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'THE NEW HELP TO DISCOURSE.'-Replying to a query under 'Fool's Paradise' (ante, p. 414), R. R. refers to this book as "said to have been compiled by Edward Phillips," but the copies which I have seen are stated, on the title-pages, to be by "W. W. Gent," who there can be no doubt (from the internal evidence yielded by the book) was William Winstanley, of Saffron Walden. The first edition appears to have been published in 1669, another in 1680, the third in 1684. Lowndes gives dates which do not agree with my notes or with your correspondent's date of the second edition. That the work was popular is evident from the number of editions which appeared; the ninth, much abbreviated, was issued in 1733, with quaint woodcut frontispiece. The question and answer as to the schism of the Adamites appears on p. 93 of the 1684 edition. Will R. R. kindly state whether W. W. appears as author on the title-page of the edition of 1672. If any readers will give dates of other editions than those I have mentioned, the information will be of service for local bibliographical purposes. I. C. GOULD.


CHINESE COLLECTION AT HYDE PARK CORNER. -Can any of your readers tell me what became of the Chinese collection of curios of which W. B. Langdon was curator in 1843? I have a catalogue which claims to be the twenty-fourth English edition. Probably some readers of N. & Q.' have personal recollections of a visit to this show, which must have been highly entertaining at a time when Chinese curiosities were far less common than they have been during the last half century. W. ROBERTS.

86, Grosvenor Road, S.W.

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CURIOUS TENURE OF LANDS.-In Bell's Weekly Messenger, 4 Oct., 1824, is the following (without heading) :

"Some lands are said to be held at Broughton, near Brigg, in Lincolnshire, by the following tenure. Every year, on Palm Sunday, a person from Broughton comes into the church-porch at Caistor, having a green silk purse containing two shillings and a silver lash tied at the end of a cart-whip, which he cracks three times in the porch, and continues there till the second lesson begins, when he goes into the church, and cracks it three times over the clergyman's head, and kneeling before him during the reading of the lesson, he presents the minister with the purse, and then goes into the choir, and continues there during the rest of the service." Can any of your readers explain the probable origin of the custom, and state whether it still exists?



(8th S. ix. 307.)

The words referred to would seem to be the lines

Beauty, retire! Thou dost my pity move! Believe my pity, and then trust my love! addressed by Solyman to Roxolana, in the fourth act of D'Avenant's 'Siege of Rhodes' (second part). The query concerning the music raises an interesting point, which can only be finally settled by reference to the manuscript in the Pepysian Library.

According to the edition of D'Avenant's works by Maidment and Logan the music of the Siege of Rhodes' is lost to us. Perhaps it existed only in MS., and was destroyed in the Great Fire. There are, however, evidences that the second part The direction, "The entry is prepared by instruwas not so elaborately musical as the first had been. mental music," printed at the opening of each act in the first part, is omitted throughout in the second. Nor are the "set" songs so apparent. The first part was acted at Rutland House in 1656. D'Avenant, in his preface, states that it is to be "sung in recitative," but Burney says there is no There are proof that such was actually the case. five "entries," and the music was provided by five composers-Henry Lawes, Matthew Locke, Henry Cooke, Charles Coleman, and George Hudson. It is almost safe to assert that the first three were responsible for the music to the second part.

According to the Cheque - Book,' Lawes was "Clerke of the Checke" in the Chapel Royal in 1661. He enjoyed a great reputation, but his compositions are far from confirming the eulogies of Milton and Waller. Matthew Locke, whose fine Macbeth' music has since been the subject of considerable discussion, was immeasurably superior to either Lawes or Cooke. He wrote the music for the procession on 22 April, 1661, and was "Composer scurrilous controversy with Salmon sufficiently to His Majesty." Locke was not popular, and his attests the bitterness of his nature. Dealing with music in 1660–1, the claims of Capt. Henry Cooke are, perhaps, the strongest.

Like D'Avenant, Cooke fought for Charles I., and his bravery earned him the commission of captain in 1642. He acted the part of Solyman in the first performances of the 'Siege of Rhodes.' At the Restoration he was made master of the boys in the Chapel Royal, and the excellence of some of his pupils (Purcell and Pelham Humphreys, for instance) bears witness to his abilities as a choirmaster. He composed part of the music for the coronation of Charles II., and probably sang in the anthem on that occasion, for he possessed a very fine voice. Antony Wood says that he died of

mortification when Pelham Humphreys supplanted him in public favour.

The claims of Cooke to a large share of the music in the second part of the Siege' might be grounded on more than one reason. He was a personal friend of D'Avenant's, to whom the similarity in their fortunes perhaps commended him. Pepys speaks of him several times. On one occasion Cooke boasted of

"how he directed Sir W. Davenant in the breaking of his verses into such and such lengths, according as would be fit for music, and how he used to swear at Davenant, and command him that way, when Davenant would be angry and find fault with this or that note; a vain coxcomb he is, though he sings and composes 80


From other allusions it is evident that the diarist, though shrewd enough to see his moral deficiencies, had a high opinion of Cooke's talents. The very inclusion of "too many Cook(e)'s" in the second part of the Siege' may have contributed to the failure of the production.

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Pepys heard it in July, 1661, after waiting "a very great while for the King and the Queen of Bohemia." He says it "is indeed very fine and magnificent and well acted." It seems to have failed, notwithstanding, and it was not till the two parts were combined at Lincoln's Inn that it met with success. On this occasion Betterton played the part of Solyman. Whether he sang the song 'Beauty, retire!" is, I should think, doubtful.

If the manuscript is indeed in the Pepysian Library, it would be interesting to know who were responsible for the music of what Dryden calls the first English cpera. GEORGE MARSHALL.

Sefton Park, Liverpool.

OUR LADY OF HATE (8th S. ix. 8, 138, 253).The mention of cursing wells recalls Charles Kingsley's juvenile verses (at. 16), quoted by R. Cowley Powles ("Charles Kingsley: his Letters and Memories of his Life, edited by his wife," third edition, London, 1877, vol. i. p. 28), in which the poet seems to refer to some dark practices in connexion with Trehill Well :

Above the well a little nook
Once held, as rustics tell,
All garland-decked, an image of
The Lady of the Well.

They tell of tales of mystery,

Of darkling deeds of woe,

But no such doings might not brook
The holy streamlet's flow.

O tell me not of bitter thoughts,
Of melancholy dreams,

By that fair fount whose sunny wall
Basks in the Western beams.

In this country legends of vindictive rites, similar to those practised at Our Lady of Hate, are occasionally met with. Evil-minded and ignorant persons are said to have sometimes offered tapers at three shrines simultaneously for the repose of

the soul of some living enemy, or, in like spirit, to have caused an inverted taper to be dedicated in the name of some foe at what are called the "royal gates" in the church. It is superfluous to add that nothing of the kind is, or ever was, tolerated by the ecclesiastical authorities.

Sir D. Mackenzie Wallace, in his 'Russia, vol. i. chap. iv., mentions the case of a peasant who prepares to rob a young attaché of the Austrian Embassy in St. Petersburg, and ultimately kills his victim, but who, before going to the house, enters a church and commends his undertaking to the protection of the saints! As Sir Donald truly remarks, primitive mankind is everywhere and always disposed to regard religion as simply magical power. a mass of mysterious rites, which have a secret H. E. MORGAN.

St. Petersburg.

MARISH (8th S. viii. 305, 456; ix. 217, 293)MR. CHOLMELEY'S homily at the last reference is inaccurate in its statement with reference to myself. I never said that marsh might be employed as an adjective, but I referred to its "adjectival use" in such expressions as marsh-field, marshmarigold, &c.-an opinion which, pace MR. CHOLMELEY, I still retain. Others have gone further, and have defined marsh so used as an adjective. Annandale's 'Imperial Dictionary' has: Marsh, adj. Pertaining to wet, swampy, or boggy places: a term applied to various plants which grow in marshy places; as, marsh-mallow, marsh-marigold." Chambers's Etymological Dictionary' has, sub "Marsh," "adj., pertaining to wet or boggy places.' In Britten and Holland's excellent 'Dictionary of English Plant-names' (E.D.S.), it is stated that "marsh is applied as a qualifying adjective to a great many plant-names " (p. 325).

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Now I am perfectly aware that marsh cannot be used as a full adjective, unless it can be used both attributively and predicatively, and I do not think we ever use it in the latter way. But do we so employ, or have we so employed, marish? Perhaps MR. LYNN will quote some passage in which the word is so used. I cannot at present call to mind any. Bacon, in his Essay 33, Of Plantations,' has in marish and unwholesome grounds," but marsh would make just as good sense. Would Bacon have written, or did he ever write, "the ground is marish"? F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.

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ST. EMMANUEL (8th S. ix. 388).-To such as are acquainted with the Gospel narrative it is obvious that "St. Emmanuel" (like "St. Saviour") is the name of him whose incarnation is commemorated on 25 March. The "St." is strictly adverbial rather than titular. As an English dedication Emmanuel seems to be somewhat recent, and is not mentioned in 'The Calendar of the Anglican Church' (Parker, 1851). Churches so named are mostly of "low church" origin, and their founders

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I refer to the introductory remarks, where Zenker distinctly states that the Turkish G is dur, and also to the body of the work, where the word in dispute is traced through three successive Turkish forms :—

1. Gawer (Zenker's spelling) is apparently now obsolete, but it explains the oldest English forms, Gawar, Gower, in Elizabethan travels.

3. Jawr (quoted by PROF. SKEAT) is not, as he apparently imagines, intended to commence with the English letter j, but with the German sound of that letter, which is, of course, the English y, therefore our equivalent would be Yower, rhyming with bower or power. This pronunciation of Giaour I admit, but did not think it necessary to mention it in my former letter. It arises simply from the dropping of the initial hard G.

2. Gjaur, Gjawr (again Zenker), with the G PARSON OF A MOIETY OF A CHURCH (8th S. ix. 68, 158, 436).-At the last reference a corre-identical with my own. English renderings are (dur), is the present polite pronunciation, and spondent mentions a parish in Somerset with a Giaour and Ghiaour. vicarage and a sinecure rectory. A still more curious case is the parish of Settrington, in Yorkshire, where there was a vicarage, and a rectory, apparently a sinecure. In 1249 the rector petitioned Archbishop Walter de Gray to allow him to hold the vicarage as well. The archbishop consolidated the two, permitting the rector to hold the vicarage, on condition that he should cause the church to be served by a chaplain and minister who shall supply the defects of his imbecility and absence, and that the rector, by himself or another, shall once a year visit the parish, and out of his goods give charitable relief to the poor parishioners, which if he shall not do, the archbishop reserves to himself and his successors the right of revoking the consolidation of the vicarage with the rectory. The explanation of this curious state of things lies, I think, in the fact that in the time when the Domesday Survey was made the church, the manor house, and the bulk of the population were in Buckton, an adjoining manor, but soon after the Conquest the Norman lord of both manors consolidated them and built a new manor house and a new church in Settrington. Buckton now contains two or three farmhouses, one on the site of the old manor house, and there are foundations which mark the site of the old church and several cottages. Buckton is now unknown as a parish or a manor, being merged in Settrington. Buckton seems to have been the original pre-1 -Norman rectory, the vicarage being that of the new church built in Settrington by the Norman lords close to their new manor house. The sinecure rector of Buckton, having lost his church and all but a few of his parishioners, petitions that he may also hold the adjoining vicarage of the place to which the squire and most of the population had migrated, and where he built himself a new glebe house. ISAAC TAYLOR. Settrington.

In passing I may be permitted to ask why PROF. SKEAT repeats that nonsense about Giaour being an Italian spelling, which I disposed of in my first communication. The combination aou can only be used for the English ow in such languages as French or Greek, where the u has an abnormal pronunciation and the normal sound of that vowel is represented by ou. In Italian, where the u is normal, the spelling used for the English This is a matter of elementary ow would be au. phonetics, which PROF. SKEAT must once have known, but has presumably "disremembered." The only portion of his polemic which I have not disposed of is the spelling Djour used by Dr. Clarke, and I frankly confess that I have left this to the last because I know nothing of that gentleman or his writings. If I err, I am content to err with Zenker, and I fancy it will hardly be claimed for Dr. Clarke that he is, like the Holy Roman Emperor, "super grammaticam."


The G of Hebrew Gebel becomes J in the Arabic Jebel, both meaning some forms of a hill. As to Giaour, it is connected with the Hebrew gar, a stranger, proselyte, exactly what we call a "heathen" or unbeliever, and identical with the Hebrew gur or gor, to sojourn-practically, any nomade. A. H.

Your correspondent MR. JAS. PLATT, Jun., is quite correct in his remarks on the pronunciation of this word. The Turks have a habit of slurring 'THE GIAOUR' (8th S. ix. 386, 418).-PROF. over consonants, and even vowels, as in the case of SKEAT, like Balaam, blesses where he intends to Muhammad, which they pronounce Mehmed. The curse. My authorities are the Turkish grammars, Arabic kafir becomes gawir, with a hard g, while corroborated by what I have gleaned from the beg, which the Turks of Central Asia pronounce few natives I have met and such dictionaries as correctly, becomes bey in the mouth of an Osmanli. that very work of Zenker which PROF. SKEAT I have often heard the common title of agha proquotes against me, but which is really on my side.nounced as if written awa.


I am sorry to be at variance in this matter with Zenker, who is in error in calling kafir a Turkish word. It is pure Arabic, though borrowed by Turks, Persians, and other Mohammedan races. My authority, like that of MR. PLATT, is my own ears. It is possible that in some districts the word may be pronounced jawr, but it is not the ordinary Turkish pronunciation. W. F. PRIDEAUX.

HERALDIC (8th S. ix. 327).-Ga., a chev. betw. three fleurs-de-lis arg., is ascribed by Papworth to the name Engs, and as having been incorrectly given in Glover's 'Ordinary, and copied into books of reference and probably used as actual coats. Several families bear this coat with the tinctures varied. A.

Gu., a chev. betw. three fleurs-de-lis ar., for Broun, is the second and third quarters of the arms of Brown-Morison (now Broun-Morison), of Finderlie, co. Kinross, and Maurie and West Errol, co. Perth. Glover's Ordinary of Arms,' in Edmondson's' Heraldry,' gives the name of Engs, but no place or county. JOHN RADCLIFFE.

Furlane, Greenfield, via Oldham.

Gules, a chevron between three fleurs-de-lis argent. This is, or was, the coat of a family named Engs. It is given both in Burke and Papworth. No county is indicated. It does not appear either in Marshall or Bridger. I do not find the name in any directory.


Basingfield, Basingstoke. "GAZETTE" (8th S. ix. 347).-According to the following extract from Historical Essays upon Paris,' translated from the French of M. de Saintfoix (3 vols. 12mo. Lond., 1767), vol. ii. p. 218, it would appear that neither Carlyle nor DR. BREWER was quite right as to the origin of this word :


Theophrastus Renaudot, a physician of Paris, picked up news from all quarters to amuse his Patients; he presently became more in request than any of his brethren; but as a whole City is not ill, or at least don't imagine itself to be so, he begun to reflect at the end of some years, that he might gain a more considerable income, by giving a paper every week, containing the news of different Countries. A permission was necessary; he obtained it with an exclusive privilege, in 1632. Such papers had been in use for a considerable time at Venice, and were called Gazettes, because a small piece of money, called Gazetta, was paid for the reading of them: This is the origin of our Gazette and its name."

Barclay's 'Dictionary,' ed. Medhurst (? 1837), gives :

"Gazetle, s. (of gazetta, a Venetian halfpenny, the price of the newspaper published at Venice) a paper of news, containing mostly foreign articles, and published by authority."

W. I. R. V.

The two accounts of the origin of this word are not irreconcilable. Isaac D'Israeli "On Origin of Newspapers," in his 'Curiosities of Literature,'

may afford some aid. Affirming that we are indebted to the Italians for the idea of newspapers, he says:

"The title of their gazettas was perhaps derived from gazzera, a magpie or chatterer; or more probably from a farthing coin, peculiar to the city of Venice, called gazetta, which was the common price of the newspapers. Another etymologist is for deriving it from the Latin gaza, which would colloquially lengthen into gazetta, and it from the Latin gaza, and likewise their gazatero and signify a little treasury of news. The Spanish derive our gazetteer for a writer of the gazette, and, what is peculiar to themselves, gazetista, for a lover of the gazette." F. JARRATT.

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POEM WANTED (8th S. ix. 447).-This poem is by Sir Henry Yule, and is entitled 'The Birkenhead.' It will be found in 'Lyra Heroica' (1892, p. 262), and was apparently originally published in the Edinburgh Courant in 1852. I can supply H. R. N. with a copy of the poem if he wishes it. A. C. W.

A poem on the loss of the Birkenhead was written by Sir F. H. Doyle. Consult N. & Q.,' 7th S. vi. 108, 194; xii. 280, 334; to which add Smiles, 'Self Help,' 1860, p. 351. W. C. B.

CORONATION SERVICE (8th S. ix. 446).-"The tion of Her most Sacred Majesty Queen Victoria Ceremonies to be observed at the Royal Coronain the Abbey Church of Westminster on Thursday, the twenty-eighth day of June, MDCCCXXXVIII, were printed in rich black ink on white satin, in sixteen pages, large folio, by Samuel Bentley.

After the ceremony a quarto volume of 20 pp., printed in blue ink upon white satin by Clarke, was also issued, and, in addition to the particulars of the service, gives the names of those who were present, in their "robes of estate," and in the order of precedence.

In the above volumes will be found the marshal

ling of the State Procession to the Abbey-The Reception there-The Princesses of the Blood Royal-The Regalia (including St. Edward's staff)

The Princes of the Blood Royal-The Arrangement of the Queen's Entourage-The Recognition The First Offering (of an altar cloth and ingot)The Litany-The Communion Service-Sermon (by the Bishop of London)-The Coronation Oath

The Anointing-The Presentation of the Spurs -The Sword of State (the other swords were the pointed Sword of Temporal Justice, the pointed Sword of Spiritual Justice, and the Curtana or Sword of Mercy)-The Offering of the Sword (which was "redeemed for One Hundred Shillings by Viscount Melbourne")-The Investing with

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the Mantle, or Dalmatic Robe, and the Orb-with the Ring, of Ruby-with the Sceptres (one with the Cross and one with the Dove)-The Crowning by the Archbishop of Canterbury, with St. Edward's Crown,


"when the people with loud and repeated shouts will God save the Queen!' and immediately the Peers and Peeresses present will put on their Coronets; the Bishops their Caps; and the Kings of Arms their Crowns; the trumpets sounding; the drums beating; the Tower and Park Guns firing by Signal."

-The_Exhortation-and Anthem-The Delivery of the Bible-The Benediction and Te Deum-The Inthronization-The Homage in order of precedence and creation-The Anthem meanwhile "The Treasurer of Her Majesty's Household will throw about the Medals of the Coronation "-The Holy Sacrament-The Second Offering (a purse of gold) —Anthem, and the Blessing-The Procession of Departure. R. B.


It is a little difficult to answer the question of an OLD SUBSCRIBER; but the difficulty does not arise from lack of matter, but rather from some uncertainty as to the exact intention of the querist. If he desires information as to the ancient forms of the Coronation Service, he can hardly do better than turn to Mr. Maskell's 'Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesiae Anglicans' (second edition, vol. ii.). Here he will find an excellent dissertation upon the Coronation Office (pp. iii-lxxiv), and the ancient office itself (pp. 3-62), followed by a very important appendix, containing the order of the Coronation of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, and the order of the Coronation of Her Majesty Queen Adelaide as Queen-Consort.

Should he wish for still further information, I will venture to direct him to a very interesting volume, edited for the Henry Bradshaw Society by the Rev. Christopher Wordsworth, 'The Manner of the Coronation of King Charles the First of England at Westminster, 2 February, 1626.' Here is a rich fund of information on the subject of the Coronation Office, with copious and really valuable notes. The title-page gives little idea of the actual extent of the volume.

If, however, an OLD SUBSCRIBER only desires to meet with the most recent form of the office, copies of the order used at the Coronation of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen are of by no means rare occurrence. W. SPARROW SIMPSON.

[Many other replies are acknowledged.] HANDEL'S "HARMONIOUS BLACKSMITH" (8th S. ix. 203, 230, 311, 354, 456).-I am glad to have an ally in MR. GEORGE MARSHALL, and have only to add the fact that Wagenseil was born in Vienna on 15 January, 1715. Handel was at that date resident in London, teaching the young princesses the harpsichord. It was for

them he composed the music known as the 'Suites des Pièces'; these pieces were engraved and published in November, 1720. W. H. CUMMINGS.

PATRIOT (8th S. viii. 367, 517).—Prof. SkeaT states that he has shown, in his 'Etymological Dictionary,' that this word occurs in Minsheu's 'Dictionary,' ed. 1627. This edition is not mentioned in Mr. H. B. Wheatley's 'Chronological Notices of the Dictionaries of the English Language,' Philological Society's Transactions, 1865. The second edition, he says, was printed 22 July, 1625, and was published in 1626. My copy, 1617, has: "A patriot or countryman. G. Patrióte." Milton uses the word in his 'Answer to Eikon

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BEN JONSON AND THE TRIBUTARIES OF THE TRENT (8th S. ix. 285).-In Drayton's 'PolyOlbion' (song xxvi. ll. 31–36) :—

Nor barren am I of brooks, for that I still retain
Two neat and dainty rills, the little Snyte, and Deane,
That from the lovely oulds, their beautious parent sprong
Till both within one bank, they on my North are meint,
From the Lecestrian fields, come on with me along,
And where I end, they fall, at Newarck, into Trent.

Public Library, Nottingham.

SALTER'S PICTURE OF THE WATERLOO DINNER (8th S. ix. 366, 416).—It is possible that Sir Edward Graham Moon, Bart. (son of Alderman Sir Francis Moon, the publisher of the engraving from Salter's picture), Fetcham Rectory, near Leatherhead, may be able to give some information as to the whereabouts of the engraved picture. There is a portrait of Alderman Moon in the left-hand corner of the

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