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several years, he will speedily become familiar with the word "mountant." But let him not suppose that photographers use gum or glue, as he suggests. If they were so daring, their prints would soon grow hideous. Photo-mountants are usually of paste or gelatine. I generally use Glenfield starch. MR. THOMAS may be interested to know that the term "photo-mounter" is quite as common CHAS. JAS. FERET. photo-mountant."


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GEORGE BORROW (8th S. ix. 407).-Thomas Borrow married in St. Luke's Church, Chelsea, 24 Aug., 1836, Harriet (born 11 Feb., 1800; died 8 May, 1890), eldest daughter of John Stephen, of Chelsea, and by her had two children: (1) Harriet, who died unmarried and is buried with her father in St. Luke's Church, Chelsea. (2) Alexander Thomas, born 15 March, 1835, died unmarried at Clapham in 1887, is buried with his mother in Brompton Cemetery. Thomas Borrow is, I believe, a cousin of George Borrow. William Henry Borrow, Esq., of 7, St. Helier's Terrace, Hastings (being a nephew of the former), would doubtless be able to give definite information. I might add that Louisa, sister of Harriet Borrow, née Stephen, was the wife of the late well-known author, Rev. Dr. Macduff. CHAS. A. BERNAU. Clare House, Lee, Kent.

THE WYCH ELM (8th S. ix. 288, 358).-Frequently looking at a number of wych elms on a neighbour's estate, I have often thought that the crossing of the forked branches as they slope upward-suggesting, when seen from a little distance, an early stage of basket-making-must have had something to do with the application of the term wych to the tree. Such fancies cannot, of course, be offered as worthy to supersede the explanations of an authority like Prof. Skeat, who, I observe, in his Etymological Dictionary' (1882), quotes from Our Woodlands,' by W. S. Coleman, the words: 'Some varieties of wych-elm have the Perhaps I may be permitted to say than an branches quite pendulous, like the weeping-willow." article by me in the National Review of January It may be that the appearance of wicker-work in last contains more definite information about shadows cast by these trees is referred to by Tenny-where. The notice of him in the 'Dictionary of Borrow and his family than can be found else



son in the lines:

Witch-elms that counterchange the floor
Of this flat lawn with dusk and bright.
'In Memoriam,' canto lxxxix.

In the Forest Trees of Britain,' by Rev. C. A. Johns, F.L.S. (S.P.C.K.), 1849, the following remark occurs in the chapter on the wych elm "In some of the midland counties the name seems

National Biography' is singularly meagre and inaccurate.

no sister. The maiden name of Borrow's wife was

George Henry Borrow was son of Capt. Thomas Borrow, and had but one brother, who died in Mexico, and had dabbled in painting. He had Mary Skepper; she was the daughter of a fairly well-to-do landowner in a small way, at Dalton, to have originated the notion that it is a pre-indicated, a young officer in the navy. By him near Lowestoft, and first married, as already servative against witchcraft" (vol. ii. p. 122). The she had one child, a daughter, who married a Mr. author says that the meaning of the word wych is MacOubrey, sometimes called a doctor, but deunknown, hence my note of inquiry addressed to scribed on his tombstone as a barrister. Borrow N. &Q I cannot, however, understand how refers to his stepdaughter Henrietta, and her the term "misleading" can be applied to my note, fondness for botany, in Wild Wales.' Mrs. as used by one of your correspondents. MacOubrey is still living, and resides in much seclusion at Southtown, Great Yarmouth.



"MOUNTANT (8th S. ix. 186).-This word, in the sense of an adhesive for mounting photographs, has not yet generally found a place in our dictionaries; but in this fact there is nothing remarkable. New terms are constantly being devised to meet the requirements of advancing arts and sciences. If MR. R. THOMAS, who is evidently not a photographer, will consult any elementary treatise on this beautiful art, which I have practised for

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Capt. Thomas Borrow was a native of St. Cleer, in Cornwall, and there are distant relatives still living in that vicinity. Capt. Borrow married a Miss Parfrement, the daughter of a farmer in a very humble position at Dumpling Green, near East Dereham. There are several members of the Parfrement family now living in Norfolk.

Borrow was always very reticent about his family, and his account of them in 'Lavengro' is largely flavoured with romance.

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viii. 106, 170, 236, 334).—In Upper Coquetdale,
about half a mile beyond Windyhaugh, in the heart
of Cheviot, the Coquet rushes through a narrow
cleft, fourteen feet wide, known as "the Wedder-
Loup." The tradition is that a border thief, when
pursued, cleared the cleft with a wether on his
back. Unfortunately for the man, his heels flew
up on landing and he was dragged backwards into
the roaring stream, to be both strangled and
drowned. The body was subsequently recovered,
with the sheep, tied by the hind legs, round his

Great Cotes House, R.S.O., Lincolnshire.

In the 'Annual Register' for 1795 it is recorded
that on 20 Dec. in that year a man was found
strangled in a field near Camberwell, Surrey, with
a sheep fastened to him, the body of the man
one side of a gate the sheep the other side, the
hind legs of the sheep fastened together round the
man's throat.

Clermont, Rathnew, co. Wicklow.

WEDDING CEREMONY (8th S. ix. 406).-Putting the stole round the joined hands is, so far as I know, a modern invention, not a revival.

Winterton, Doncaster.

J. T. F.

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"Gloster. What are these, trow?

sense, as there is an intentional misunderstanding.
Ben Jonson, however, uses it earlier, and often.
See 'Fox,' I. i.,III. vi.; Epicene,' V. i. ; 'Cati-
line,' III. iii.; Magnetic Lady,' II., chorus; 'New
Inn,' III., Argt.

JAMES THOMSON (8th S. ix. 306).—Is not the
author of 'The City of Dreadful Night' usually
differentiated from the other James Thomson by
the letters (B. V.)? Both poets frolicked on the
lower slopes of Parnassus, and I question if the
gentler muse of the poet of the 'Seasons' will not
outlive the sterner verse of the later poet. Only
recently in a literary paper the (B. V.) Thomson
was labelled as a neglected genius."


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DAUNTESEY MANOR, WILTS (8th S. ix. 368).A brief account of this manor will be found in Aubrey and Jackson's' Wiltshire Collections.' WILTONIA.

'POLE'S MS. OF CHARTERS' (8th S. ix. 407). -The following appears in the Western Antiquary for April, 1888 :

Pole family] may be obtained from Mr. Rogers's Memo"Much information with regard to this family [the rials of the West. Mr. Rogers states that he believes the original MSS. of the antiquary are now deposited in the British Museum,' but I [Edwin Sloper, Taunton] understood that these MSS. by the pen of 'The Historian

Colby says: In Queen's College Library, Oxford, there is a valuable MS. from the collection of Sir W. Pole,

probably compiled by Ralph Brooke, York Herald [1608], containing extracts from ancient deeds in proof of Devonshire pedigrees.'

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66 Young Strowd. Two. sir, that come not without their of Devon' were in the library at Shute House in 1877. cards, I hope."-Day, 'Blind Beggar,' 1600. Whatever sense the above passage has, it is difficult to eliminate the idea of an allusion, at any rate, to something of the nature of a visiting card. I would quote more fully, but I have only a notebook before me. It may be of interest to recall the fact that in those early days a formal visit was called a "visitation." In Beaumont and Fletcher, The Captain,' III. iii. :—

I hate these visitations,
As I hate peace or perry.
And in 'Cupid's Whirligig,' 1616 :—

"Young Lord. Or else I were unworthie of your love,
if I neglect the visitation of suche kinde friends as your

selfe and my deare mistris.

"Kni. Visitation! My wife's not sicke: what visita tion?"

Here the word seems to have newly acquired the

71, Brecknock Road.


ALDERMEN OF ALDERSGATE (8th S. vii. 67, 214, 257). The inscription on a monumental tablet in the church of St. Nicholas Cole Abbey, London, records that George Nelson, Esq. (of the Grocers' Company), late Lord Mayor of London, died 23 Nov., 1766, aged fifty-seven (Malcolm, 'Londinium Redivivium,' vol. iv. 1807, p. 547). Your correspondent may be referred to the "Fac-simile of a Heraldic MS. entitled: The names and Armes of them that hath beene Alldermen of the warde of Alldersgate since the tyme of King Henry 6,

beginninge at the 30 yeere of his Reigne [1451] vntil this present yeeare of our Lord 1616. By John Withie. Reproduced from his MS. in the Harleian Collection [No. 909], and briefly annotated by Francis Compton Price. 16° Lond. 1878." DANIEL HIPWELL.

FLITTERMOUSE = BAT (8th S. ix. 348).-MR. JONATHAN BOUCHIER asks for an instance of the use of this word in poetry, and you have supplied one from The Alchemist.' May I be permitted to quote from another of Ben Jonson's works? In 'The Sad Shepherd,' Act II. sc. ii., I have found the word thus used :

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Green-bellied snakes, blue fire-drakes in the sky, And giddy flitter-mice with leather wings. Middleton, too, has the word in 'The Witch,' Act I. sc. ii. :

Pentaphyllon, the blood of a flitter mouse,
Solanum somnificum et oleum.

A much earlier French dictionary than M. Gasc's, Cotgrave's, has : "Chauvesouris, m. A Batt, Flittermouse, Reremouse." Rattlemouse is used in the Isle of Wight. Mr. W. H. Long's 'Isle of Wight Dialect, 1886, has: "There's a gurt rattlemouse vleein about in steyabel yon. Git the rudder [sieve], and let's ketch 'n."

It is interesting to know that Shakespeare's rere-mouse still survives in Gloucestershire; see a 'Glossary of Dialect and Archaic Words used in the County of Gloucester' (E.D.S.), 1890. This word, I may also remark, is found in Ben Jonson's New Inn,' Act III. sc. i.: "Once a bat, and ever a bat, a reremouse and bird of twilight." Flittermouse is used in Gloucestershire

and Kent.


Under this name, as also "flickermouse," Nares, in his 'Glossary,' gives the following instances of

its use:

Once a bat, and ever a bat! a reremouse, And bird o' twilight; he has broken thrice.

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Come, I will see the flicker-mouse, my fly. Ben Jonson, New Inn,' III. i. The same author uses flitter-mouse also:And giddy flitter-mice, with leather wings. 'Sad Shepherd,' II. ii. Halliwell, in his 'Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words,' quotes the following example, under the name of Flinder-mouse ""

"One face was attyred of the newe fashion of women's attyre, the other face like the olde arraye of women, and had wynges like a backe or flynder-mowse."

-MS. Harl. 486, fol. 77.

Phillips, in his 'New World of Words,' 1720,

calls it rear-mouse.

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Jonson's Alchemist.' The latter uses the word (sometimes flickermouse) in three other passages: 'Sad Shepherd,' II. ii. and III. ii.; also in his New Inn,' III. i. Halliwell refers this word to flindermouse, and quotes "MS. Harl. 486, fol. 77," a reference probably a century at least older than any of the above. But flitter (flutter or flit) and flicker are all very well. Flinder is a little too much to put "" on a bat's back. H. CHICHESTER HART.

Carrablagh, Portsalon.

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This is still the popular name in Kent and Sussex; also in the forms flindermouse, flintermouse, and in the plural flinter-mees, as recorded in the 'Dialect Dictionary' of those two counties. ARTHUR HUSSEY. Wingham, Kent.

A SHAKSPEARIAN DESIDERATUM (8th S. ix. 268). I do not quite agree with the REV. R. M. SPENCE that Messrs. Chatto & Windus have conferred so unspeakable a boon on Shakespearian scholars. Their reprint is a "reduced facsimile by a photographic process"; it is a difficult book to read, the print being small, and often blurred and indistinct. Recently I purchased a copy of the facsimile reprint of the first folio, by E. & J. Wright, for Vernon & Hood, 1808; a very handsome volume, despite the prodigious list of trivial errata pointed out by the plodding Upcott after four months and twenty-three days' patient collating. Perhaps some of your readers could tell me whether this edition is scarce, as I do not remember having seen another copy. Many of the quartos have been admirably reprinted by the New Shakspere Society; but, of course, their publications would not be easily procurable. S. Timmins published, in 1859, facsimile reprints of the two quartos of 'Hamlet' on opposite pages, and Halliwell-Phillipps printed some others of the quartos. I quite agree with MR. SPENCE that a moderate priced series of facsimile reprints, edited after the fashion of the "English Scholar's Library," would be indeed a boon to Shakespearian students. W. A. HENDERSON. Dublin.

early quarto editions of Shakespeare, limited to Lithographic facsimiles, traced by hand, of the thirty-one copies, were issued to subscribers, at the price of five guineas a volume, by Mr. E. W. Ashbee in 1866-71, under the superintendence of Mr. J. O. Halliwell-Phillips. A set, consisting of forty-eight volumes, fetched 1767. in Mr. Oavry's they have been practically superseded by the set sale in 1882. Now they would be cheaper, as which Messrs. Griggs & Prætorius produced a few years ago in photo-lithography of the quartos in forty-three volumes, under the superintendence of Dr. Furnivall. I see a copy of this set is advertised in the last catalogue of Messrs. J. & M. L.

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Tregaskis at the price of nine guineas, which is, if I remember rightly, considerably under the sum which I paid for my own subscription set. MR. SPENCE may, however, possibly desiderate a set of the plays in one volume, although, in my own judgment, separate volumes are more handy for reference. W. F. PRIDEAUX.

Kingsland, Shrewsbury.

"ALLER" (8th S. ix. 147, 255).—From A Dialogue in the Devonshire Dialect,' by "A Lady" (a sister of Sir Joshua Reynolds), published in 1837, I take the following:

"Allers, 8., an acute kind of boil or carbuncle, 80 called from the leaves of the aller being employed as a remedy, or from alan, Sax., to burn."

"Allernbach, 8., a kind of botch or old sore; from alan, Sax., to burn, and bosse, Sax., a botch. In the N.E. parts only. The alder is frequently called aller in this county." A. J. DAVY.


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THE LABEL (8th S. ix. 308).—The label, according to the best heraldic authors, is generally used as a temporary mark of cadency. In the ordinary system of differences, a label of three points-also termed a file with three labels-is the distinction of the eldest son during the lifetime of his father, and some say that the grandson, being an heir, should bear a label of three points during his grandfather's life, &c. Besides being used as above, labels are also employed as permanent distinctions by certain families, just as any other charge is borne. The use of the label in latter times is not often practised except in the royal family, in which the Prince of Wales, as eldest son of the sovereign, bears a label of three points argent, which has been the custom since the reign of Edward III. The other children have similar labels charged as the sovereign may direct by sign manual registered in the College of Arms. Burke, in his 'Armory,' intimates that none but the royal family may use the label of three points argent, and being a member of the fraternity of the College of Arms he should be an authority on the


The date when this rule was made is not given, but I should say it is the result of the custom men. tioned before. That it was intended to be used by all those who were entitled to bear arms is evident from the information given in heraldic


works. The College of Arms and Ulster Office have the right to grant or refuse the label as a permanent distinction in arms or as an augmentation to the same, but I cannot find on what principle they can refuse the label argent to those who have a right to arms when only used to distinguish the eldest son. The only conclusion one can arrive at is that the Heralds' College and Ulster Office the general usage-a power they might also use in are exercising a privilege not in accordance with supervising the right of persons bearing granted or ungranted arms, and so make the honour or supposed honour of some value. Respecting marks of cadency, Planché says: Whatever rules may have been made, none have ever been strictly observed, for take the presumed authority of any period and the examples extant are scarcely ever found to accord with it." Y. will find that metal shall not appear upon metal, nor colour upon colour, is a positive rule in heraldry, and therefore will apply to the label. JOHN RADCLIFFE.

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"FACING THE MUSIC" (8th S. ix. 168, 272).— Although I cannot state the origin of this phrase, it may be worth while to point out that it has already found its way into literature.

"This is Dyvid and Goliar, I tell you! If I ast you to walk up and face the music I could understand. But I don't. I on'y ast you to stand by and spifflicate the niggers."

This forms part of Huish's argument with Capt.
Davis towards the end of 'The Ebb-Tide' (Edinburgh
edition of Stevenson's works, vol. iii. of South Sea
Yarns,' p. 356). 'The Ebb-Tide' appeared ori-
ginally in To-day from November 11, 1893, to
February 3, 1894. According to the Vailima
Letters, Stevenson finished writingThe Ebb-
Tide' in June, 1893.
A. C. W.

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Edward IV. Also a bull and lion (Hertford Castle); also a lion and hart, argent (Windsor). Edward V. A lion and a hind argent (St. George's Chapel, Windsor).

Richard III. Also two boars argent.

Henry VII. Also two greyhounds (Bishop's Palace, Exeter); also a dragon and greyhound (Windsor and Merton College, Oxford). I have never seen a lion.

Henry VIII. Also a dragon and greyhound (MS. Brit. Museum).

Edward VI. A lion gardant or and dragon gules.

Mary. Also a dragon (sinister side).
Elizabeth. Also a dragon (sinister side).

The Exchequer Seal of Charles I. has for supporters not the lion and unicorn, but an antelope and stag, both ducally collared and chained.

A good collection of supporters on English royal arms is to be seen in a painting on the wall near Bishop King's tomb in St. George's Chapel, WindOSWALD HUNTER BLAIR, O.S.B.


Fort Augustus, N.B.

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Dragon and greyhound. Uncrowned lion and dragon. Edward VI. Crowned lion and dragon. Mary. Eagle and crowned lion. Elizabeth. Crowned lion and dragon. James I. Lion and unicorn. The plates are wood engravings, and give no indications of colours.

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Gwalior, Central India. William Berry, for fifteen years the Registering Clerk to the College of Arms, London, in his Encyclopædia Heraldica,' says that King Edward III. was the first monarch who used supporters to the arms of England, and that until the accession of James I. the same supporters were seldom continued by his immediate successors.

I supply the omissions and variations in CoL. HARCOURT'S list according to Berry. Richard II. A lion and a hart.

Henry VI. An antelope and a leopard. Edward IV. Changed his supporters three times a bull and a lion; two lions; a lion and a hart.

Edward V. A lion and a hind. Henry VII. A dragon and a greyhound. Henry VIII. At first the same as his father, but changed to a lion and a dragon.

Edward VI. The lion, with the addition of a crown and a dragon.

Mary. Bore the same supporters, but on her marriage with Philip of Spain placed an eagle on the dexter and removed the lion to the sinister.

Elizabeth. Bore the same as King Edward VI. James I. Lion and unicorn, which supporters have been continued ever since.

71, Brecknock Road.



EMACIATED FIGURES (8th S. viii. 386, 464, 509; ix. 152, 254).-A noteworthy example is to be seen in the church of St. James, Clerkenwell, and bears the following inscription :the modern altar tomb upon which it now rests

"Sir William Weston Knt | Lord Prior of the Sixth or English Langue of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem | Died on the 7th May, 1540, and was buried on the north side of the chancel of the church of St. James, Clerkenwell. This emaciated effigy, sole relic of his splendid tomb destroyed on the demolition of the old church A.D. 1788, was in the year 1882, placed near its original site by Lieut.-Colonel Gonld Hunter-Weston of Hunterston, co. Ayr."

Frequent mention of Sir William Weston occurs in the works of the historians of the Knights Hospitallers, as well as the earlier volumes of 'N. & Q' He was the second son of Edmund Weston, of Boston, co. Lincoln, a cadet of the ancient house of Weston, of Weston-under-Lyzard, co. Stafford. His father's brothers John and William were both Knights of St. John, the former having been General of the Galleys, Turcopolier, and Lord Prior of England successively, attaining the last dignity in 1482. He is renowned as one of the most celebrated knights of the age in which he lived, and he commanded the English defences at the siege of Rhodes, where he greatly distinguished himself. This grand old warrior, brokenhearted, as it is affirmed, at the suppression of the Order of St. John in England by Henry VIIL, died of grief on Ascension Day, 1540. His magnificent tomb in the old church of St. James, Clerkenwell, is described by Weever in his 'Funeral Monuments,' and an engraving by Schnebbelie (1787), from a drawing taken before that edifice was pulled down, is given in Malcolm's 'Londinum Redivivum,' and is reproduced in Cromwell's 'His tory of Clerkenwell,' in Pink's history of that parish, and in Porter's' History of the Knights of Malta' (revised edition, 1883). An illustration of the emaciated effigy in its present position is contained in The Historical Notes of St. John's, Clerkenwell,' by John Underhill, with etchings by W. Monk, a remarkably artistic work, published in 1895. Mr. Pink copies from the Gentleman's Magazine, lviii. 501, a full account by an eye-wit

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