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rer, by Pharisees and fexos are meant more Superior a great deal, and in all other respects than once only the Members of the Sanhedrim, yield to him, conceiving only this assurance as appears from my Paraphrafe.

from the method I have pursued, which I

could never ground upon my own Ingenuity CANON XIX.

and Learning. Eur if, from due comparing us

together, the imparcial Reader is noc fensible That the adequate meaning of our Lord's I have taken a properer course, I have noExpresions, and all that is written in the thing to say in behalf of the Book, why it

should not be condemned to Worms and Gospel, be expreff in a Paraphrase, nor Moths, as unworthy of the publick Lights thing ought to be inserted there, but. Ho:vever, I speak not this with a design to what is imported in the words them- undervalue the works of those Learned selves, or visibly consonant with their Criticks, or reprefent them unuseful, having Doctrine,

very much improved my self from the read

ing of them, and doubting not buc others may TI THIS Canon appertains not to the Har- do fo too, tho possibly I might have learnt

mony, but to the History annex'd, which the fame more conveniently from other Books, I thought my self oblig'd to add to the fore. and in another method. going, that I may brietly give fome account I have therefore endeavoured to advance of the Paraphrafe. I might in more copious nothing in my Paraphrafe, but what is deducerms have given the meaning of all that is cible from the plain import of the Words, or said by our Saviour, and reported by the E- from the cenour of the Discourse by Gramvangelísts, taking the liberty Erasmus hach matical Conclusions. which was not so easy used, and some others in other parts of Scrip- as perhaps my Readers may imagine: As, in ture, who have made large Expofitions both truth, after persons have made a rugged way in Latin and the modern Languages. But smooth, their labour is ufually reckoned less there are two reasons why I was unwilling to chan it is by those that walk over the Carpet expatiate. First, I was resolved not to de- Ground, and irever felt the pains. Especially viate from the plain and simple Narrative of to give a clear representation of our Saviour's the Evangelifts, co mix Conjectures of my own: Speeches contained in St. John, required no which in a prolix explication and wire draw. little thought and application. But as for my ing of every Sentence, could not be avoided ; trouble, 'cis to no purpose to mention that : and much more must be laid of necefficy than for if it had been altogether unsuccessful, it were deducible from their own words, as I ought rather to be pitied than commended; could easily demonstrate by Pallages al- and if ic be thought in any measure useful, ledg’d from Paraphrases of this nature, but the Reader will esteem it in proportion to the that I think this Experiment properer for profit he may reap by it, and not the pains I the Reader cò make himself. Anocher Impe- have taken. To return therefore, besides diment which deter'd me, was, that in a co- what might be drawn by necessary confequenpious Paraphrase the force and drift of the ces from the Texts themselves, I do not deny Discourse, and chain of reasoning is not so but I have made some litcle additions of my visible, which is of the greatest importance own to make the meaning more clear, and co in Performances of this nature, where the strike the deeper into the mind of the Reader. Readers are more curious to find the connexion But then I have made it my business co do and mutual dependance of one thing upon this very sparingly, and added nothing to another, than to have every Verse explained ; our Saviour's Sense, nor ro che Evangelists, which, if it be not of it self perspicuous, is which is not exactly conformable to their known better done in a Comment than a Paraphrase. and undisputed Doctrines. I may possibly But to satisfy every man, ler who will com- have thought I perceived something in the pare some Chapters of my Paraphrase with Texe which was not in it, and not believed that of Erasmus, 'whom I acknowledg my some other things to be in ic in which it was

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really

really implied; but 1 affure my self i have rant of those Languages. I know that some written no one thing repugnant to Religion : of the Expressions I have avoided might have Which mighe indeed have been better set off past without grating the ears of those that by men of greater Parks and Eloquence than have been habituated to them: But this I my felf; but I am persuaded that no body can know too, that very many who have been aclove it more beartily, or entertain a more reve- customed to them from their Intancy, and rent notion of it..

uz'd them in Conversation, imagin they underI have nothing more to add, but that some- stand them, tho really they do not. And these tinies reflecting with my self that I had ren I have with very good reason rejected, and dred the Sayings of Christ in too mean a put into proper Phrases to render them inStyle, and low expression; and endeavouring telligible. Such are the Expressions to comto rise up to the dignity of my Subject, I was mon in all mens mouths, to beseech God in the check’d by the Reverence due to the Subject n.ime of Christ, to baptize in the name of the I was on, which I thought so solemn, as not Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. These, to be fer off with the little Ornaments of Rhe- and more of the same nature, I have explained torick. And this very thought hath been a in my Additions to Dr. Hammond's Annotations constant curb upon, whenever I aim'd at it; on the New Testament, and have given the same and stripping me of all beauties of Stile, if i explication here in the Paraphrase, which I could ever pretend to any, made me only think unnecessary to repeat in this place ; and in love with the simple and naked Truth; lo racher remit my Readers to examine them in that depending on the excellence of the mat- the Paraphrase, and compare them with the ter, I have only labour'd to give a plain and Gofrels themselves. If they find any Exprcfingenuous Exposition.

sions of this nature remaining in my Stile, occafioned by an inveterate Habit hard to be left ;

or if I perceive them my felf, or am acquaintCANON XX:

cd by cthers with them, they shall be altered To make that which is expreft in Scripture in the next Edition, if the Book will bear, Phrase perspicuous and intelligible to

For the same reason, namely to avoid obthose that are ignorant of the Dialet, fcurity, I have omitted all School-Terms, inall Scripture Idioms ape to be avoided, vented rather to cast a mist upon Sense, which are foreign to the Language we than to explain things in their own natures write in

abstruse. Christ

, in my opinion, -obliges co

nothing, either in Faith or Practice, but what N. TOTWITHSTANDING my Readers I think may be familiarly described, and made

may be resolved from my Stile, that I now as plain to all that understand our Language, differ in judgment from the Learned Caftalio; as he formerly spoke it in Hebrew to the Jews, but who was not too discerning in this point, that knew their own Tongue, and whom he in rendring terms authorized by custom, and instructed in the Dialect of the Vulgar, and consequently intelligible, into less fignificant not in Philosophical Terms. And the reason Latin : Iam however oblig'd to inform them, his words are so often obscure to the illiterate, than I have taken all imaginable care to exé is not for the most part becaufe they are igno plain every dark Hcbraism in Terms clear and rant of Philofophy, but because they underobvious to all that understand the Language stand not the Idioms of the Jewish Language. I write in. I have not indeed consulted Tully, for authentick Expression, as not writing for those of the age in which he flourish'd; but I have had strict regard to Propriety, that I. might be the more perspicuous ; and avoided

CANON all Oriental Idioms, as well as I was able, that I might be understood by them that are igno:

one.

fome Difficulties, which otherwise might have

been surmounted : Of which this and the last CANON XXI.

Century is a very remarkable instance, having Tho I have not been able to reconcile all produced abler

Cricicks on the Scriptures than

have liv'd-in fourteen hundred years before. places that seem contradictory, nor to But Perfection is got by degrees : An Age may explain all Obscurities; and admit it perhaps succeed, in which all those things may mere non impracticable by any body else, be made clear that puzzle che best of us nox. it is no consequence that the Evangelifts We must not therefore imagine things imdo really contradict one another, or are poffitle, which we cannot accompliíh our obscure to a fault.

felves, titt we have demonstrated them to be

above hum:n Power ; nor presently quarrel HE Reasons of this Canon are obvious, with the Scriptures, becaute we cannot hit T : there be some things dark and ambiguous in an part, I shall always he free to correct all mit old History, written in a dead Language, and takes that I have commicted in this nature, a concise method, nor that digested by, and to receive a clearer information : And if Historical Rules ? Where's the wonder if any one is persuaded, that he can acquit himDiscourses addreft co a People, many of whose self becter than I have done, I shall address Customs and Tenents we do not understand, him in the words of St. Angustine, De confenfu nor many other things that belong to them; Í Evang. Lib. 3. n. 43. If we both of us believe fay, if these Discourses, or rather the Heads of the Evangelists, do you show how they can be them, happen now and then to be fomewhat better explained, and I shall freely acquiesce : obscure to us? Besides, the Ignorance of Com- for I am not in love with my own opinion, but mentators has often hindred the clearing of the Truths contain’d in the Gospels. ,

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The End of the Second Dissertation.

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THE

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THIRD DISSERTATION,

Concerning
The Writers of the Gospel, che Design of their work,

; the Time of their being publishid and read in the Christian Churches.

S

The Design of this Dissertation. I. Teftimonies of the Antients concerning Matthew, whe

ther he wrote originally in Hebrew. It appears not that the Gospel of the Nazarenes was Matthew's own writing. II. Testimonies concerning Mark's Gospel. III. Testimonies concerning Luke's. IV. The Testimony of Irenæus concerning John. His Defign, from Eusebius. V. Testimonies concerning the four Gospels. VI. The Des fign of the Evangelifts illuftrated from Hugo Grotius. That they wrote their Gospels pursuant to tbe Commands of Christ. Vil. They were openly read in the Christian Churches not long after their being publish’d.

INCE we have no authentick History I shall produce in the first place the Testiof the Life and Actions of Christ, but monies of the Ancients concerning the Evan

what is attributed to thofe holy Men gelift St. Matthew, and examine them aftercalled the Evangelifis; 'tis of the greatest mo- wards for the clearer understanding what use ment to know certainly by whom, and with may be made of them. Papios, who had what design they were wrote, as alfo at what been conversant with the Disciples of the time they were first publish'd that our Aflent Apostles, speaks thus of St. Matthew, in a to them appear nor a rath Credulity, and liable Work, conisting of five Books, entituled, to be shock'd by every trifling Objection. Aziwy kugusacôy iğnghoews, An Explication Wherefore I design in this Dissertation to of the Oracles of our Lord ; as Eusebius obmake enquiry into all Accounts relating herero, ferves, : Eccl. Hift

. lib. 3. cap. 39. towards that may be collected from Writers of the the end : Matthew wrote his Oracles in the greatest Antiquity; the more modern not be- Hebrew Tongue, which every one interpreted as ing to my purpose, who have taken, without he was able. examination, what they have from the An Irenæus, who much valu'd the Authority tients, and are not undeservedly reckoned of of Papias, and had carefully perus’d his suspicious credit, as having so mixed Truth Books, agrees with him, lib. 3. c. 1. and is with Falshood, that they are scarce to thus cited by Eusebius in Greek, Eccl. Hift. be distinguish'd. I shall therefore discover, lib. 5. c. 8. o per di Mariaio ir rris as far as pofible, the Authors of the four Εφραίοις τη ιδία αυτών διαλέκτα και γραφής Gospels, their Design in writing them, and égaresway Eucy Tenis, * nét pe xj Lleu as in their Time of putting them forth, and publick piwun darle oueva Fuenosyt TW recepcion in the Christian Churches.

E'xxandíay. Which after che ancient Version :

Thus

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Thus St. Matthew published his Gospel in the Lan- support them. However, I will add some
guage of his Countrymen, the Hebrews, amongst more afterwards, only deducing these Corol.
whom he was at the time when Peter and Paullaries from what has been produc'd already:
preach'd at Rome, and laid the foundation of the First, Thảt the Gospel called St. Matther's
Church. Sce Iren. C. n. of the fame Book. is undoubcedly his whofe Name it bears, fince
To Irenæus we may subjoin not any certain Aw. all Antiquity is agreed in it. Secondly, that
thor, but an antiene Tradition mentioned in 'twas commonly believed this Gospel was writ-
this manner by Eusebius, Eccl. Hift. lib.

so C.10. ten originally in Hebrew, for the sake of the
treating of Pantenus, who flourish d under Jews that understood not Greek. Thirdly

, the Antonines : Pantanus is said to have tra- That the Interpreter was unknown, to whose velled among the Indians, and reported to have care we are supposedly indebted for the Tranfound St. Marthew's Gospel there amongst certain Nation. This list Papias and St. Jerom exthat had heard of Christ from the preaching of prelly assert, which others now cited seem to Bartholomew, one of the Apostles, who had left conirm by their filence, agreeable to that them that Gospel in the Hebrew, which they Maxim of the Civilians : He that is silent does bad preserved to the time mentioned.

not confess indeed; but 'tis likewise manifest that
Origen has written to the fame purpose in he does not deny. Certainly one would think
his ijt Book of Explications upon Matthew, that Irenæus, Origen and Eufebius, would never
where is this Passage concerning him cited by conceal his Name, if they knew it, especial.
Eusebius, Ecclef. Hift

. lib. 6. cap. 23:,,That ly when sensible what Papias had already de-
according to St. Matthew was first composed by bim clar'd in the matter.
in Hebrew for the sake of the Jewish Believers. The first Corollary is unquestionable to all,

Eusebius himself, who produc'd the pre- but such as can doubt if Virgil wrote the Æ
ceding Testimonics, recedes not from them, neids, i.e. to such as know not upon what
speaking of the Gospels, Eccles. Hift. lib. 3. evidence we take Books to be theirs whofe
cap. 24. and thus of St. Matthew : For Mat- Names they bear. For there is not a Book in
thew having preached to the Hebrews, and going the World attributed to any one by a greater
to other Nations, composed his Gospel in tbe Lan- consent than this Gospel is to Matthew. I
guage of his Country; that what was wanting know the Marcionite , and after them the
might be supply'd by his writing in his absence. Manichees, have excepted against ir, buc

Last of all St. Ferom, in his Book of Ec- without any critical Argumenes upon the
clesiastical Writers, observes to this purpose: matter ; indeed without any judgment, or
Matthew, the same with Levi, of a Publican so much as common sense : and therefore I
the first Apostle in Judæa, wrote his Gospel in shall take no notice of them.
Hebrew, for the sake of the Believers of the
Circumcifion. Who translated it into Greek is Corollary : for tho I know 'tis generally af-
Iincertain; but the Hebrew Edition is at this day firm'd by the Fathers that Matthew wrote in
in the Library of Cæfarea, which Pamphilus Hebrew ; yet, to speak my own Sentiments,
the Martyr carefully colle&ted together. I also I fear they were induc'd co think so upon two
had the liberty to transcribe it granted me by the Reasons, which appear to me somewhat infuf-
Nazarenes, who make use of this Volume in ficient. The first is the Authority of Papias,
Bercea, a City of Syria.

who first of all advanced that which no body
Not co insist upon more modern Witnesses, could ever collect from the Copy we now have
and whose Authority may be suspected; nor of Matthew, which looks no more like a Tran-
yet, that in almost all the Remains of the Wri- slation than Marle or John: And all know of
ters of the second and third Centuries, there are what little weight Papias's Testimony must be,
many Passages of this Gospel cited by them, when alone. He might either relacé what he
which they exprelly attribute to St. Matthew did not well understand, or perhaps what he
I think we may fairly conclude from the Te- himself had forg'd. Which Eusebius in other ca.
stimonies already alledged, which are so firm fes observed of him long since, when speaking of
of chemselves, that they need no others to the Millennium, which Papias affirm'd we must

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