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ness of the destruction of the monument on follow a sword, axe, and gold mask captured in the 27 April, 1788, and of the discovery beneath it Ashanti expedition, which are again followed by the of the lead coffin containing the skeleton of Sir dirk, sword, and cocked-hat of Lord Nelson, and again by the sword and scabbard found with the dead body of William Weston. He adds, "This noble monu-Tippoo Sahib in the gate of Seringapatam. Beautifully ment......was purchased by Sir George Booth and executed are these designs-so beautifully, indeed, that removed to Burleigh." Peradventure the ema- they would each and all serve for framing. Descriptive ciated effigy of the Lord Prior was considered too notes are furnished by Mr. Richard R. Holmes, F.S.A., librarian at Windsor Castle, and the whole, when comgruesome for appropriation for ancestral purposes, pleted, will be furnished with an introduction by Fieldand was eventually deposited in the vaults beneath Marshal Viscount Wolseley. The work is to be comthe present church, where it remained uncared for pleted in nine monthly parts. Its cover happily reprountil 1882, the greater part of a century. E. C. duces the flags used by Lieut. Pasco on the Victory at Trafalgar, constituting Nelson's immortal signal. It is difficult to convey an idea of the beauty and luxury of the number, which is, indeed, worthy of the place it is sure to occupy on a royal table. We look to Mr. Nimmo for the handsomest of volumes, and our hopes are never disappointed.
At St. Andrew's Church, Feniton, in this county, on the north side of the sanctuary and on a recessed altar tomb, is a hideous stone representation of a dead body, wrapt in a shroud, the folds of which are tied over the head. So ghastly is the subject, that curtains are now hung in front of it, that children, at least, may not be frightened by its horridly realistic appearance. HARRY HEMS. LANDING OF FRENCH TROOPS AT FISHGUARD IN 1797 (8th S. ix. 247, 318, 433).—In looking over some old papers I have come upon a copy I made of an inscription I saw on an old silvermounted cutlass, which may be of interest in connexion with the above subject. It runs as follows:
"Presented by the Commissioners of His Majesty's Customs to Captain John Hopkins of the Speedwell Cutter at the Port of Milford in testimony of his meritorious conduct and services at the landing of a party of French troops at Fishguard, Pembrokeshire, on the 21st of February, 1797."
Perhaps inquiry at the Treasury Department would elicit further particulars; and, if same are made, I, amongst the rest, would be pleased to see the result. P. S. M.
Les Keepsakes et les Annuaires Illustrés de l'Epoque
and a bibliographer adds a complete knowledge of our
The History of Suffolk. By the Rev. John James Raven, D.D., F.S.A. (Stock.) THIS is one of the excellent series known as "Popular County Histories." We need bardly say that the various volumes differ much both in interest and in value. The powers of the writers also are far from equal, though it is but fair alike to publisher and authors to say that on the whole the work has been carried out with judgment, though now and then writers have diverged into general NOTES ON BOOKS, &c. history more than is fitting in works of a strictly local Naval and Military Trophies. A Series of Water-Colour character. No charge of this kind can be brought Drawings by William Gibb. Part I. (Nimmo.) against Dr. Raven; from first to last he has confined WE have here the first number of a work that makes himself to Suffolk men and Suffolk matters, feeling condirect appeal to the sympathies and sentiment of Eng-fident that those who open his pages will already have lishmen, executed in the artistic and sumptuous style acquired some knowledge of the evolution of our national to which Mr. Nimmo has accustomed us. The object of life. the work is to supply the public with faithful reproductions in water colour of our naval and military trophies, and of the personal relics of British heroes, from Drake to General Gordon. In order to facilitate the execution of this patriotic task, the stores in our great institutions have been rendered available, as have the private treasures of Her Majesty-to whom, by permission, the work is dedicated-as well as those of the Duke of Wellington, the Earl of Camperdown, and others. A marvellous collection of objects of deepest interest is, accordingly, at the disposal of the artist, all of them telling of deeds of reckless bravery, and not a few of them charged with the most splendid and pathetic as well as the most heroic of memories. As a mere index of the range covered may be mentioned the stick of Sir Francis Drake, the punch-bowl of Capt. Cook, and the Bible and sash of General Gordon. With the touching relics last mentioned the first number opens. Then
Suffolk is noted for the round towers of its churches. In former days much nonsense has been written regarding them. They have been compared with the round towers of Ireland, with which they have very little connexion except that of form. Dr. Raven has not been misled by wild speculation. He knows quite well that their circular shape is due to the material with which they were necessarily constructed. He traces their origin to a law of Athelstan made in 937, which required a bell-tower to be built on the land of each thane. They were no doubt made for secular as well as ecclesiastical purposes. They were needed to summon men to arms when the Danish pirates came in sight, as well as to call the folk to mass and vespers. These towers frequently stand near the site which the thane's hall once occupied. This may now often be identified by traces of its moat, when the zeal for alteration has not led the present proprietors to efface it. There are now
forty-five of these towers in Suffolk, some of which Dr. Raven believes to be later than the Norman conquest. A useful alphabetical list of them is given.
Dr. Raven is an authority on bells as well as belltowers. Speaking of the many beautiful towers built during the Perpendicular period, he points out a fact which will be new to many of his readers. "The cages for the bells," he says, were placed as soon as the building had reached the belfry floor, and the towers were then built around them. This is proved by the length of the wooden pins which fasten the beams together, such that they could not have been driven in We are glad to find marked attention drawn to the family of Winthrop, so well known in New England. The race, there cannot be much doubt, took its name from a village now called Winthorpe, in the Lincolnshire marshes. Dr. Raven speaks of Winthrop as a corruption of Winthorpe, but the error is the other way. The Lincolnshire villages with names ending in thorpe were almost always spelt throp in former days, and the peasants of to-day whose speech has not been corrupted by "book larnin'" still speak of Gunthrup, Scunthrup, and Althrup, while those who have imbibed schoolboard learning say Gunthorpe, Scunthorpe, and Althorpe. The remarks concerning the men who fought for the King or the Commons in our great civil contest in the seventeenth century are worth careful attention, as they are evidently based upon long-continued biographical research. There has been for many years a tendency to idealize those who took part in that great struggle. Fancy history is in all cases harmful, but it is especially so when applied to a time wherein principles so like some of those which are matters of controversy to-day were debated at the point of the sword.
after the walls had been constructed round them."
Some Notes of the History of the Parish of Whitchurch' Oxon. By the Rev. John Slatter. (Stock.) THIS a most useful volume. It does not profess to be a parish history of the higher kind, such as no one who had not spent on it years of labour could bring to perfection, but it will be a very great help to any antiquary who shall be moved to take up the subject in an exhaustive manner. The latter part of the work is by far the better. Mr. Slatter has found some valuable papers relating to the condition of the poor in the time of Elizabeth and later reigns, which he has done well to publish. In 1569, though the names of twenty-four persons are given as contributors to the poor, the subscription for three months only reached the modest sum of 5s. 3d. The greatest contributor was a Mr. Gaape, who gave 1s. In 1582 the quarterly collection had in
creased to 9s. 10d.
The author gives several lists of church goods. One made in 1574 shows that several of the vestments used in the unreformed services were yet in the custody of the churchwardens. There was a church house here in 1593, and in it were kept a caldron and a great chest, which latter was a repository for pewter spoons, wooden platters, spits, trenchers, a kettle, and other things that were needed for the village ale-feasts. Church houses are now exceedingly rare, if even there be a single specimen left. In former days they must have been very common. They were, in fact, for the rural village what the town hall was to the incorporated boroughs, or the vestry halls are at present to the large unincorporated places of modern growth.
Proverbs, Proverbial Expressions, and Popular Rhymes of Scotland. By Andrew Cheviot. (Paisley, Gardner.) MR. CHEVIOT has made a very good book on Scottish folk-saws. (Surely there is room for this convenient word if only some writer of authority would give it a fair
To be sure the
start, as Mr. Thoms did "folk-lore.") way was made easy for him by the successive collections of Hislop, Nicolson, Henderson, and Chambers; nevertheless he has made many additions on his own account, and some omissions and oversights. We have compared his book here and there with Hislop's 'Proverbs of Scotland' (third edition), and can testify that the accessions are very considerable, especially in the matter of pithy sayings and quaint turns of expression which hardly amount to being proverbs. In this depart ment he has hardly made adequate use of the works of Prof. Wilson, which are a rich quarry for such a purpose. Many proverbs which are given by Hislop are, for some unexplained reason, wanting here, such as "A gude cause maks a strong arm,' ""A gude conscience is the best divinity" (Hislop, p. 24), "A gude green turf is a gude gudsmother " (id., p. 25), and the curious imprecation of mythological interest, "Go (or gae) to Hecklebirnie" (id., p. 107).
Among positive errors may be noted the comment on "I'll bring him down on his marrow banes," which is "bend his knees as he does to the Virgin Mary" (as if "Mary-bones"!); "Gae to the deil and he'll bishop you," explained, after Hislop, as applicable to one "well worthy of a high position in the devil's service"; but "to bishop" is not to make a bishop of one, but merely a well-known old phrase for to confirm. "Where the carrion is there doth (1) the eagles gather," one of the most familiar sayings in Scripture, is cited as a Danish proverb (p. 79)! Then there is a superfluity of trite expressions in use everywhere, such as "To be chop fallen," "To be meally-mouthed," "To come from far and near." With Mr. Cheviot's classical quotations the printer makes sad work, unreproved, e. g., Kathemata, mathemata-Heroditus" (p. 401); cannas " for canas, p. 88; "bedera" for hedera, p. 121; and similar monstrosities on pp. 265, 273, 283, &c.
MESSRS. CASSELL have begun, in a people's edition, a reissue of their Natural History. With the first number, which at sixpence is a marvel of cheapness, is given a large-sized print of Mr. Hardy's Kings of the Desert.Part XXXIII. of the Gazetteer of the same firm, from Latheronwheel Burn to Liddington, has views of Lauder, Launceston, Leamington, Ledbury, Leeds, Leominster, and other places.
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LONDON, SATURDAY, JUNE 20, 1896.
CONTENTS.-N° 234. NOTES:-English Words from Romance Sources, 481-The Drought and the Rain' - Harmony in Verse, 482-og Story-Weeping Infant-Translation-Life of Sheridan -Daniel Colwall, F.R.S., 484-Horatiana "Sicker"Coleridge and Sainte-Beuve, 485-Grace Darling Monument, 486. QUERIES:- Two Peacocks of Bedfont'-Boak, 446-Early Belgian Pedigrees-Force of Diminutives in Latin Order of Council, 487-Peryam-Windmills-Games in Churchyards-Heraldic-Southwell MSS.-Arms of JennerNational Debt-Nelson's "Little Emma"-Banks in Calcutta-Civil War, 1645-Alley-Name of University
E. Young, 488-The New Help to Discourse-Chinese
Collection-Nickleby Married'-Curious Tenure, 489. REPLIES:-Samuel Pepys, 489-Our Lady of Hate-Marish -St. Emmanuel, 480-Parson of a Moiety of a ChurchThe Giaour,' 491-Heraldic-"Gazette"-Poem Wanted -Coronation Service, 492-Handel's "Harmonious Blacksmith"-Patriot- Our Seven Senses-" Abbeyed "-Ben Jonson-Salter's Picture of the Waterloo Dinner, 493-"A Green Bag Maker"-"To pay in monkey's coin "No Quarter"-Spider Folk-lore, 494-House of Previte-"Luck Money," 495-Gilt-edged Writing-paper-"Running the gantlope"-Fool's Paradise, 496-"Sample"-Books Illustrated by their Authors-"Judgement"-French Prisoners of War-Robert Huish-Topographical Collections, 497Heraldic Anomalies-The Chinese in London-Mitton, 498 -Flags-Thomas Brett, 499. NOTES ON BOOKS:-Powell's 'The Rising in East Anglia in 1381-Burton's Life of John Leland-Channing's United States of America'-Hems's Rood and Other Screens in Devonshire Churches-Proceedings of the New England Historic Genealogical Society.'
ENGLISH WORDS FROM ROMANCE SOURCES. The following words, which have mainly come into the English language from Romance sources, have been discussed by recent etymologists such as Körting and Hatzfelt, and the derivations assigned seem worth noting.
Accoutre, Lat. culcita, cushion, mattress; *culcita; Ital. colcitre; O.Fr. colstre, coutre; hence accoutrer, to cover or dress. The word couture, from coudre, probably influenced the meaning.
Ace, from root ak, to see sharply; cf. Vaniçek, 1, § 10; properly the eye on the die (Körting, 793). Hence as, assis, a unit.
Achieve, *a(c)-capo, to come to the head or end (K., 68; Diez, 545, "Chef").
Agnail, Fr. angonaille, of which the origin seems to have been Lat. angonal (inguen); cf. Ital. anguinaglia for inguinaglia.
Andiron, O. F. andier, ambitarius, environing. Antler, Fr. andouiller; O.Fr. antoillier; *anteoculare, Lat. subst. (K., 603).
Bag, bagatelle, and baggage seem all referable to the same root, bag, which, according to Körting, is probably connected with pac in pac-isc-i, pa-n-g-o, and was productive in the latter shape. O.Fr. bagua, bague, bundle. Possibly bague, ring, that which encloses; bagatelle, small packet, trifle; Fr. bagasse and Ital. bagascia, are from the same root; cf. use of pack in German and paquet in French.
Ball, a dance, and ball, a spherical body, both seem to come from the stem ball, which seems to have been borrowed from the Greek ßáλλew, and the primary meaning will have been to set in circular motion; cf. Ital. ballare, to dance; balla, ballone.
Baron, from baro, originally a simple man; in this sense used by Cicero; then a soldier's servant, cf. scolion to Persius, 'Satires,' v. 138 (0. Jahn); and thus a stout strong man.
Barren, baranea (feminine man), baro, according to Diez, the origin of O.Fr. subst. baraigne (sterile woman); whence N.Fr. bréhaigne.
Bastile, batir, root bast; cf. basterna, a litter made of batons laid across a frame.
Baccara, little jug, from Latin biccarium. Berth, from barth, a west-country word signifying a shelter; perhaps from Cornish loan-word pars. Bice, Ital. bigio, bombīcius, coloured like dark silk.
Bigot, assumed by K. (1175) to come from biga (L.L.), root form of Prov. biga, O.Fr. bigue, a beam; Ital. bigotta, sail-blocks; sbigottire would then mean to throw a ship into confusion by losing the hawsers made fast to blocks.
Blond, connected with Germ. blind; vide Kluge,
Blazon (K., 1243), from O.H. G. blass, so that the meaning would be a white spot on a dark shield.
Bribe, O.H.G. bilibi, bread, not Celtic.
Broider, from broder, which is from bord, German, side of a ship; French border, to bem ; broder, to knit.
Breeze, from brise, the cold north wind called in Italian brezza (K., 1348).
Brush, Celtic; cf. Ir. brosna, bundle of sticks. Cameo surely cannot be separated from the Slavonic kamen', a stone; cf. cam-inus.
Canton, connected with Celtic *cambitos (from root camb-), a bend; so the meaning will be corner, country-side.
Carcase, from carrus, capsa, a chest to contain the flesh; carquois probably comes from carche
Carol, from choraulo, not from Celtic (Körting, 1851).
Carrousel, from Latin carrus, not from gara. Chasuble, probably connected with casaque, and of Slavonic origin.
Cajole, caveolare; cf. enjôier, to entice into a cage (K., 1760).
Charade, caractum (xapaктýs), magic formula engraved on stone (K., 1647).
Camisia (K., 1539), probably originally German, not Celtic, though it passed into French and into its English form chemise from the Celtic.
Chiffonier, chiffon, explained by K. as coming from an interjectional root chip, expressive of disdain.
Leaving to others the task of settling the dates of former calamities caused by a snowless winter and a dry spring, such as the present season, which is increasing the "agricultural depression," I desire here (with the Editor's favour) to give to 'N. & Q.' an old song, newly recovered from tradition, and perfectly genuine, never seen by me in any printed volume, broadside, or single sheet slip-song. It is worth rescuing from Time's wallet, "wherein he puts alms for oblivion." It is of small merit as literature. Let me, therefore, give, as a prelude, the beautiful lines written by dear little "Jeff. Prowse," who died in his thirty-fourth year, at Nice, on 16 January, 1870. "Whom the gods love die young!" All that he left behind him makes us regret his having passed away so soon; but, as he wrote, "It is the pace that kills." He wrote the poem at Cimier, near Nice. I believe
it was in 1868.
THE DROUGHT AND THE RAIN.
The lips of Earth the Mother were black;
And the life of the flowers paused; and the wheat
The secular cypress solemn and still,
Watched, but they watched in vain;
And the glare on the land, the glare on the sea,
The streams were silent, the wells were dry,
With never a drop of rain.
The priests in the town exhumed a saint,
O for the fall of the rain!
11. The Rain.
One night the lift grew ragged and wild.
Moist lips of the mist the mountain kissed,
The emerald wheat leapt gaily to meet
And the roses around, as they woke at the sound,
O beautiful, bountiful rain!
This poem by William Jeffrey Prowse deserves to be remembered; no less than the one beginning "Snow, snow, beautiful snow!" written by some unnamed American girl, " very dear to fancy." Need we recall to mind the splendid description of how "Marseilles lay burning in the sun one day," in the opening chapter of 'Little Dorrit'? Surely yes; since the wretched "new humour" criticlings know nothing of Dickens, who is far above their ken. Here is the disentombed song, which may be called
THE RAIN OF TERROR. Telling what followed the Great Drought. (An Old Song, newly recovered.) Farmer Marks and old Pedro were jogging along (They had both been at market together), They grumbled at this thing, and that thing, as wrong; And they grumbled about the dry weather. They talked of the drought, of the times old and new, They talked of the Saints, and their sins not a few, And they prayed to those Saints for a shower or two, As grumbling they jogged on together. Chorus: Tol lol de rol lol, de riddle lol de ray,
And they prayed to those saints for a shower that day. Now the Saints heard their prayer, for the sky 'gan to cloud,
Which put both the farmers in terror;
And into the church-porch for shelter they fly;
Tol lol, &c.
They talked of the folk, &c.
Old Mark says, "This rain it will glorious be found.
It will shortly bring everything out of the ground;
"Lord forbid!" (said old Pedro) "for 'twould be my
Three wives in this church-yard snugly buried I've got.
Tol lol, &c.
If it rains cats and dogs, &c. (repeat).
'old crusted joke," or
I can remember it as an 66 chestnut," from an early date, before the first so-called Reform Bill of 1832; but never met the song in print. J. WOODFALL EBSWORTH, The Priory, Ashford, Kent.
HARMONY IN VERSE.
(See 8 b S. ix, 225.)
May I supplement MR. YARDLEY's note by pointing out-what I dare say has been noticed by many of Tennyson's readers-how many of the poet's most musical lines owe their music largely to a skilful use of the liquid ? I quote twelve examples, and no doubt a loving search would discover many more. I take first what I thinkspeaking for myself-is Tennyson's most musical single line (in the 'Bugle-Song ') :
The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. If poetry could be too musical, this line would certainly be open to that objection! It is small wonder that Tennyson, according to Mr. Knowles, did not much care to have his songs set to music, feeling, justly, that they carried their own music with them. The Bugle-Song,' however, has been worthily set to music, I think, by Blockley. This wonderfully beautiful line, to use MR. YARDLEY'S language, "is attractive for more than sound." The imaginative beauty of the idea unquestionably
adds to the music of the words.
I have seen it stated that Tennyson himself considered his best single line to be
The mellow ouzel fluted in the elm.
nearly all l's.
The league-long roller thundering on the reef.
A splendid line, worthy of Virgil or Milton. In this instance, however, r contributes as much as I to the power and beauty of the line.
Then the three lines, of which MR. YARDLEY quotes two, in 'The Princess':—
Myriads of rivulets hurrying thro' the lawn,
MR. YARDLEY, MR. THOMAS BAYNE, C. C. B., and other true lovers of poetry, could add, I doubt not, to the foregoing examples of Tennysonian l's. JONATHAN BOUCHIER.
I have been a close student of this subject for many years, and agree with much that your contributor writes, without stating it in the same way. To begin with, I should prefer "melody" to "harmony," because the former conveys a more correct in their component parts and their collective agreeidea of the meaning. Harmony deals with chords of sounds" (Nuttall); and from the examples ment. Melody means an agreeable succession furnished it is evident that what is dealt with is, precisely, the succession of sounds. There have been phases of this subject which have been noticed frequently by eminent authors in the past. Pope's reference to the matter is so well known as to have
become hackneyed; but before his day Chaucer had said: "The wordes moste ben cosin to the dede." Then Coleridge declared-referring, however, rather to prose than poetry-" Wherever you find a sentence musically worded, of true rhythm and melody in the words, there is something deep and good in the meaning too." Mark Pattison put it: "Words over and above their dictionary signification con
Charles Kingsley praises these three lines highly, note all the feeling which has gathered round them as he well may.
by reason of their employment through a hundred generations of song.' And Thomas Ingoldsby comes to the point when, contrasting mellifluous monotones" with their opposites in sound, he speaks of "changing our soft liquids to izzards and xes.” But in all this varied testimony we must seek out the root of the matter, and beware of a very easy pitfall. We are speaking of sounds, not signs, of Vocables, not letters; and the old maxim of the philologist holds good that the consonants count for very little and the vowels for nothing at all. It would be very easy to demonstrate that point, but it would take up too much space. Having got thus far, I should be inclined to assert that vowel sounds play at least as great a part in the music of Poetry as consonant sounds; and, dealing with the
Silent upon a peak in Darien,
I should attribute its success as regards melody to the fact that an e sound occurs three times in the course of the line in the place of the emphasized syllable.
Out of many scores of examples of melodious prosody that I have noted, let me give two. The first dealing with vowel sounds :
The rose-red of the long departed sun,
Sir Lewis Morris. Here we have an open vowel sound in each emphasized syllable, and the same weak vowel sound, 6, in every unemphasized syllable.
The second example, dealing with consonant sounds, is from Fanny Forrester :