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safety. As they proceeded, they were continually harassed by the cavalry and light troops of the enemy, and exposed to the want of every necessary. Many were cut off, and at length Demosthenes, with the whole rear-guard, was forced to surrender. Nicias, with the van, arrived exhausted at the river Asinarus, and while they were crossing it, and quenching their extreme thirst, the Syracusan cavalry, riding among them, made great slaughter, without meeting with the slightest resistance. The greater part was killed. Nicias and a small body surrendered, upon condition that the slaughter should cease. The Syracusans, after a day of triumph, assembled to determine the fate of their captives, and they resolved to put the generals, at least, to death. Nicias and Demosthenes being informed of the determination, prevented it by a voluntary termination to their lives. This terrible disaster happened in the year B. C. 413. Nicias appears to have been a man of virtue, and a sincere lover of his country. His manners were mild, and his principles were humane and pacific.

LAIS, the famous courtezan, born at Hyrcania, a small city in Sicily; and being carried into Greece by Nicias the Athenian general, began her conquests by music. Almost all the celebrated courtezans of antiquity were originally musicians. According to Athenæus, lib. xiii., music was thought a necessary female accomplishment in the time of Darius, for Parmenio wrote Alexander word, that he had taken at Damascus three hundred and twenty-nine of the Persian Monarch's concubines prisoners, who were all well skilled in music, and performed on the flute and other instruments. Lais was supposed to be the daughter of the courtezan Timandra and Alcibiades. She began first to exercise her powers of enchantment at Corinth in Greece. She is often called the Corinthian, from having passed great part of her life in that voluptuous city. She set so high a price on her favours, that Demosthenes, of whom she required for one night ten thousand drachmas, refusing to comply with her demands, said, “he would not buy repentance at so high a price." As a caprice, she was more indulgent to the disgusting cynic Diogenes. Aristippus, another philosopher, but much more amiable, almost ruined himself in sacrifices to this terrestrial divinity, who loved him less than Diogenes. When he was rallied on her coldness, he said, "I cannot flatter myself that either wine or fish is in love with me, yet I enjoy, and feed on them both with great pleasure." This female sometimes ridiculed the fidelity of the philosophers whom she had captivated. "I do not understand what is meant by the austerity of philosophers, for with this fine name, they are as much in my power as the rest of the Athenians." After having corrupted all the youth of Corinth and Athens, she went into Thessaly to see a young

man with whom she was in love, when, it is said, that some women, jealous of her beauty, assassinated her in the temple of Venus.

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LAMACHUS, a son of Xenophanes, sent into Sicily with Nicias. He was killed B. C. 414, before Syracuse, where he displayed much courage and intrepidity.

ALCIBIADES, son of Clinias, an Athenian, was one of the most splendid and remarkable characters of the age in which he lived-the golden age of Greece! Nobly born, rich, handsome, vigorous, endowed with an excellent understanding, and every quality that could inspire love and esteem, he wanted only principle and steadiness to render him a truly great man. He early displayed the ruling passion of his life, that of surpassing others, and accomplishing every thing on which he set his mind. One adventure in his childhood is very characteristic of his temper. Being at play with other boys in the street, it was his turn to throw something across the way. A loaded waggon coming up at the instant, he called on the drive to stop for him. The driver, regardless of his request, whipped on his horses, and the other boys cleared the road; but Alcibiades threw himself on the ground directly before the waggon, and bade the man to drive on if he thought fit. This resolution caused the waggoner, in a fright, immediately to stop his horses. Such a child could not turn out a common youth. He soon exhibited strong passions, irregularity of conduct, and a strange mixture of levity and seriousness. His beauty rendered him a very general object of that love which appears sometimes to have been a pure, sometimes an ambiguous, sometimes a scandalous attachment among the Greeks. It was his fortune to excite the virtuous affection of Socrates; and that philosopher took uncommon pains to correct all that was wrong in him, and train him to honourable pursuits and just principles; and though he was not entirely successful, his pupil seems never totally to have lost the benefit of his instruc


Several anecdotes of his youth display the vivacity of his temper and his understanding. Going one day into a grammar school, he asked for a volume of Homer, and the master answering him that he had none, Alcibiades gave him a box on the ear and walked out; by which action he meant to imply, that the person who was not conversant with Homer, was unfit to superintend the education of youth. He once called at the house of Pericles, his relation and guardian, in order to speak to him; and, being told that Pericles was busy in studying the accounts he was to lay before the people, "He had better," said Alcibiades, "study how to avoid giving them any account at all." One day, in a mere frolic, and in consequence of a promise to his companions, he gave a box on the

ear to Hipponicus, a respectable man of rank and fortune. This act of insolence was talked of through the city, and various expectations prevailed of the event. Early next morning, Alcibiades went to the house of Hipponicus, and, being admitted into his presence, stripped himself, and offered his naked body to be chastised as he pleased. This humiliation disarmed the resentment, and engaged the esteem of Hipponicus, so that some time after he gave him his daughter Hipparete in marriage.

Alcibiades early engaged in the military service of his country. He lived at the time when his country was a scene of confusion. The Greeks, grown insolent from their conquest in Persia, turned their arms against each other, under the conduct of the most opulent states of Athens and Lacedæmon. Alcibiades, in the midst of an expedition he had planned against the enemy, was recalled home to answer some charge of a private nature; but fearing the malice of his enemies, instead of going to Athens, he offered his services to Sparta, where they were readily accepted. By his advice the Lacedæmonians made a league with Persia, which gave a favourable turn to their affairs. But his credit in the republic giving rise to jealousies against him, he privately reconciled himself to his country, and took again the command of an Athenian army. Here victory attended all his motions. The loss of several battles obliged the Spartans to sue for peace. He enjoyed his triumphs, however, only a short time at Athens, one unsuccessful event making it expedient for him to retire. In his absence the Spartans again took the lead, and at the fatal battle of Æges entirely subdued the Athenian power. Alcibiades, though an exile, endeavoured to restore the power of his country; of which the Spartans having intelligence, procured him to be assassinated. He was a man of admirable accomplishments, but indifferent principles; of great parts; and of an amazing versatility of genius.

DEMOSTHENES, an Athenian general, sent to succeed Alcibiades in Sicily. He attacked Syracuse with Nicias, but his efforts were ineffectual. After many calamities, he fell into the enemy's hands, and his army was confined to hard labour.

THRASYBULUS, an eminent Athenian, was the son of Lycus, and the restorer of liberty to his country. When the government of the four hundred succeeded the overthrow of the democracy in the year B. C. 411, he was commander of a galley; and in connection with Thrasyllus, he destroyed the aristocracy in the camp at Samos, and re-established democracy there; and then proposed the recall of Alcibiades, in exile at Magnesia, and restored him to his country. Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus, having pursued the Peloponnesian fleet, brought it

to an action in the Straits between Sestos and Abydos, in which the Athenians captured twenty ships of the enemy, with the loss of fifteen of their own. Another engagement soon after occurred, and the result of the arrival of Alcibiades's squadron was a complete victory on the part of the Athenians. When Alcibiades was made general of the Athenian forces both by sea and land, he nominated Thrasybulus for one of his colleagues; but a misunderstanding afterwards taking place between them, Thrasybulus impeached Alcibiades before an assembly of the Athenians, and procured his disgrace. On occasion of the establishment of the thirty tyrants at Athens by the influence of the Lacedæmonians, Thrasybulus was one of several other citizens who took refuge in the Theban territory; and zealous for the emancipation of his country from servitude, he engaged a small body of fugitives to join him in an expedition to Attica, and took possession of the important fortress of Phyla, on the frontiers of Boeotia. Besieged by the Greeks, Thrasybulus by his activity repulsed them, and even followed them, in their disorder, to Athens. Having also surprised a post which they occupied near Phyla, the thirty tyrants removed from Athens to Eleusis, and Thrasybulus seized this opportunity of attacking the Piræus, and his enterprise succeeded. He then issued a proclamation, animating the Athenians to resist their tyrants, and to restore a free government. Having done this, he established himself in the Piræus. The constitution of Athens was then changed, by substituting instead of the thirty tyrants, ten magistrates, one from each tribe. The Lacedæmonians still retained their influence over these magistrates, who sent to Sparta soliciting assistance against Thrasybulus. At length, however, this resolute commander prevailed so as to open a negociation between the Athenians and the Spartan government, which terminated in the withdrawing of the Spartan garrison, and the re-establishment of a popular constitution at Athens. This happy close of the contest was followed by the union of citizens of both parties, in a solemn thanksgiving to Minerva, at her temple in the citadel, when Thrasybulus exhorted them to future concord. The remaining tyrants at Eleusis endeavoured to foment dissensions in Athens; but the business terminated in an act of amnesty or oblivion, which was passed by the influence of Thrasybulus in the assembly of the people, and ratified by an oath. This revolution happened in the year B. C. 401. In accomplishing this event, Thrasybulus acted with the most disinterested patriotism; for the thirty tyrants, when he seized the castle of Phyla, had offered to make him one of their number, and to pardon any twelve of the exiles whom he might name; to which offer he replied, that exile was much more honourable than any civil authority purchased on such conditions. Thrasybulus re

mained for some time in unmolested retirement, enjoying the honour accompanying the olive wreath, which, according to the simple manners of the age, was bestowed upon him for his services. But in the year B. C. 390, after the death of Conon, the foreign possessions and influence of the Athenians were in danger of being lost; and therefore a fleet of forty ships was placed under the command of Thrasybulus, with which he sailed to the Hellespont. On this occasion he induced two Thracian provinces to become allies to Athens, and compelled the Byzantines and the inhabitants of some other cities to abolish the aristocratical governments, and accept of the Athenian model and alliance. He next proceeded against the isle of Lesbos, in the Lacedæmonian interest, and reduced the whole island to obedience. Thence he sailed for Rhodes, having previously raised supplies from the maritime towns of Asia, and the capital of Pamphylia. He also indulged his men in private pillage; and thus so much provoked the inhabitants, that they made an attack in the night on the tents, and put a number of the Athenians to the sword, among whom was Thrasybulus himself. Such was the inglorious termination of a life that had been devoted to the benefit of his native country.

CONON, a renowned Athenian general and admiral, who flourished about B. C. 395. After his defeat by Lysander, he fled to Evagoras King of Cyprus. After which he put himself under the protection of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, with whose army he delivered Athens from its oppressors, and rebuilt its walls. In the 360th year of Rome, he beat the Lacedæmonians in a sea fight near Cnidus, upon the coast of Asia, deprived them of the sovereign rule they had on sea ever since the taking of Athens, and gained some other considerable advantages over them; but falling into the hands of Teribazus a Persian, who envied his glory, he was put to death.

TIMOTHEUS, an Athenian general, son of Conon. He signalised himself by his valour and magnanimity, and showed that he was not inferior to his great father in military prudence. He seized Corcyra, and obtained several victories over the Thebans, but his ill success in one of his expeditions disgusted the Athenians, and Timotheus, like the rest of his noble predecessors, was fined a large sum of money. He retired to Chalcis, where he died. He was so disinterested, that he never appropriated any of the plunder to his own use, but after one of his expeditions, he filled the treasury of Athens with 1200 talents. Some of the ancients, to intimate his continual successes, have represented him sleeping by the side of Fortune, whilst the goddess drove cities into his net.

PHILOCLES, one of the admirals of the Athenian fleet during the Peloponnesian war. He recommended to his

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