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of Cerne.” This, after all, is in general little more than an enumeration of nations, towns, and distances, though intermixed with some occasional notices of natural productions, and in a few instances detailing the common fables of the age. It concludes with an account of the passages across the sea from Greece into Asia, and an enumeration of twenty important islands, in the order of their magnitudes. A question has been raised, whether the Periplus remaining, be the work of the ancient Scylax, or of some later writer ; and critics of high rank in literature have taken opposite sides. It is almost certain, that the ancients possessed the extant Periplus, and that they attributed it to the Scylax mentioned by Herodotus.

ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE.

CTESIFONTE, CHERSIFONTE, or CTESIPHON, the architect who designed the famous temple of Diana at Ephesus, about 550 years before the Christian era. This edifice, which was two hundred years in building, was commenced under his direction, and continued under that of Metagenes,

his son ; and is the same which was afterwards fired by Erostratus, actuated, as it is said, in this barbarous enterprize, by no other motive than that of immortalizing his name. He invented a machine that was used to transport the columns of the temple from the quarries from which they are hewn, to the building of which they were to make part. This machine consisted of a square frame of wood, of sufficient dimensions to enclose a whole column, with a socket at each end, in which certain strong iron pivots, proceeding from the column itself, were received. By this contrivance, the column became a kind of rolling-stone.

BUPALUS, a celebrated sculptor, and native of the island of Chios, was the son, grandson, and great grandson of sculptors. He had a brother named Athenis, of the same profession, they flourished about the sixtieth Olympiad, and were contemporary with Hipponax, a poet of an ugly and despicable figure. Our sculptors diverted themselves in representing him under a ridiculous form. But Hipponax wrote so sharp a satire against them, that they hanged themselves. Pliny, however, does not allow this, but says, " that after Hipponax had taken his revenge, they made several fine statues, particularly a Diana at Chios, which was placed very high, and appeared with a frowning countenance to those that came in, and with a . pleasant one to those that went out. There were several statues at Rome made by them, and they worked only in the white marble of the isle of Paros. Pausanias mentions Bupalus as a good architect as well as a sculptor, but says nothing of Athenis.

ATHENIS, a Chian sculptor, son of Micciades, and grandson to Malas. He and his brother Bupalus made a statue of the poet Hipponax, which caused universal laughter, on account of the deformity of its countenance. The poet was so incensed upon this, and inveighed with so much bitterness against the statuaries, that they hanged themselves, according to the opinion of some authors.

CALLIMACHUS, a celebrated architect, painter, and sculptor, born at Corinth, who having seen by accident a vessel about which the plant, called acanthus, had raised its leaves, conceived the idea of forming the Corinthian capital. The ancients assure us, that he worked in marble with wonderful delicacy. He flourished about B.C. 540.

MEDICINE.

DEMOCEDES, a celebrated physician of Crotona, son of Calliphon, and intimate with Polycrates. He was carried as a prisoner from Samos to Darius, king of Persia, where he acquired great riches and much reputation by curing the king's foot, and the breast of Atossa. He was sent to Greece as a spy by the king, and fled away to Crotona, where he married the daughter of the wrestler, Milo.

HEROPHILUS, an ancient physician, born in Chalcedon, about B. C. 506. He was an accurate anatomist, and is said to have discovered the lacteal vessels.

AGNODICE, an Athenian virgin, who disguised her sex to learn medicine. She was taught by Herophilus the art of midwifery, and when employed, always discovered her sex to her patients. This brought her into so much practice, that the males of her profession, who were now out of employment, accused her before the Areopagus, of corruption. She confessed her sex to the judge, and a law was immediately made to empower all free-born women to learn midwifery.

PHILINUS, a physician, born in the island of Cos, was a disciple of Herophilus. He was a distinguished member of the imperial sect, of which, indeed, he divides the honour with Serapion and Alexandria, of being esteemed the founder. He is said, by Athenæus, to have been the author of a treatise on herbs, and of some commentaries on the works of Hippocrates. PERIOD XI,

FROM ARTAXERXES I. TO PHILIP II.

[B. C. 500.]

REMARKABLE FACTS, EVENTS, AND DISCOVERIES.

B.C. 498 Lacrtius created the first dictator at Rome. 497 The Saturnalia instituted. The number of Roman citizens 150,700. 493 Tribunes created at Rome. 490 The battle of Marathon, September 28th. 486 Æschylus, the Greek poet, first gains the prize of tragedy. 483 Questors created at Rome. 481 Xerxes, king of Persia, begins his expedition against Greece. 480 The defence of Themopylæ by Leonidas, and the sea-fight at Sa

lamis. 476 The number of Roman citizens reduced to 103,000. 469 The third Messenian war. 466 The number of Roman citizens increased to 124,214. 458 Ezra sent from Babylon to Jerusalem, with the captive Jews, and the

vessels of gold and silver, &c. being 490 years before the cruci.

fixion of our Saviour. 456 The secular games first celebrated at Rome. 454 The Romans sent to Athens for Solon's laws. 451 The Decemvirs crcated at Rome, and the law of the twelve tables com

piled and ratified. 449 The Decemvirs banished. 445 Military tribunes created at Rome. 443 Censors created at Rume. 432 The melonic cycle began July 15th. 431 The Peloponnesian war began, wbich lasted twenty-seven years. 430 The history of the Old Testament concludes; Malachi the last of the

prophets. 405 The Athenians entirely defeated by Lysander, which cccasions the

loss of the city, and ruin of the Athenian power. 401 The retreat of 10,000 Greeks under Xenophon. The thirty tyrants

expelled from Athens, and democratic government restored. 400 Socrates, the founder of moral philosophy among the Grecks, pat to

death for his sublime doctrives, by the Athenians, who soon after repent, and erect a statue of brass to his memory.

DURING this period, the volatile and giddy temper of the Greeks, with their enthusiastic desire of romantic exploits, were preparing fetters for themselves, which indeed seemed to be necessary to prevent them from destroying one another. A zeal for liberty was what they all avowed ; but, on every occasion, it appeared that this love of liberty was only a desire of dominion. No state in Greece could bear to see another equal to itself; and hence their perpetual contests for pre-eminence, which could not but weaken the whole body, and render them an easy prey to their enemies, who were capable of taking advantage of those divisions. Being impatient of restraint, they never could long submit to any regular government; and hence their determinations were often nothing but the decisions of a mere mob, of which they had afterwards almost constantly reason to repent. Hence also their base treatment of those eminent men whom they ought most to have honoured; as Miltiades, Aristides, Themistocles, Cimon, Alcibiades, Socrates, Phocian, &c. In B. C. 404, the Athenian power was totally broken by the taking of their city by the Spartans. Egypt had been annexed by Cambyses to the Persian empire, and during the present period, the Egyptians made several desperate attempts to recover their liberty ; they were however unsuccessful, and became in consr. quence completely humbled.

GOVERNMENT.

ARTAXERXES I., king of Persia, surnamed Longimanus, from the uncommon length of his arms, was the youngest son of Xerxes, and was raised to the throne B.C. 464, by Artabanus, the captain of the guards, who had privately murdered his father ; but persuaded the young prince, that his elder brother Darius had done it; whereupon, assisted by the guards, he killed Darius in his bedchamber. But the murder and treason being afterwards discovered, Artabanus suffered the punishment he merited. Some reckon this king the Ahasuerus who married Esther ; but, be that as it may, it is certain that he greatly favoured the Jews, by not only authorizing them to return to Judea, and rebuild Jerusalem, but also to collect money for the use of their temple ; as well as by remitting their tribute, by encouraging their worship, and by making them many valuable presents, &c. See his letter to Ezra, vii. 10—26.

AHASUERUS, king of Persia, the husband of Esther. Whether this be the same person as the preceding, we cannot decide. We are informed this Ahasuerus made a magnificent feast, in the palace of Shushan for the principal persons in his empire. This feast lasted one hundred and four score days, or six months. After the time was expired, the king invited all the people, both great and small, in the palace of Shushan, and entertained them during seven days. Vashti, the queen, also treated the women in the king's palace. On the seventh

wife.

day, Ahasuerus, who was more gay than usual, and warmed with wine, ordered his principal eunuchs to bring the queen, and produce her before the people, that they might have an opportunity of observing her beauty. But as Vashti refused to come, the king was so provoked, that he called a council to consider the conduct of the queen. The council declared it advisable that the king should divorce her and take another

Ahasuerus without delay caused the finest women in his dominions to be selected, for his choice of a companion in the room of Vashti. The number of virgins collected for the king's approbation, amounted to four hundred, who were brought by turns to the king. But when, in the course of the rotation, Esther was presented, her personal charms, and engaging demeanour, made such an impression upon Ahasuerus; that he gave her the preference to all the others, and made her his wife. Esther was a Jewess, the niece of Mordecai, one of the principal of the captive Jews. Ahasuerus was so intoxicated with the felicity he enjoyed, that he made no inquiry relative to the country or extraction of his fair bride.

Upon this unexpected elevation of Esther, her uncle, Mordecai, removed from Babylon to Susa, where he often waited at the gate of the palace, in hopes of being able sometimes to obtain a sight of his much loved niece, and that he might the more readily hear of her welfare.

About this time Ahasuerus passed an ordinance, importing, that none of his household should presume to approach his presence while he was seated on his throne, and engaged in the administration of justice, on forfeiture of their lives. As the king then usually sat with a golden sceptre in his hand, unless that was extended to the persons offending, and they were permitted to kiss it, nothing could exempt them from the penalty.

It happened, not long after, that two of the chamberlains, or eunuchs, whose names were Bigthan and Teresh, entered into a conspiracy against the person of their royal måster. Barnabarus, a servant to one of the conspirators, who was a Jew by extraction, discovered this treachery to Mordecai, the queen's uncle ; and, through the medium of Esther, the king was apprised of his danger. Enquiry was accordingly made into the affair, and the traitors being convicted, suffered for their crime. For this service Mordecai received no other reward than that of having the transaction entered in the records of the state, and being allowed the privilege of admission to the palace, on the same footing as the domestics.

An Amalekite, of the name of Haman, had now become the favourite of Ahasuerus; and, as the favourites of monarchs usually do, he thought himself entitled to the most servile adu

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