead of at once securing his succession, he Here it remained till the troubles of 1848-9, when, persevered in the falllment of a previously designed during the Roman Republic and the temporary pilgrimage to Mecca. His brotber, Zizim, taking exile in Gaeta of Pius IX., it was safely hidden advantage of his absence, usurped the throne. away.

Bajazot, on his return, inflicted on him a crushing The last time that it was used was during the defeat, when he sought refuge first at Rhodes and Vatican Council in 1870, and I well remember then in Italy. In the latter country the long arm seeing it and the other tiaras carried in the pro- of his brother reached him and compassed his cession at St. Peter's on the Feast of SS. Peter death, and Paul. Threo months later, on 20 Sept., Victor Emerald or no_emerald, given or not given, Emmanuel's troops entered Rome, and the Pope by Emperor of Turks to Pope of Rome, the was deprived of the temporal power, and there is legend which I have quoted is demonstrably no probability that the Vatican emerald will be false. Bajazet's brother was no captive among the geen again so long as the present onhappy relations Christians, but a refugee. So far from wonderful between Church and State in Italy continue. emeralds or other costly gifts being bestowed to

HARTWELL D, GRISSELL, F.S.A. procure his redemption, some far less costly payOxford.

ment (some say by means of a barber's razor)

secured his death. W. should not have contradicted LADY RUSSELL

R. M. SPENCE, M.A. and MR. ST. OLAIR BADDELEY with so little con

Mange of Arbuthnott, N.B. sideration-consideration to which a lady, at least,

P.S.-A thought has just struck me. If in the might have been entitled. They may be mistaken inscription given above we were at liberty to regard as to the Vatican emerald which is the subject of redimendo as a mistake for retinendo, so as to Mr. Gale's inquiry (he alone can tell us what bring out the sense that Bajazet gave the emerald emerald he meant); but both LADY RUSSELL and to Ionocent to induce him * to retain his brother MR. ST. CLAIR BADDELEY write with such evident as a captive," then the story might be true after knowledge about the emeralds which they sup all. It is a fact that Bajazet had paid an annual posed to be the subject of inquiry, that W.

sum to Peter d'Aubusson, Grand Master of the far in saying that their "explanations have no Knights of Rhodes, to secure the safe custody of foundation whatever."

his brother, that he might not get at large to be a

D'Aubusson, at I suppose even the proverbial schoolboy bas source of danger to himself. heard of the Vatican emerald concerning which Innocent's request

, gave up Zizim to him. The W. supposes MR. GALE to inquire ; but it only Pope may have, in turn, been bribed by Bajazet, the schoolboy and cocksure people who are ready perhaps by the gift of the emerald, to keep him without inquiry to accept legend as bistory.

safe. Afterwards, to be doubly sure, he had him The inscription usually appended to engravings

murdered. of the legendary likeness of our Lord, said to have been cut in an emerald by command of Tiberius

MAYPOLES (8th S. viii. 184, 297).-Now the (credat Judæus !), and with which many readers of subject of maypoles is under discussion, may I ask •N. & Q.' must be familiar, is as follows :

whether instances are known in western Europe “Vera Salvatoris nostri effigies ad imitationem imaginis religious exercise, in which the performers swing

of such poles being

used as supports for a game, or smaragdo incisae jussu Tiberii Cæsaris, quo smaragdo postea ex thesauro Constantinopolitano Turcarum im

or circle in the air ! perator Innocentium VIII. Pont. Max. Rom. donavit pro

In Russia, redimendo fratre Christianis captivo."

the giant steps' consist of a tall, stout mast firmly W. gives as undoubted historical fact,—"The planted in the earth, bound with iron at the top, and Vatican emerald (80 called)

came into possession upholding a thick iron ring to which are attached heavy of Pope Innocent VIII. in the following way: number of person8 seizing hold of these cables, running

cables which touch the ground. The game consists of a During the wars with the Turks, the brother of round the mast until suficient impetus is acquired, and the Emperor of the Turks [what emperor is not then swinging through the air in a circle." —Atlantic said) was taken prisoner, and, in order to redeem Monthly, lxxii. pp. 363, 354. him, the said gem was given to the Pope."

In Mexico, at the time of the Spanish invasion, Now, I trust that MR. GALE's inquiry will yet the game, which was called the "bird-dance” by the elicit distinct information as to whether or not the natives, and the "flying game” by their conquerors, legendary emerald is still to be seen among the was a far more elaborate performance. It took place

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especially during the laymen's feast, and seems to Then the victims were haled to the foot of the have had a religious significance connected with temple steps, partially stupefied by a powder the calendar. Nearly every game among the thrown in their faces by the priests, borne up to Mexicans and the kindred nations enjoyed divine the summit of the temple, and burnt nearly to patronage :

death. After which each one was cast on the stone " In the centre of an open place, generally a public of sacrifice to have his heart torn out :square, a lofty pole was erected. On the top of this

“These bloody rites over, the people came together pole was placed a wooden, moveable cap, resembling an and danced and sang in the courtyard of the temple. inverted mortar; to this were fastened four stout ropes Presently all adjourned to the place where the pole which supported a wooden frame about twelve feet before mentioned stood. At a given signal the youths square. Pour longer ropes were carefully wound thirteen made a grand scramble for the pole, and he who first times about the pole just below the cap, and were thence reached the summit and scattered the image and its passed through holes made one in each of the four sides accoutrements among the applauding crowd below, was of the frame. The ends of these ropos, while wound reckoned the hero of the day. With this the festival about the pole, hung several feet below the frame, Four ended, and the pole was dragged down by the multitude gymnasts, who had practised some time previously, and amid 'much rejoicing. The Topanecs, according to were disguised as birds of different form, ascended by Duran,

bad a very similar ceremony. A huge tree was means of loops of cord tied about the pole, and each carried to the entrance of the town, and to it offerings having fastened one of the ropes round his waist, they and incense were presented every day during the month started on their circular flight with spread wings. The preceding the festival. Then it was raised with many impulse of the start and the weight of the men

set the ceremonies, and a bird of dough placed at the top. Food frame in motion, and the rope unwound quicker and and wine were offered, and then the warriors and quicker, enabling the flyers to describe larger and larger women, dressed in the finest garments and

holding small circles. A number of other men, all richly dressed, sat dough idols in their hande, danced round the pole, while perched

upon the frame, whence they ascended in turn the youths struggled wildly to reach and knock down to the top of the revolving cap, and there danced and the bird image. Lastly the pole was overthrown,”beat a drum, or waved a flag, each man endeavouring to Bancroft, ii. pp. 329-331. surpass his predecessor in daring and skill. As the flyers neared the ground, and the ropes were almost untwisted,

Such was the use made of festal poles among the the men on the frame glided down the ropes so as to American aborigines at the period when the New gain the ground at the same time, sometimes passing World was discovered. In what districts of the from one rope to the other in their descent and per- Old World and the Oceanic Islands beyond it are forming other tricks. The thirteen turns of the rope, with the four flyers, represented the cycle with its four such poles known to have been employed at relidivisions of thirteen years."-H, H. Bancroft, .The gious rejoicings, or at feasts connected with the Native Races of the Pacific States of North America,' course of the seasons ? 1875, ii. pp. 295, 296.

The use of tree-stems in public or family cereA very similar sport, in which the pole was monial seems to occur at any season of the year ; crowned with a gaudily painted idol of the god not alone of cacao, was also customary among the Mayas of

In May, the lovely month of May, Central America (Bancroft, ii. pp. 713, 714), and

When all the leaves are springing. during the Mexican month called fall, or maturity As we see, one Mexican festival during which & of fruit” a pole played a principal part in the pole was set up fell in the season of ripe fruits, and festival held to the god of fire :

the German Christmas-tree is erected in the shelter At the beginning of the month certain priests went of the house at mid-winter, when the spirits of out into the mountains and selected the tallest and vegetation may perhaps find comfort in the glow straightest tree they could find. This was cut down and of the Christmas-log.

M. P. trimmed of all except its top branches. It was then moved carefully into the town upon rollers, and set up In the village of Offenham, on the Avod, near twenty days. On the ove of the feast-day the tree was of comparatively recent erection, but I do not firmly in the courtyard of the temple

, where it stood for Evesham, there stands a maypole. It is, I believe, gently lowered to the ground; early the next morning know whether it succeeded to a more ancient one. carpenters dressed it perfectly smooth, and fastened a cross-yard five fathoms long near the top, where the In some of the villages in that same district it is branches had been left. The priests now adorned the usual for children (generally girls), on 29 May, to pole with coloured papers, and placed upon the summit a statue

of the god of fire, made of dough of amaranth carry from house to house a miniature pole, decked seeds, and curiously dressed in a maxtli, sashes and with garlands and ribbons. They sing the followstrips of paper. Three rods were stuck into its head, ing rhymes :upon each of which was spitted a tamale, or native pie, Tho pole was then again hoisted into an erect position.

All round the maypole, trit, trit, trot, Those who had captives to offer now appeared, dancing

See what a maypole wo have got;

Gallant behind and gallant in front, side by side with the victims, and most grotesquely All round the maypole, trit, trit, trot, dressed and painted. At sunset the dance ceased...... About midnight every owner brought out his captive.

W. C. B. ...... At dawn the human offerings were taken to the Tzom pantli, where the skulls of the sacrificed were [after.

SMOKING IN CHURCH (866 S. viii. 366).- I havo wards) spitted, and there stripped by the priests of their a note made in 1891 of a conversation with an old dress and ornaments."

inbabitant of this town, in which he told me that

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thirty years ago he paid a visit to Cranham Church, ARMORIAL SEAL (8th S. viii. 429).—The arms four miles distant, and that the person who showed described by MR. FLOYD as (presumably) occupying him over it took him into the gallery and pointed the dexter half of the shield, viz., A lion rampant out many short pipes stowed away in various reguardant sable ; crest, the same holding between nooks, which he said the old men smoked during his paws a fleur-de-lis, are those of Sir Pryse Pryse, service. Several of the pows in the body of the Bart., of Gogerddan, Cardiganshire. The impaled church contained triangular wooden spittoons filled arms (doubtloss the wife's) I am unable to with sawdust. This church was rebuilt in 1874, identify Oswald HUNTER BLAIR, O.S.B.

THOMAS BIRD. Fort Augustus, N.B. Romford.

Arms, Sable, & lion rampant reguardant or “Reuben Butler isna the man I take him to be if he (Lloyd, co. Brecon). Sable, a fess between three disna learn the Captain (Duncan of Knockdunder] to dexter' hands appaumy argent (Bates, co. York). fuff his pipe some other gate than in God's house or Crest, a lion rampant reguardant, in the dexter (ere) the quarter be ower.” – David Deans, ' Heart of Midlothian, chap. xlv.

paw a fleur-de-lis argent (Lloyd). JONATHAN BOUCHIER.


Rev. Dr. GLASSE (8th S. viii. 228, 389).—In 8. viii. 447). —It may possibly interest some of Lysons's ' Environs of London'

we find that Dr. your readers to have the answer to this question, Glasse contributed 2001. towards the rebuilding of which meanwhile I have been able to solve mysell

. Hanwell Church in 1781, the total cost of the The person in question was Gibbons Merle, at one

edifice being 1,7651. He wrote an epitaph to the time editor of Galignani's Messenger, and the memory of his wife Anne, who was buried in editor of the White Dwarf.'

E. S.

the church in 1802. The doctor himself died in

1809. Hanway was related to Dr. Glasse, and This is mentioned in Mr. W. M. Rossetti's frequently visited him at the rectory. I know one 'Poetical Works of P. B. Shelley,' vol. i. p. 153. family which still bears the name of Glasse, but Mr. Rossetti professes ignorance of the writer's cannot say if they are the descendants of Hanwell's name, but suggests that he was the 'F' named in rector.

ETAERT BRAND. Hogg's book," EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. Barry Road, Stonebridge Park, N.W. Hastings.

WILLIAM THOMPSON, OF HUMBLETON (8th S. HOMER: OMAR (8th S. viii. 307). — The personal viii. 408).–Fifty years ago there existed (and for name which we usually write Aymer or Aylmer aught I know there exist still) in the village of appears in various forms in early charters-Eymer, Humbleton two endowed schools, one of them Eumerus, Homer, Homerus, Hamer, &c. "As á "supported by the munificence of Thomas Thomppatronymic it assumes the form Emerson, and the son, Esq." This fact may in part supply an Italian diminutive Amerigo (corresponding to Eng- answer to MR. BETHELL'S query, as Mr. Thomplish Almeric) provided the name of the Western son, if not lord of the manor, was, presumably, at continent. HERBERT MAXWELL. least a landowner in the parish which he thus

benefited. Bardsley's 'English Surnames,' ed. 1875, has the


Fort Augustus, N.B. following statement at p. 223:-. “Our classical-looking · Homers' are the naturally

See the pedigree in Dugdale's Visitation, corrupted form of the once familiar ‘le Heaumer,' he Surtees Soc., p. 122, and Poulson's 'Holderness.' who fashioned the warrior's helmet."

An inscription at Kilbam speaks of this family as A pote adds :

gens numerosissima."

W. C. B. "The old Norman word was either healme' or • heaume.' The more ordinary term for the former now

A SÃOWER OF WHEAT (8th S. viii. 387, 515).is helmet.' Hall, writing of the Battle of Bosworth Showers of wheat, and of all otber small objects, Field, after mentioning the fact of the armies coming are common. A slight local whirlwind picks these in sight the one of the other, says: •Lord, how hasteloy up as dust is picked up by one still more slight, the souldyoures buckled their healmes.'"

and when it ceases to whirl they drop. D. “Manekyn le Heaumero" occurs in the Rolls of Parliament. The other day I saw

" Homer

“COMFORTABLE"=COMFORTING, KIND (8th S. Herring" above a shop door in Brighton. Perhaps viii. . 286, 413).-The late learned and witty the former is a surname; let us bope so.

Sheriff Barclay, of Perth, in his 'Old Glasgow,' F. O. BIRKBECK TERRY. gives the following grim instance of the word in Surely Omer & Joram, the drapers in David this etymological sense :Copperfield,' are not forgotten. Dickens never

“One Thomas or Tam Young long held the office of

heademan. He was to be seen every day taking his coined names.

solitary walk in the public Groen escorted by one or two EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. ugly bulldogs. The gallows-tree at the Cross was a Hastings.

strange erection, fixed with many ropes upright to the

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Steeple. Afterwards, when death was inflicted in front bis connecting it with the Carlton Club. The Pitt of the Jail at the foot of the Green, a large box or chest Club was composed of members sharing in the was formed as the gallows. It was erected in a wright's yard then in Buchanan Street. It was frequently visited political principles of Mr. Pitt, supporting and during its erection by morbidly curious people. It could advocating his measures on all questions. The be separated, and each board was numbered, and so could Fox Club was, and is, analogous to it, save that were at the time of its construction under sentence of Pitt's great political opponent. be easily put together. There were four or five who the latter advocated 'the opinions of Mr. Fox, death. Tamas having been taken to see the machine and to give his opinion as to its accommodation, naively

The Pitt Club, as a matter of course, met and replied that four could be comfortably hanged on the dined together, and each member wore, suspended beam, but not more. That number did in 1819 expiate from the buttonhole by a dark blue ribbon, a their crimes on this ill-fated machine,"

badge, of which the obverse had the profile likeA. G. REID.

ness of the great statesman on a black enamelled Auchterarder.

ground, with the motto, “Non sibi, sed patrie, At the second reference AYEAHR quotes from vixit," the whole encircled by a silver-gilt setting Dr. Aldis Wright's The Bible Word Book,' of oak-leaves. On the reverse was the name of the "coumfortide bym with nailes," and asks whether member to whom the badge belonged. One such the word is used in legal indictments-as com- badge is in my possession at this moment, formerly forting” a traitor. Now this query is curious, as

worn by my father. That the Carlton, & ConDr. Wright says, just before the quotation above : servative club of recent times, thought fit to in

“Lord Campbell, in his 'Essay on Shakespeare's Legal corporate the died-out embers of the Pitt Club is Acquirements (p. 82), remarks upon the passage exceedingly likely, though I never knew it before ; • K. Lear,' III. v., "If I'find him comforting the king, it but it had otherwise nothing in common with the will stuff his suspicion more fully. The indictment original Pitt Club, save its politics. The members against an accessory after the fact for treason charges of the club were perfectly well known at the time, that the accessory comforted,” tho principal traitor and each sat in the House of Commons—with one after knowledge of the treason.'”

Z. Trench says, in his 'Select Glossary,' that con

or two exceptions in the Upper House. fortare, so frequent in the Vulgate, is first to make WELDON FAMILY, IRELAND (8th S. viii. 145, strong, to corroborate, and only in a secondary sense 210). The following extracts concerning the to console. "A comfortable sort of body" is a Clerk of the Spiceries, from whom Sir A. Weldon, common expression in the North of England, as Bart., without warrant, claims descent, are not applied to a kind, motherly sort of person. In the without interest. Bishop Goodman, in the Cornhill Magazine for December, 1895, No. 150, Aulicus Coquinariæ,' says of Sir A. Weldon, of p. 602, there is the remark, in 'An Arbitrary Kent: Lover,' "I had a comfor’able home an'a comfor?.

“That his parents took rise from Queen Elizabeth's able husband." So we speak about a comfortable kitchen, and left it (i. e., the kitchen) a legacy for preroom, chair, bed, fire, &c., whereby we imply that ferment of his issue. Sir A. went the same way, and by they impart comfort. F. O. BIRKBECK TERRY. grace of the Court set up to the grace of cloth, in which

place attending King James into Scotland be practised Shakespeare affords us yet another instance :- there to libel that nation, which (presumably the libel] “ Viola. Most sweet lady,

was wrapped up in a record of that Board, and by the "Olivia. A comfortable doctrine, and much may be from his place as unworthy to eat his bread whose birth

hand being known to be his was deservedly removed said of it."

Twolfth Night,' I. v.

right he had so vilely defamed." This use of the word is still very common in Bishop Goodman adds, "I have given him the popular speech. A comfortable old soul," in the Midland Counties, means one who makes you stile [sic] himself.”.

name of a knight because he hath pleased so to

The 'Aulicus Coquinariæ comfortable.

O. C. B.

derives its quaint title from Sir A. Weldon being In the active sense of affording comfort, comfort. the son of Queen Elizabeth's cook. Wood, in able occurs in our Prayer Book version of the Athena Oxonienses,' pp. 729, 730, after quoting Psalms (liv. 6), “I will praise Thy name, O Lord, the above statement of the Bishop's, adds : "Sir because it is so comfortable." E. WALFORD, A. Weldon sided with the Long Parliament, out of Ventnor.

discontent, and when the wars were ended was a “ Hear what comfortable words Our Saviour committeeman of Kent for the sequestration of Christ saith." These words, from the Communion Royalists, and mostly chairman of that committee.”

CHEFOO. Service, are to be found in the first Prayer Book of King Edward VI. of 1549. C. W. PENNY. CONVENT OF CHAILLOT, PARIS (86 S. viii, 509). Wokingham,

-There is no difficulty in getting leave to work at “les Archives."

D. PITT CLUB (8th S. viii. 108, 193). —The defini. tion of the Pitt Club given by a correspondent THE SPORTING DOG OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS some weeks back is exceedingly misleading, through |(8th S. vüi. 366).-The Rev. John Whitaker, in



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