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milk, should suck her blood. Alexander the Great took this picture with him to Pella.

ANTIPHIBUS, a famous painter, and the rival of Apelles. He is celebrated for many fine piotures, but most of all, for one representing a youth blowing a spark of fire ; from which it would appear that the ancients were not ignorant of the magical effects of the chiaro oscuro.

AETION, a celebrated painter, who has left us an excellent picture of Roxana and Alexander, which he exhibited at the Olympic games. It represents a magnificent chamber, where Roxana is sitting on a bed of a most splendid appearance, which is rendered still more brilljant by her beauty. She looks downward, in a kind of confusion, being struck with the appearance of Alexander standing before her. A number of little cupids Alutter about, some holding up the curtain, others undressing the lady ; some pulling Alexander by the cloak, and presenting him to his mistress, others playing with his arms; while his friend Hephæştion, and the god Hymen are represented attending with the matrimonial torch. This picture gained Aetion so much reputation, that the president of the games gave him his daughter in marriage.

ARCHITECTURE.

DINOCRATES, a celebrated architect of Macedonia, who rebuilt the temple of Ephesus, when burnt by Erostratus, with much more magnificence than before. Vitruvius informs us that Dinocrates proposed to Alexander the Great to convert mount Athos into the figure of a man, whose left hand should contain a walled city, and all the rivers of the mount flow into his right, and from thence into the sea !

He also conceived a scheme for building the temple of Arsinoe, at Alexandria, of loadstone, that should, by its attraction, uphold her iron image in the centre, suspended in the air! Projects which at least showed a vast extent of imagination.

PHILO, a celebrated architect and writer of Byzantium, who flourished about B. C. 300. He wrote a treatise on machines used in war.

SCULPTURE AND STATUARY.

PRAXITELES, a celebrated sculptor of antiquity, was born in Græcia Magna, and flourished about the year B. C. 364. He excelled particularly in the working of marble, and was the author of some of the most famous statues noticed by ancient writers; among these were two of Venus, one elothed, and the VOL. I.

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other naked. The first was purchased by the Coans, who preferred it, as the most decent. The Cnidians took the other, which was so exquisitely beautiful, that many persons took a voyage to the island for the sole purpose of seeing it. Praxiteles was deeply enamoured of the famous courtezan Phryne, of whom he made several statues, one of which was erected at Delphi. Many of his performances were in the Ceraunicus at Athens ; among the rest, the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, which Xerxes carried away, and Alexander afterwards restored. Many were extant at a later period in Rome. His most noted works were in marble ; but he cast many statues in metal, which, as well as those of marble, were greatly admired. He had a son, who inherited his skill and fame.

PHRYNE, a Grecian courtezan, who flourished at Athens about B. C. 328. Society alone can discover the charms of the understanding; and women of virtue, amongst the ancient Grecians, were excluded from society. The courtezans, on the contrary, lived publicly at Athens, and by hearing frequent conversations on philosophy, politics, and poetry, acquired taste, precision, and eloquence. Their houses became the schools of eloquence, from whence the poets drew their feeling for ridicule and grace, and the philosophers, simplicity of diction. Beautiful and highly accomplished, Phryne ranks among the most distinguished in that class of women. She served as a model for Praxiteles, and a subject for Apelles. Both sculptor and painter represented her as Venus. Her statue, in gold, was placed between those of two kings, at Delphi. Wit and beauty were, as amongst their deities, more frequently sacrificed to than virtue. She offered to rebuild the walls of Í'hebes at her own expense, provided they would permit her to place the following inscription on them : “Alexander destroyed Thebes, Phryne rebuilt it."

LYSIPPUS, a celebrated sculptor and statuary, was born at Sicyon, and flourished in the time of Alexander the Great. He was originally a worker of brass, and then applied himself to painting, till his talents and inclination led him to fix on the profession of a sculptor. He worked with such extraordinary diligence and facility, that he is said to have left one thousand five hundred performances, all of such excellence, that any one of them singly might have conferred celebrity on him as an artist. He attained to so high a reputation, that Alexander forbad any sculptor but Lysippus to make his statues. Lysippus improved the art of statuary by a better imitation of the hair, and by an attentive study of symmetry, in which he considered how the figure appeared in the eye, not what were its exact proportions. The most admirable of his works were the statues of Alexander, of which he executed a series, beginning from his childhood; one, of a man coming out of a bath, was placed by Marcus Agrippa before his public baths : and being removed by Tiberius, into his own chamber, the Roman people were so clamorous for its restoration, that the emperor thought it prudent to comply with their wishes. A chariot of the sun, at Rhodes, was one of his great works, which was, however, surpassed by a colossus at Tarentum, forty cubits high. His statue of Socrates, and those of the twenty-five horsemen who were drowned in the Granicus, were so highly valued, that, in the age of Augustus, they were sold for their weight in gold.

CHARES, the Lydian, a celebrated statuary, was the disciple of Lysippus, and made the famous colossus of the sun, in the city of Rhodes. He flourished B. C. 288.

MEDICINE.

MENECRATES, a physician of Syracuse, who flourished about B. C. 360, famous for his skill in the profession, but much more for his vanity. He affected the character and attributes of Jupiter; made his patients follow him in those of the other gods ; and travelled through different countries, escorted by these counterfeit deities. He once wrote to the king of Macedon, “Menecrates Jupiter to Philip, greeting. Thou reignest in Macedonia, and I'in medicine, thou givest death to those who are in good health ; I restore life to the sick; thy guard is composed of Macedonians; the gods themselves constitute mine." Philip answered, that he wished him restored to reason. Hearing afterwards that he was in Macedon, Philip sent for him, and invited him to an entertainment. Menecrates and his companions were placed on rich and lofty couches, before which was an altar, covered with the first fruits of the harvest; and while an excellent repast was served up to the other guests, perfumes and libations only were offered to those new gods, who, greatly affronted, hastily left the palace, and never returned.

ERASISTRATUS, a celebrated physician, grandson to the philosopher Aristotle. He discovered, by the motion of the pulse, the love which Antiochus conceived for his step-mother, Stratonice, and was rewarded with one hundred talents for the cure by Seleucus. He was a great enemy to bleeding and violent cathartics, wherein he is now followed by many modern physicians.

ÞHILIP, a native of Arcania, physician to Alexander the Great. When that monarch had been suddenly taken ill, after bathing in the Cydnus, Philip undertook to remove the complaint, when the rest of the physicians believed that medical assistance would be ineffectual. But as he was preparing this medicine, Alexander received a letter from Parmenio, in which

he was advised to beware of his physician, Philip, as he had conspired against his life. The monarch was alarmed ; and when Philip presented him the medicine, he gave him Parmenio's letter to peruse, and began to drink the potion. The serenity and composure of Philip's countenance, as he read the letter, removed every suspicion from Alexander's breast, when he pursued the directions of his physician, and in a few days recovered.

ALEXIPPUS, one of the physicians to Alexander the Great, and in high esteem, as Plutarch informas us, with that prince.

PERIOD XIII.

FROM PTOLEMY EUERGETES TO PTOLEMY

PHILOMETOR.

[B. C. 300.]

REMARKABLE FACTS, EVENTS, AND DISCOVERIES.

B.C. 294 The number of effective men in Rome amounts to 270,000. 293 The first sun-dial erected at Rome by Papirius Cursor. 285 Dionysius of Alexandria began bis astronomical era on Monday,

June 26, being the first who found the exact solar year to consist of 365 days, 5 hours, and 49 minutes. The watch-tower of Pharos built. Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, employs seventytwo interpreters to translate the Old Testament into the Greek

languages. 284 The foundation of the Achæan republic laid. 283 The college and library founded at Alexandria. 282 The Tarentine war begins. 280 Pyrrhus invades Italy. 279 A census at Rome. The number of citizens 278,222. 265 The number of Roman citizens augmented to 292,224. 264 The first Punic war begins, and continues twenty-three years. The chronology of the Arundelian marbles co

composed. 260 Provincial quæstors established at Rome. The Romans first engage

in naval affairs, and defeat the Carthaginians at sea. 252 A census at Rome, 267,897 citizens. 247 Another. The citizens, 251,212. 246 The records of China destroyed. 241 Conclusion of the first Punic war. 240 Comedies first acted at Rome. 237 Hamilcar, the Carthaginian, causes his son Hannibal, at nine years

old, to swear eternal enmity to the Romans. 236 The Tartars expelled from China. 236 Rome at peace with other nations. The temple of Janus shut. 231 Corsica and Sardinia subdued by the Romans. The first divorce at

Rome. 219 The art of surgery introduced at Rome. 218 Commencement of the second Punic war. Hannibal passes the Alps

and invades Italy. 216 The Romans defeated at Candæ, May 21st. 214 Syracuse besieged by Marcellus. 209 A census at Rome; 227,107 citizens. 208 Asdrubal invades Italy, but is defeated and killed. 202 Hannibal defeated by Scipio at Zama. 201 Conclasion of the second Punic war.

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