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two naked boys playing at a game, by his hand, which was considered as a perfect performance. It was peculiar to him, that he formed almost all his figures supported on one thigh, which made them appear deficient in variety.

SCOPAS, a celebrated Grecian architect and sculptor, a native of Ephesus, or, as some say, of the isle of Paros. He flourished about B. C. 430. He built the famous mausoleum for

queen Artemisia, which was esteemed one of the seven wonders of the world. But his chief work was a statue of Venus, which he carried to Rome, where it was esteemed superior even to that of Praxiteles.

ICTINUS, a celebrated Greek architect, who lived about B. C. 430, built several magnificent temples, and among others that of Minerva, at Athens.

ANDRONICUS, of Cyorbrus, built at Athens an octagon tower, with figures carved on each side, representing eight principal winds. A brass triton at the summit, with a rod in its hand, which turning with the wind, pointed to the quarter whence it blew. From this model is derived the custom of placing the weathercocks on steeples.

MEDICINE:

METRODORUS, a Greek physician, born at Chios, was the disciple of Democritus, the philosopher, and the master of Hippocrates, the physician, and Anaxarchus, the philosopher. He maintained that the universe is infinite and eternal; but his works are lost. He lived about B. C. 444.

HERODICUS, a physician, sirnamed Gymnastic, who flourished B. C. 443.

ACRON, a celebrated physician of Agrigentum, in Sicily, flourished, according to Priestley, B. C. 439. In his time, Athens was visited by the plague, which he is said to have expelled by burning perfumes to purify the air; a maxim he perhaps learned in Egypt. He wrote some physical tracts in the Doric dialect, which time has long since destroyed.

HIPPOCRATES, the greatest physician of antiquity, was born in the island of Cos, in the eightieth Olympiad, B. Č. 450, and flourished during the Peloponnesian war. He was the first on record who laid down precepts concerning physic; and, according to his biographer, Socrates, was descended from Hercules and Æsculapius. He was first a pupil of his father, Heraclides, then of Herodicus, then of Gorgias, of Leontium, the orator, and, according to some, of Democritus, of Abdera, After being instructed in physic and the liberal arts, and losing his parents, he left Cos, and practised physic all over Greece ; where he was so much admired for his skill, that he was publicly sent for with Euryphon, a man superior to him in years, to Perdiccas, king of Macedonia, who was then thought to be consumptive; but Hippocrates, as soon as he arrived, pronounced the disease to be entirely mental; for, upon the death of Alexander, Perdiccas fell in love with Philas, his father's mistress, which Hippocrates discerning by the great change her presence always wrought upon him, a cure was soon effected. Being entreated by the people of Abdera to come and cure Democritus of a supposed madness, he went; but, upon his arrival, instead of finding Democritus mad, he pronounced all his fellow-citizens so, and Democritus the only wise man among them. He heard many lectures, and learned much philosophy from him; which made Celsus and others imagine that Hippocrates was the disciple of Democritus, though it is probable they never saw each other till this interview. Hippocrates had also public invitations to other countries. Thus when a plague invaded the Illyrians and Pæonians, the kings of those countries begged him to come to their relief. He did not go; but learning from the messengers the course of the winds there, he concluded that the distemper would come to Athens; and, foretelling what would happen, applied himself to take care of the city and the students. He was, indeed, such a lover of Greece, that when his fame had reached as far as Persia, and Artaxerxes entreated him, with a promise of great rewards, to come to him, he refused to go. He also delivered his own country from a war with the Athenians, that was just ready to break out, by prevailing with the Thessalians to come to his assistance, for which he received very great honours from the Coans. The Athenians also honoured him greatly; they admitted him next to Hercules in the Eleusinian ceremonies; gave him the freedom of the city; and voted a public maintenance for him and his family in the prytenæum at Athens, where none were maintained but such as had done signal service to the state. He died among the Larissæans, some say in his ninetieth year, some in his eighty-fifth, others in his hundred and fourth, and some in his hundred and ninth. The best edition of his works is that of Foesius, in Greek and Latin. Hippocrates wrote in the Ionian dialect. His aphorisms, prognostics, and all that he has written on the symptoms of diseases, justly pass for master-pieces.

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PERIOD XII.

FROM PHILIP II. TO PTOLEMY EUERGETES.

[B. C. 400.]

REMARKABLE FACTS, EVENTS, AND DISCOVERIES.

cusan war.

B.C. 394 The Corinthian war begun. 390 Rome burnt by the Gaals. 387 The peace of Antalcidas between the Greeks and Persians. The

number of Roman citizens amounted to 152,583. 384 Dionysius begins the first Punic war. 379 The Peotian war commences. 375 A general combination of the Greek states against the Lacedæ.

monians. 371 The Lacedæmonians defeated by Epaminondas at Leuctra. 367 Prætors established in Rome. The Licinian law passed. 363 Epaminondas killed at the battle of Mantinea. 358 The social war begun. 357 Dionysius expelled from Syracuse. 356 The sacred war begun in Greece. Alexander the Great born. 343 Dionysius II. expelled from Syracuse. Commencement of the Syra338 Philip of Macedon gains the battle of Chæronea, and thus attains to

the sovereignty of Greece. 335 Thebes taken and razed by Alexander the Great. 334 'The Persians defeated at Granicus, May 22. 333 "The Persians defeated at Issus. 332 Alexander takes Tyre, and marches to Jerusalem. 331 Alexandria built. Darius entirely defcated at Arbela. 330 Alexander takes Babylon, and the principal cities of the Persian em

pire. The Calippic period commences. 328 Alexander passes Mount Caucasus, and marches into India. 327 He defeats king Porus, and founds several cities. 326 The famous sedition of Corcyra. 324 Alexander dies at Babylon. 323 His dominions divided by his officers. 316 His mother and family murdered. 308 The cities of Greece recovered their liberties for a short time. 307 Antioch, Seleucia, Laodicea, and other cities, founded by Seleucns. 301 Antigonus defeated and killed at Ipsus.

In B. C. 371 the Spartans received a severe check from the Thebans at the battle of Leuctra ; and eight years after was still further reduced by the battle of Mantinea. Epaminondas, the great enemy of the Spartans, was killed; but this only proved a more speedy means of subjugating all the states to a foreign, and, at that time, a despicable power. The Macedonians, a barbarous nation, lying to the north of Greece, were, two years after the death of Epaminondas, reduced to the lowest condition by the Illyrians, another nation of barbarians in the neighbourhood. The king of Macedon being killed in an engagement, Philip II., ascended the throne, who formed the ambitious project of bringing under his dominion the whole of Greece. Philip began the conquest of Persia ; and Alexander, his son, prosecuted the designs of his father, to whom the Persian empire submitted, B. C. 330. Rome, under the consulate, went through various fortunes at this period, which, with the affairs of other nations, the reader will be fully apprise: of in the perusal of the lives of the different characters in the succeeding pages of this section.

GOVERNMENT.

PHILIP II., king of Macedon, was the fourth son of Amyntas II. He was sent to Thebes as an hostage by his father, where he learned the art of war under Epaminondas, and studied the manners and the pursuits of the Greeks. He discovered, from his earliest years, that quickness of genius and greatness of courage which afterwards procured him so great a name. On the death of his brother, Perdiccas III., he ascended the throne, as guardian of his nephew, Amyntas III., whom he got deposed, B. C. 360. The neighbouring nations, ridiculing the youth and inexperience of the new king of Macedonia, appeared in arms; but Philip soon convinced them of their error. Unable to meet them as yet in the field of battle, he suspended their fury by presents, and soon turned his arms against Amphipolis, a colony tributary to the Athenians. Amphipolis was conquered, and added to the kingdom of Macedonia; and Philip meditated no less than the destruction of a republic, which had rendered itself so formidable to the rest of Greece, and had even claimed submission from the princes of Macedonia. His designs, however, were a little immature, and before he could make Athens an object of conquest, the Thracians and the Illyrians demanded his attention. He made himself master of a Thracian colony, to which he gave the name of Philippi, and from which he received the greatest advantages, on account of the gold mines in the neigbourhood. In the midst of his political prosperity, Philip did not neglect the honour of his family. He married Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus, king of the Molossi. The fruit of his marriage was the celebrated Alexander. Soon after Alexander's birth, Philip wrote the following letter to Aristotle : “ Know that á son is born to us. We thank the gods, not so much for their gift, as for bestowing it at a time when Aristotle lives. We assure ourselves that you will form him a prince worthy of his father, and worthy of Macedon." Every thing seemed now to conspire to his aggrandizement; and historians have observed, that Philip, in one day, received the intelligence of three things, which could gratify the most unbounded ambition, and flatter the hopes of the most aspiring monarch ;--the birth of a son, an honourable crown at the Olympic games, and a victory over the barbarians at Illyrium. Pæonia was now one of his provinces; on the east his dominions extended to the sea of Thasos; and on the west, to the lake of Lychnidus. The Thessalonians were, in effect, subject to his jurisdiction; and Amphipolis secured him many commercial advantages. He had a numerous and well-disciplined army, with plentiful resources for supporting such an armament, and carrying through his other ambitious schemes; but his deep and impenetrable policy rendered him more formidable than all these put together. His first scheme was the reduction of Olynthus, the most populous and fertile country on the borders of Macedon; after which, his ambition prompted him to acquire the sovereignty of all Greece. He had deprived the Athenians gradually of several settlements in Thrace and Macedon; but he took care always to give such appearance of justice to his actions, that his antagonists could hardly find a plausible pretext for engaging in war against him. He perceived that the affairs of the Greeks were drawing to a crisis, and he determined to wait the issue of their dissensions. The Phocians ploughed up the lands consecrated to Apollo; and the Amphictyons fulminated a decree against them, commanding the sacred lands to be laid waste, and imposing a heavy fine upon the community. Their resistance to this decree involved all Greece in a new war. Philip, at the beginning of this Phocian or sacred war, as it was called, was engaged in Thrace, where a civil war had taken place among the sons of Cotys. Philip interfered, and his encroachments at length became so enormous, that Kersobletes, the most powerful of the contending princes, ceded the Thracian Chersonesus to the Athenians, who sent Chares with a powerful armament to take possession of it. He took Sestos by storm, and treated the inhabitants cruelly; while Philip reduced Methone, in Pieria, but during the siege lost his right eye. All this time the Phocian war raged with fury, and involved in it all the states of Greece. Lycophron, one of the Thessalian tyrants, whom Philip had deprived of his authority, had again resumed it; and his countrymen having taken part with the Phocians, Lycophron called in Onomarchus, the Phocian general, to protect him against Philip; who, however, defeated Phyallus, the brother of Onomarchus, whom the latter had sent into the country with a detachment of seven thousand

After this, he besieged and took the city of Pegasæ,

men.

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