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his ‘History of Manchester,' published in 1772, rites were not Roman. See also an article in Dr. bas much to say about the dogs of the ancient Smith's ' Dictionary of Greek and Roman AntiBritons :

quities' (" Sacrificium"), where two soldiers were "All of them particularly attraoted the admiration sacrificed to the god Mars 80 late as the time of of the naturalists and the regard of the sportsmen among Julius Cæsar for attempted insurrection. His the Romans, before and after their conquests in the authority is Dio Cassius.

G. T. SHERBORN. island. But the principal sorts which seem to be natives

Twickenham. of the country are these five, the great housebold dog, the greyhound, the bulldog, the terrier, and the large slow hound. The first is furnished with no sagacity of

" BATTLETWIG": "LANDLADY": "BOGGART” nose, but has no uncommon degree of vigour and courage, (8th S. viii. 85, 255).- The first of these will be the general strength of its limbs are incredibly great." found in Wright's Dictionary of Obsolete and

In addition to the couplet alluded to by Mr. Provincial English,' where the meaning is given, FERGUSON, another poet of the third century extols an earwig." According to Wright, the word in the greybound of the British race. The bulldog, this sense is common in the Northern and Midlard says our reverend historian,

Counties. “Landlady," as a name for the insect enjoys equally a good nose and a gallant spirit. And commonly known as the ladybird, is unfamiliar to the latter is so peculiarly great that this animal has me; but I read that in Yorkshire they are called perbaps a larger share of courage than any other in the “lady clocks." The name “cow-lady” is also in world; the bravery of the breed bas gained them the vogue in the northern county. In London I have credit of frequent mention in the records of antiquity: never heard other than “lady.bird,” but have freThe Gauls even purchased them early for the uses of war, and embattled them with their native dogs for the quently heard of the superstition to which MR. fight......Strabo (p. 305) expressly commends them in HUSSEY refers in his communication. general as incomparable hounds on the field.”

hear, even to this day, children cry out, when Most likely, then, this would be the dog MR. catching sight of the insect, the familiar lines :FERGUSON writes of as being fiercer and more

Ladybird, ladybird, fly away, powerful than the greyhound, and as being capable

Come again another day. of attacking wolves.

There is, or used to be, & superstition that if a " The little terrier, so useful in the destruction of the ladybird was killed rainy weather would follow as weezle and polecat of our woods. These and other a consequence. My recollection of the supersticlasses of our woodland vermin, without them, would tion is somewbat hazy, but, so far as my memory have multiplied to an excessive degree in the country, serves me, it was as I say. and have proved a great annoyance to the poultry-yards

With regard to and bare-parks of the Britons. The terrier, therefore," boggart," the following, from a 'Glossary of Yorkwas necessary among us in that period."

shire Words and Phrases,' may be interesting :The large blow-bound, Whitaker states, must "Boggle, Boggart, a fearful object, a hobgoblin. As have hunted " some animal that was at least as

in most places, so in this quarter have boggles and

fairies had their haunts in former times. Claymore heavy and as slow as itself, and that could only Well, near Kettlenegr, on the coast, was a noted spot have been the British segb, or moose.” He further where the fairies washed thoir clothes and beat and states that “the British dogs were a very gainful bleached them, for on their washing-nights the strokes article to the Romans." RICHARD LAWSON.

of their bittles or battledores were heard as far as RungUrmston, Manchester.

wick. The woods of Mulgrave wero baunted by Jeanie

of Biggersdale, whose habitation a daring young farmer I do not know the qualities of this dog, but I once ventured to approach and call her by name, when do know that the greyhound degenerated into the lo! she angrily replied she was coming; and while he lurcher can be easily taught to catch a hare, and to

was escaping near the running stream, just as bis horse

was half acro88, Rhe cut it in two parts; but fortunately carry it off to his master or owner for the time he was upon the half which had got beyond the water !" being; and when this bappens at night bares die

“Flay-boggle" is another word found in the appear from a manor, and the wonder is, how. I have the skull of a dog dug up in an old Roman in cornfields to frighten away birds.

'Glossary. This is a name for a scarecrow used veteran's holding of twenty-five jugera, which had

C. P. HALE. the phalanges of a bare or rabbit in its mouth, as though choked in eating. But this skull is more In Derbyshire the earwig is commonly " battlethe shape of our present retrievers. It measures twig," and, probably because of the fearsome tales from nose to base of skull 8 in. I should like to told of its supposed habit of creeping into the ears know more of the ancient British dog.

of people wben asleep, overy one, nearly, kill all WM. GRAHAM F. PIGOTT.

they find. The name battletwig," I have heard Abington Pigotts.

some say, is derived from the habit of the insect to

show fight by opening its "pippers," with which it HUMAN SACRIFICE (8b S. viii. 287).-- According “ *twigs ":=nips or pinches. to Livy (lib. xxii. cb. 57) a Gallio man and woman In the same county the "landlady" is unknown, and a Greek man and woman were entombed this insect going by the name of "ladybird," "cowalive; but be adds a remark to the effect that such bird," and "ladycow." Children are told that it

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old sows.

is bad luck to injure these beautifully marked Among the pictures in the Deanery at Westbeetles.

minster there is a picture by Canaletto, painted for CELER ET Audax calls the "little pigs " which Bishop Wilcocks. It represents the western part his housemaid found in the doormat "wood-lice"; of the Abbey Church, with St. Margaret's in the but I ventore to say that the insect bis housemaid background. A procession of the Knights of the found was not a wood-louse, but one of those squat, Bath is coming forth from the porch, proceeding broad-backed, oval-shaped insects which in Derby-through the churchyard, and entering the south shire are known as

These infest the end of King Street, it may be presumed on its way damp spots on ground floors, and are held in great to Whitehall. There was an installation of the aversion.

Thos. RATCLIFFE. Bath 26 June, 1749, and that is probably the date Worksop.

of this picture. See Malcolm's Londinium

p 09 Tyneside "twitch-bell," and, more shortly, Redivivam,' 1803, vol. i. p. 136. ,,

EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. "S twitchy," are in 180 for the earwig, while the

71, Brecknock Road. ladybird is known as the “ cushy coo lady," a children's rhyme being

Without being able to decide how long or how Cusby coo lady, fly away home,

many times he visited the metropolis, we can fix Your house is on firo, your children all gone.

bis lodging. His view of St. James's Park was R. B.

exbibited at the house of Richard Wiggans,

cabinet-maker, Silver Street, Golden Square, CANALETTO IN ENGLAND (85_$. viii. 407);- according to the London Journal (?), 26 July, In consexion with this subject I will mention that

1749. The reason I bave queried the name of the I have thirty-eight of Canaletto's beautiful etchings newspaper is that some time ago one of my note. of Venice, each measuring 164 in. by 10 in. They books got mutilated by a little puppy dog gnawing are bound up in an oblong folio, and were pub- one corner, but the cutting will be found in Lysona's lished at Venice in the year 1742. The book also

Collectanea,' vol. ii. p. 161.

AYEAHR, contains a very fine portrait of bim, as well as of Antonius Visentini, who engraved the etchings. LEITCHTOWN AND GARTUR ARMS (8th S. viii. Do a blank page I find the following MS. note 289, 370, 416, 494).—If iteration and reiteration respecting him :

will prove anything, your correspondent MR. "Venice is further distinguished for its landscape W. M. GRAHAM Easton may be held to have painters, of whom Antonio Canal, or anale, commonly stablished that Graham of Leitchtown the head called Canaletto, enjoys a European reputation. He was of the house of Menteith. But as he has carefully born at Venice in 1697, and was taught by his fathor avoided giving the pedigree of this family (although Bernardo, who was a scene painter; be himself followed in one of his contributions he stated it would be the same occupation until 1719, when he gave it up entirely. Antonio visited Rome at an early age, and published) he can hardly expect the readers of here, like his compatriot Giovanni Piranesi, he devoted N. & Q.' to accept bis assumption as correct. himself to the study of the magnificent ruins of the In Burke's 'Landed Gentry' (1844) Graham of ancient capital of the world. He returned to Venice, and Leitchtown is said to be descended from the noble Astonished the Venetians by bis elaborate views of the canals and palaces of the Queen of the Adriatic. In house of Graham, Earl of Menteith, through the 1746 he came to England, and painted many of the his. Gartur family. MR. Easton evidently does not torical buildings of London and other places. He was regard this descent as true, because in an article Tery successful, and acquired a fortune by his works. He on Graham of Gartur' (860 S. viii, 134) he gives it used the Camera Lucida as a help in the great accuracy as his opinion that the Gartur family branched off of his views. Canaletto died at Venice in 1768."

Blaircegenoch, whose origin he does not mention. The above appears to be an extract from ' Epocb8 How, tben, does Mr. EASTON connect Graham of of Painting,' by R. N. Woroum, p. 370.

Leitchtown with the Earls of Menteith? When O. LEESON PRINCE, The Observatory, Crowborough Hill, Su88ox.

he answers this question genealogists will be better

able to discuss the merits of the claim he so conBy an advertisement, a copy of which appeared fidently puts forward on behalf of that family. in ‘N. & Q.' for 4 February, 1854, and which I

W. B. 0. here repeat, for the benefit of your present sub- I thank MR. EASTON for his mild rebuke scribers, it is evident Canaletto was a resident in respecting my too confident reply to the above Eogland in July, 1752. It is taken from "

query. After perusing the authorities be quotes the journals" of that year:

and relies upon I feel more convinced that Argent, "Signor Canaletto gives notice that he has painted on a chief sable three escallops or, are the arms of Chelsea College, Ranelagh House, and the River Graham, Earl of Menteith. "If he will refer again Thames; which, if any gentleman, or others, are pleased to the following, he may alter his opinion : Nisbet to favour him with seeing the same, he will attend at his lodgings at Mr. Viggans, in Silver Street, Golden Square, (vol. i. p. 79, vol. ii. part i. p. 85, ed. 1804), from fifteen days from this day, July 31, from 8 to 1, Lyndsay's MS. (p. 27), Wood's Douglas's and from 3 to 6 at night, each day.

Peerage' (ander Airtb," vol. i. p. 41, the

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plate of the arms being incorrect). Papworth, It seems worth while to add that Middleton or under the above arms, gives Patrick de Graham Milton Abbats, in Dorsetsbire, was a Benedictine (Glover's'Ordinary')and Graham, Scotland. Burke, monastery, and that the abbey was dedicated to in his 'Armory, 1844, and 'Extinct Peerage, St. Mary, St. Michael, St. Sampson, and St. Bran1866, is silent as to the arms of the family. Work. walader. Speed and Cressy wrongly place the man's MS., the same as far as the Graham family is abbey in Wiltshire. William of Malmesbury concerned. The query is, How are the arms blazoned records the great wealth of relics pertaining to the in the MS. at the Lyon Office ? Will MR. EASTON church, and says :give his authorities for the statement that the field “ Ibi multas sanctorum reliquias ex Britannia transis or instead of argent in the Menteith arms. marina emptas reposuit: inter quos eminent præcipue

John RADCLIFFE. beatissimi Sampeonis osea, Dolensis quondam Archi

episcopi sanctissimi, et plane Deo digni viri : cujus St. SAMPSON (8th S. viii. 427).-Information is virtutes aliquas bic referrem, nisi quia notæ sunt, et asked at the above reference with respect to St. indigenarum sanctorum miraculis scribendis occupatus Sampson, “to whom a fine church is dedicated at manus habeo." Cricklade, Wiltshire.”

See Dugdale's 'Mopasticon Anglicanum,' ü. 344, The festival of St. Sampson, Bishop and Con- quoting William of Malmesbury De Gestis fessor, is kept at Dôle, in Brittany, on 28 July, Pontificum Angl.,' fol. 143. I cannot trace any and, according to William of Malmesbury, certain direct connexion between Milton Abbats and relics of bim were brought from Brittany and Cricklade. Dugdale gives a 'Computus Minisplaced in the Abbey of Middleton, in Dorsetshire. trorum Domini Regis temp. Hen. VIII.,' which His parents Ammon and Anne came of a dis- gives a list of manors from which firmce accrued tinguished family in South Wales. They had long to the monastery ; but these appear to be chiefly been childless, and when this son was born, follow from the county of Dorset, and therefore Cricking the example of Handab, who entrusted her lade would not be found amongst them, even if it tender child to the care of Eli, they placed him at were an appanage of Milton Abbats. a very early age under the care of St. Iltut, who

W. SPARROW SIMPSON. brought him up in his monastery. It is, perbaps,

St. Sampson's (sic) commemoration in the Roman scarcely necessary to do more in this place than to

July. martyrology is on 28

He born state very briefly that he spent some years in Ire

A.D. 496 (Butler).

He was land, attracted thither by the learning of some

& native of Irish monks ; that he was consecrated bishop, but sonis Episcopi et Confessoris" (Baronius), where

Glamorganshiro : “In Brittania Minori S. Sampwithout & see; that he journeyed to Dôle, in there is in a note “ Claruit circa annum Domini Brittany, where he established a monastery ; that business connected with this house obliged him to sexcentesimum." The latest account that I am visit King Childebert at Paris, which visit led to of St. Samson in Haddan and Stubbs's Concilia,

aware of is the real, instead of the fictitious history his nomination as first Bishop of Dôle ; and that vol. i. pp. 158, 159. It appears that he was Bishop he died about the year 565 A.D., at the age of of Dol, in Brittany, but was consecrated at St. eighty-five years.

Illtyd's college in Glamorgansbire by Dabritius, These particulars are condensed from Father Stanton's Menology of England and Wales' fictitious archiepiscopates at York and at St.

was at the Council of Paris, A.D. 555 or 557; his " (pp. 364, 365). At p. 663 a few additional details fictitious archiepiscopates at York and at St.

David's appear first in the pages respectively of are given :

Geoffrey of Monmouth and of Giraldus Cam. “It is said that King Childebert gave the Islands of brensis, the fiction about his pall being due also Jersey, Guernsey, and

Sark to St. Samson, and that for a time they were attached to his Diocese of Dôle.-M. to the latter. In a note, here abridged, at p. 149, de la Croix, ' Jersey,' &c., p. 147."

it is further stated :If fuller information is desired, I would refer the

“The Lives of St. Samson know him only as Archbishop querist to ' Les Vies des Saints de Bretagne,', by connexion at all with st. David's or with York, and as

of Dol (a mere vague title in such a case), but with no Dom Guy-Alexis Lobineau, edited by M. l'Abbé living in the early part of the sixth century. But in the Tresvaux. In the first volume, pp. 202 to 239 twelfth century the concurriug interests of the clergy of are occupied by a life of S. Samson, Évêque de Dol, wisbing to establish their independence against the Dol.

Archbishop of Tours, and of Giraldus Cambrensis, wishThere were, indeed, other saints named Samson, the seo of Canterbury, led to the assertion by both that

ing to prove the metropolitanship of St. David's against whom it is not necessary to particularize, for there be had been strictly an archbishop.” can be no doubt that the Bishop of Dôle is the

ED. MARSHALL. saint to whom the Wiltshire church is dedicated. "Le nom de Samson est le premier dans les

[Replies enough to fill a number of ‘N. & Q.' are

acknowledged.) Litanies Anglaises du VIIe siècle, entre les saints confesseurs de la nation.” So says Dom Lobineau. FOXGLOVE (gib S. viii. 155, 186, 336, 393, 452, The cathedral church of Dôle bears his name. 495).-I am sorry to have made what PROF.


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SKEAT regards as being a "misleading suggestion"; English toe, is the modern word too or to. Lastly, I thought I was making

a statement of fact, and spoken, pronounced spauken, is the modern English one, indeed, which PROF. SKEAT would not wish to spoken. In Anglo-Saxon these vowels were disbe in a position to contradict. Naturally, I did tinguished. The A.-S. for woe was wā; the A.-S. not mean to imply that he was the only reader of for too was to; and the unoriginal form spoken was English, or the sole student who might light upon due to analogy with the A.-S. broc-en, pronounced & word hitherto unregistered by glossarists. My somewhat like brokken (but with only one k). mode of expression was synecdochical, and I have The last is a case of vowel-lengthening ; broc-en confidence that none of the conners of 'N. & Q.' became bro.ken, by & difference of syllabification. will be misled by it.

I now leave this last out of account, because the As Dr. Prior is not in a position to speak for Tudor-English spelling did the same in most cases. himself, I may perhaps be allowed to say that, Let us now consider only woe and to; or, better unless he changed his theory concerning the still, the words to, a toe, and to, too, both spelt derivation of foxglove for the worse between 1863 alike in the fifteenth century, when the words were and 1879, PROF. SKEAT has misrepresented it. pronounced, respectively, as taw and toe. In the first edition of Popular Names of British Tudor - English spelling often distinguished Plants' the author wrote :

between these sounds. The former was often "It seems most probable that the name was in the written oa or oe; the latter 00 or 0. After this first place foxes.glew, or music, A.-S. gliew, in reference distinction bad been made, the sounds again to the favourite instrument of an earlier time, a ring

of shifted, but the symbols remained unchanged. bella bung on an arched support, the tintinnabulum, and Hence'in modern English we have oak, toe, with thus answering to the Norwegian Reobielde." I am not at all concerned to defend this bold tā ; and the words too, to, cool, corresponding to

the sound of o in stone, corresponding to A.-S. āc, bad guess, but it certainly appears more reason the A.-S. to, col. able here than as set forth by PROF. SKEAT:“ He actually proposes foc-glee because the flowers

Hence, by a rule of thumb, setting aside all resemble bells, and thus refer to music !” Why sounds, we bave in modern English, in a large should gliew be rendered glee when it might quite A.-S. vowel is ā. And the distinction between oa

number of words, the symbols oa, oe, wherever the truthfully be rendered music ? ST. SWITAIN.

and oe is merely due to the look of the thing. PARISH COUNCILS AND RECORDS (8th S. viii. People prefer oe when the sound is final, merely 446, 496).- In too many country parishes the because they are accustomed to see final e so often, great difficulty of properly preserving these old as in stone, home, A.-S. stān, hām (showing that parish records is from want of a proper place, for ..e is yet a third way of forming an equation to in this parish the council was obliged to arrange

the A.-S. ū). that for the present they should remain in the

Examples: oath, A.-S. ath; oak, A.-S. āc; toad, large wooden box in the church, under the care of A.-S. tād. And finally, woe, A.-S. ; toe, A.-S. the vicar and church wardens. If every parish tā; roe, A.-S. rā; doe, A.-S. ; foe, A.-S. fāh; council was obliged by law to build a parish ball moe (obsolete), A.-S. . And formerly, goe, soe, (if there was not already such a room), the old now always written go, so. parish records might then be properly kept in a Hence the reason for the spelling woe is clear safe or cupboard, according to their value, for they enough. It was practically a phonetic spelling. cannot be kept in the schoolroom, where many But in these days, when we already write go and councils have to meet. It should be remembered so (for A.-S. and suā), there is no particular that the County Councils, by the law that created reason why we should write woe any longer ; yet parish councils, are to see that these documents at the same time it is convenient to distinguish are safely preserved, therefore county councillors between doe and do, and between toe and to. should be stirred up at once to see into this sub- Briefly, the frequent changes in English symbols ject.

ARTHUR HUSSEY. and sounds havo landed us in that slough of Wingham, Kent.

trouble which makes the acquirement of modern "WoFUL” (8th S. viii . 184, 258, 417).—The enhanced by the fact that schoolmasters, as a rale,

spelling so difficult, a difficulty very greatly fact that woeful and woful' havé both been never learn Anglo-Saxon, and have not the employed as spellings of the same word is suffi- remotest notion of the reasons for our modern ciently well known.° I wonder that no one cares spelling. They do not even know that it is to ask why. The reason is this, as explained in explicable.

WALTER W. SKEAT. my 'Primer of English Etymology:'

Middle-English had no fewer than three values “LUCK MONEY” (8th S. viii. 348, 470).-Of the for the symbol o when long. Thus wo, pronounced several

correspondents upon this subject, E. S. A. wau, i. e., with the sound of au in Paul, is the alone alludes to the almost invariable custom conmodern English woe. To, pronounced like modernnected with the receipt of “luck money," whether

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it be as “handsel,” i.e., the first money received Poems,'"edited by W. M. Rossetti," the text has for the day, or true “luck money," that which is “tby happiness." Is the alteration due to Mr.

to opinion, he would have Spitting upon it is the essence of the whole trans. done better to let it alone.

B. action, and is practised to-day not only all over England, but all over the world.

I see no difficulty whatever in this stanza. What We know from

Keats intends to say is :many classical authors what virtue was believed, by ancient Greeks and Romans (see Potter; bappy lot, but that I am too happy in sympathizing

« My heart aches, but it is not through envy of thy Archæol. Græc.,' i. 417), to lie in the act; and with tby happiness. 80 great is the pleasure in tby there is also abundant evidence of the belief all song and in all the thoughts and images it calls up, that through the Middle Ages. At tbe end of the it is almost more than I can bear, and my sensos reol nineteenth century it remains as strong as over.

under it, as when Othello said, Otto Jabn says, “I have often beon the fishwives

O thou weed,

Who art so lovely fair, and smell’at 80 sweet, of Ellerbeck, when they bad got Handgeld from my

Tbat the sense aches at thee." mother, how they spat upon it. They say that it brings them besonderes Glück. They will not tell My edition of Keats bas "thy happiness.” It is the reason ; certainly it is done to keep off witch of the year 1862, and edited by R. M. Milnes.

R. R. craft." The same thing is done by modern

Boston, Lincolnshire. Egyptians and by Italians. At Posilippo, in February last, I gave a penug to a deaf mute; be May I refer MR. INGLEBY to a note of my own, first spit on it, then put it to his forehead, and also to one by C. O. B., in 'N. & Q.,'7b S. x. 11, lastly devoutly crossed himself with it, precisely in which we have explained, I hope satisfactorily, (except the crossing) as is done by modern the construction of the first stanza of this " divino Egyptiads. Even in far-off Celebes—the natives poem," as I called it then, and call it now! With spit in the same way as a protective rite.

regard to “thine happiness," I fancy MR. INGLEBY

F. T. ELWORTHY. must bave got this reading from a recent edition Keats's 'Ode To A NIGHTINGALE' (86h S. viii. edition, as well as in my three editions of Keats's

of the Golden Treasury,' 1892. In the 1867 429).

Poems,' it is “thy happiness." “ Thine," I supMy heart aches and a drowsy numbness pains Му верве.

pose, is a misprint. JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

[Very numerous replies have been elicited. It is im. 'Tis not through envy of thy bappy lot,

possible to insert all.] But being too happy in thine happiness, That thou, light-winged Dryad

TAE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY (86b S. viii. 508). Singest of summer in full-throated

-MR. HART should consult 'The Battle Abbey

Roll,' by the Duchess of Cleveland, published by Beyond doubt the poet must be disclaiming envy Jobó Murray, Albemarle Street, in 1889. The on his own part. According to the mere position original roll exists no longer, nor, if it did, would it of the words, he would seem to say, "Not through be of value as an authority, inasmuch as in process envy, but because I am too bappy in thy hap- of time names crept into it which had no business piness.” But this cannot be. The reaction from there, being inserted by the monks to oblige too great happiness might induce melancholy, but liberal patrons. Three copies of the roll remain, scarcely such atter prostration of spirit as he com- and these the duchess has given in her book, plains of. Must wo not take it thus : “ 'Tis not together with some account of the families the through envy, but that thou, being too happy in names of the ancestors of which appear in those thy happiness—too happy to be in accord with my copies.

O. W. Oass. already existing sadness—makest me get more sad by thy song of full-throated ease"?

The information which MR. H. T. HART requires For MR. INGLEBY's second point, " thine hap- can be obtained from the Duchess of Cleveland's

. piness," bis law of euphony was not always in book The Battle Abbey Roll,' published in 3 vols. force. The Psalter of 1539, preserved in the Book

small 4to.

JOAN MURRAY. of Common Prayer, bas,“ While he lived, he counted bimself an bappy man.” If this be thought 607). Her maiden name was Dowse. She was of

“THE BEAUTIFUL MRS. ROU8BY” (860 S. viii. an insufficient rule for our day, would it be too mixed parentage, her father, Dr. Dowse, whose awful hereby to suggest that the Londoner bred fourth daughter she was, being Irish, and her and born, and somewbat bumbly born, may not mother Weisb. She was born in the Isle of Wight, always have been quite precise about the aspirate ? and died at Wiesbaden 19 April, 1879. Her Pauca tamen guberunt priscæ vestigia fraudis.

father, who predeceased her, was in the Army So it may have been, perhaps, oven with the Medical Department, Inspector General of Hosexquisite ear of Keats. In my copy of K9ato's pitals.

H. T.


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