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of these fountains, that the beautiful Tabreez marble is formed. We passed several quaries from which immense quantities of the marble are taken.
Deh Khorgham, the village where we put up for the night, is a kind of metropolis of a district of the same name, in the province of Maragha. It is a large populous village, containing about three thousand inhabitants, and well deserves the name of town. We lodged in a new, spacious Caravansarai; and no where on this side of the lake, did we see thrift and enterprise to equal Deh Khorgham.
28. We again started early; and, af. ter riding three fursaks, to the north, between the mountains and the lake we entered the plain of Tabreez. Five fursaks more, to the northeast, brought us to the city.
About a week after his arrival at Tabreez, Mr. Perkins makes the following remarks—
.Nov. 4. Our Nestorian friends, the bishop and priest, on their first arrival, took a room in my house and seats at my table. They are remarkably studious to keep their persons entirely clean, and to conform to all our habits and regulations. Though they had never before sat in chairs, or used knives and forks at their meals, they now use both to very good advantage. Of their own accord they remain at our devotions after breakfast. They had never before heard European singing, and were singularly delighted with this part of our worship. They soon request'ed me to teach them to sing in our man-ner; so I repeated to them a verse from an English hymn, which they wrote down in their own character, preserving the sounds and the metre quite accurately, and were in half an hour able to sing it very well. The verse was the following;“Look up, my soul, with glad surprise, Towards the joyful coming day; When Jesus shalf descend the skies, And form a bright—a glorious day.” I afterward gave them the interpretation in Turkish as well as I could; and they have since repeated it with ten-fold pleasure. They next requested me to teach them our devotions at the table. I told them we were not limited to a single form. “Teach me then,” said the bishop, “all you repeat in one week.” I told him we were not limited to one week; but that our prayers at the table, as in other cases, are varied according to our feel
Hings, wants, and circumstances. “Prepare us, then, at least one,” said the bishop. So I gave them a short form, which they wrote down in the same manner as the verse of the hymn, and they now repeat it, in a whisper, at the commencement of every meal. At the close of each meal the bishop repeats a short prayer in their own language. Their zeal and success in beginning to learn English is most gratifying. The priest has a sterling mind. The bishop has less, though highly respectable talents; and his very amiable, conciliatory disposition naturally qualifies him for extensive influence. My acquaintance with the Nestorians, though short, has already given me an interest in them, as you will readily suppose, not inconsiderable. When I think of the universal artlessness and friendliness, which I found among the people— and of the character and history of their patriarch—a man of the finest talents and most amiable disposition—born and educated a Catholic, (the patriarchate of El Koosh and all its adherents, had been Catholic from 50 to 100 years,) yet now, in the meridian of life, breaking entirely away from the cold deadly embraces of the “holy mother church” and toiling, with the zeal of a martyr, to rescue his people from the same thraldom—and especially, when I see before me a bishop and priest from that people—young, enterprising, eager for learning, and the most docile pupils I ever instructed, I cannot but regard the prospect of missionary usefulness, among the Nestorians, as altogether more encouraging than I had supposed could be found in any field in Asia. I deeply feel, however, that the work is all of God. Though we may plant and water, and though there may be promise of abundant harvest, unless He “give the increase,” we shall in the end reap nothing but blasting and mildew. And, standing as I do, “single-handed and alone,” I am often ready to sink under the responsibility which my work imposes, until I find relief in casting my care upon an almighty arm. 5. Yesterday intelligence of the death of the king of Persia, Feth Aly Shah, reached Tabreez. The same arrival reports, also, that a usurper, a prince who had been governor of Tabreez, has got possession of the royal treasury and the throne. It was most fortunate—I should say it was a very merciful arrangement of Providence, that I should make my journey to Oormiah, and safely reach ome, just in time to escape the fury of
Salonica.-At Salonica the number of Greeks is probably about ten thousand souls. I state this estimate, however, with diffidence, since scarcely any two persons whom we consulted agreed in their opinions on the subject. Some years ago the Greeks were estimated at twenty thousand. The circumstances of the Greek revolution are quite sufficient to account for this large reduction. And it is easy to believe that such a population once existed there, when it is known that there are eighteen large Greek churches, besides several smaller ones. The Greek bishop of Salonica is a Metropolitan, having seven bishoprics depending on his see. The present incumbent is a good-natured, indifferent sort of a man. He seemed to take no particular interest in schools, or in the illumination of the people. He had with him, however, a young bishop from Cassandria, who is altogether a different man. He had no appearance of seriousness, but his sprightliness and intelligence rendered him agreeable in conversation, and we could not but regret that we had not further opportunities of intercourse with him. I had heard that the Greeks in Salonica had established, of their own accord, a school on the mutual-instruction plan, and I one day took a guide to conduct me to . Here were benches with sand, and ards he nging upon the wall, the
only indications of the Lancasterian system. I soon found that this was not the school of which we were in search, but a private establishment, in which the teacher is paid by the parents, a small pittance, and left to adopt his own system of instruction. I asked him why, since he had partially adopted the Lancasterian plan, he did not carry it through? He replied by asking me who would pay the expenses of fitting up a room with seats, purchasing cards, etc., saying at the same time, that he was not able to do it himself, and that the people were too poor to undertake it. I then inquired if the people generally were in favor of this system of instruction, to which he said it was a new thing to them, and that few of them knew any thing about it; but he thought they would approve, provided schools were supported for them by somebody. He said there were a few other private schools like his in other parts of the city, besides the two supported by public expense, viz. the Hellenic school and the Lancasterian. To these we now repaired. The former is held in a large building, erected, I suppose, for the purpose, having, besides lecture or class-rooms, some smaller ones for the accommodation of pupils whose parents reside in other towns. The present number of scholars, if I remember right, is about one hundred. We entered one of the lecture-rooms where the head teacher was lecturing to a class of twenty or more young men, in metaphysics. He is an elderly man, rather coarse in his manners, but of a solid and intelligent appearance. As we entered he gave us the accustomed salutations and then requested us to be seated, begging that we would excuse him for continuing his lecture in our presence, which he did, with all the earnestness and abstractedness of the ancient philosophers. His text-book was Plato, from which he read a passage and then expounded and illustrated in language familiar to his pupils. I was carried back in my imagination some two thousand years, and fancied myself sitting in a school of one of the old Greek philosophers, listening to his metaphysical discussions. The class was, as I said, composed of young men, from fifteen to twenty-five years of age and some older. Most of them were in the Frank dress, and the costume of some of the others indicated that they were in the holy orders. I could not interrupt the old gentleman in his absorbing occupation, for his whole soul was in it; and perceiving that his lecture was likely to be protracted I silently took my leave. We now found our way to the Lancasterian school, which had been the object of our search. The room was large and appropriate, arranged with seats, etc., all in due order. The present number of scholars is about eighty, though the room is capable of holding twice that number. The deficiency will no doubt be supplied, when the people have become better acquainted with the system. The teacher was a bright and active young man, lately come from Syra. Here is an indication that there are some, at least, who take a lively interest in this new system of instruction, of which indeed the existence of a school here is sufficient evidence, for as far as I could learn, it was put in operation by the people themselves without any aid or impulse from abroad. Behind the teacher's seat were rows of shelves which I was pleased to see filled with books from the Malta press, including also a large number of the Alphabetarion printed at Andover, and the Modern Greek Testament of the British and Foreign Bible Society's edition. It is very surprising, that in such a commercial place as Salonica, no Armenians are to be found. But so it is. Not a single Armenian family resides there among a population of an hundred thousand. Before taking leave of the city I would recommend it as a promising field for missionary labor—first, on account of its large population; second, because of its central position; third, because the expense would be comparatively small. Another thing I will mention in passing, and that is that no permanent missionary of any society has ever settled at Salonica. The missionary should be left to direct his effort to Greeks, Jews, or Mussulmans, as the providence of God shall describe.
Seres.—I have included within the range of a missionary's influence at Salonica, the town of Seres. The Greek bishop, at that place estimated the number of Greek houses at three or four hundred. Others told us that the whole population amounts to thirty thousand, half of whom are Greeks and half Turks. It is certainly a large and flourishing town, having a large proportion of Greek residents. There are, moreover, twenty large Greek churches in which the usual services are held daily, besides about as many more smaller ones. It is however probable that, like Salonica, its Greek
population has been much diminished since the Greek revolution, although the same number of churches remains open. The bishop of Seres, whom we visited, seemed a truly liberal and enlightened man. We mentioned the Lancasterian system of instruction as one well adapted to the state of society there, where elementary schools are so much needed. He replied, by informing us that they have long desired such schools but have not known how to set themselves about establishing them. But that, recently, a room has been prepared, and a young man of their own has been sent to Greece to learn the system and qualify himself to become a teacher. This is very promising; and I am always encouraged when I find these people moving of their own accord, and endeavoring to introduce improvements. We offered to furnish him with cards, slates, etc., from Constantinople if he wished, but he replied that the young man who had been sent, and whose return was daily expected, would undoubtedly bring all the necessary apparatus with him. We took our leave of this bishop with very favorable impressions, and with sincere regret that we could not have firther intercourse with him. May the Lord shine into his heart with the light of his truth, and make him a faithful watchman and bishop of souls. Pravista.—Pravista, or Pravoosta, as it is sometimes spelled, would also come fairly within the range of a missionary's influence at Salonica. Its population is not large, amounting to only about 1,500 souls, but it is the residence of a Greek bishop, and the present incumbent seemed interested in the subject of education, and even entered into serious religious conversation with us with apparent feeling. He remarked that the Turks are becoming far more liberal in their feelings towards Christians of late. The younger class always treat their Greek subjects with respect. They do not call them gaoor (infidel) and donmooz (hog,) as formerly, but rayah (subjects). There is another Greek bishop at Xanthe, a town not far from Yenyjy, in the mountains, where there is a Greek population of about 3,000 souls. I am
not able to give you any further particu
lars as we did not leave our road to visit it. Yoomoorjima-At Yoomoorjina we found the first Armenians in our tour. Owing to the prevalence of the plague there, we stopped only a few hours, and had no intercourse with the people. We learned, however, that there are only about forty families of Armenians. They have no school, and are, for the first time, just building a church. None of them speak the Armenian language, not even the priest.
As to the rest of our route to Adrianople I have nothing to state. The valley of the Manitzo is inhabited by many Greeks and few Armenians. But though the appearance of many of the villages indicates enterprise and prosperity, there are few schools and little disposition to moral and intellectual improvement.
.Adrianople.—Adrianople itself is a field for missionary labor that ought not to be neglected. With a Greek population of from thirty to forty thousand, and an Armenian of from five to ten thousand, to say nothing of the Turks and Jews, and with a local situation surpassed by few other towns, I hesitate not to recommend it as worthy of immediate attention. I will mention a few reasons which give to Adrianople peculiar claims. 1. It is sufficiently near the capital to render communication easy, being only forty-eight hours distant. 2. Missionaries there would enjoy protection. 3. It will be an important first step towards getting access to cities and countries beyond, which have not yet been explored by missionaries.—As this is the most important consideration, you will permit me to enlarge upon it a little. One of the countries alluded to is Servia, which, according to the report of all modern travellers, is fast rising in civilization and intelligence. It is now virtually independent of the sultan and governed by its own prince (Milosh), who is endeavoring to introduce every European improvement. Not many months ago he sent a deputation to Constantinople for the express purpose of making inquiries in reference to schools, and procuring such aid as was available in the improvement of education among his people. I cannot express to you my desire to have that country thoroughly explored by a missionary. An equally favorable opening seems to be presented to us in Wallachia and Moldavia, countries now once more governed by Greek princes, under the mutual protection of Turkey and Russia. These princes are enlightened men, and are represented as being particularly desirous of introducing improvements in education, from infant schools upwards. In Moldavi, there is a large interesting
Armenian population, who have already, by their own efforts, made some progress in improvement, and who seem ready to be directed and assisted from abroad. Both the Greek and Armenian bishops of Adrianople seem to be good natured men. Of the latter I saw the most. My dragoman, Senekerem, had a long and spirited conversation with him, in which he urged him to make his people acquainted with the Scriptures, the word of life, and to introduce the study of the Scriptures into the school; to all which he assented as being very good. The Armenian school here consists of three or four hundred boys, stowed away as thickly as possible upon the floor. The Armenian language only is used in the school, though it is not at all spoken or known by the people here. The Armenians speak only the Turkish. This is the third place I have visited, in all my travels, where the Armenians have forgotten their own language. The two former were Gallipoli and Yoomoorjina. The head teacher of the school received us with much attention and kindness, and he seemed a serious good sort of man. The Greeks have several schools, one which they call the Hellenic school, we visited; but it was not then in session. It has, I think, about eighty scholars. It has a large library containing many French books, which neither teacher nor scholar can read. And this is perhaps well, for they seem to have been selected without discrimination, infidel as well as others. Probably they were purchased under the administration of some former teacher, who knew the French language, and who perhaps was not overstocked with faith in the sacred Scriptures. We inquired for a Lancasterian school and were directed to a quarter called Jultan Yulderim, which we found was a long walk out of the city. Our disappointment was great, when we found that nothing remained of the Lancasterian system, but the benches and a few disfigured cards and broken slates. The old teacher was dead, and the present incumbent knew nothing of the system, and was therefore going on in the old way, or rather in a middle path between them both, which, like most other halfway things, was worse than nothing. He had a hundred boys crowded together in a room large enough for fifty—all in the most complete disorder. There is a depot of the British and Foreign Bible Society at Adrianople, superintended by a Mr. Snell, an Englishman, who was absent while we v or to re.
Rodosto.—From Adrianople to Rodosto we proceeded too rapidly to admit of many inquiries by the way; though without much loss, as the intervening country is comparatively destitute of interest. Our Sabbath at Rodosto, at the Armenian monastery, was truly refreshing—I trust I can say spiritually as well as bodily. Our old friend, Boghos Vartabed,” seems to approach nearer to a spiritual knowledge of the truth, than any Armenian ecclesiastic with whom I have been acquainted. He has since visited Constantinople, where he called several times upon us, and our intercourse with him is more and more satisfactory. His school-house is nearly finished, and it is a beautifully constructed edifice, capable of containing two hundred and fifty or three hundred scholars, on the Lancasterian plan, which he is determined to introduce here.
On Sabbath afternoon my dragoman had a dispute with a Papist who called at the monastery, in the presence of Boghos, another Armenian, and ourselves. The main points were, the supremacy of Peter, submission to the pope, confession to a priest, and fasting. On at least two of these points, you will perceive that the Armenian church is equally involved with the papal, and yet Boghos enjoyed the dispute mightily, and contributed his share towards helping to defeat the papist, which, however, was no difficult task. I will not here repeat this discussion, but as a specimen I will give what was said on the supremacy of Peter.
Dragoman,—Where are we taught that? Papist.—So our church say, and what the church says is true. D. I don't care what the church says, or what any man or body of men say, I want proof from the Bible. P. The church derive this doctrine from the Bible. D. Where is it taught? Show me the chapter and verse. P. I do not know, but I have no doubt it is there. D. No, it is not there; but I will tell you what is there. When the disciples disputed among themselves who should be greatest, our Savior decided the case thus—“If any man of you desire to be first, the same shall be last of all and servant of all—Mark ix, 35. Now if the pope, or any body else, comes to me claiming to be chief among the ministers of Christ, I will say to him in the lan
guage of Christ, “Let him be the last of all and the servant of all.”
We took no part in the discussion, but left it wholly with our dragoman, the bishop and the papist. The latter was silenced, and then our Armenian said to him, “My friend I am not in the habit of disputing in this way in regard to the doctrines and ceremonies of the church— I was led into discussion by yourself; and now I would advise you, as one that careth for your soul, to go home and take your Bible and study it for yourself; ask no priest to interpret it for you, but ask God to give you wisdom, and try to find out yourself what the Scripture saith, and I am sure you will give up all these notions, which are mere human inventions, and which I assure you are not found in the word of God.” The papist departed, apparently pleased with the advice, and it is our prayer that he may be led in the right way.
I will add no more as we have before explored the ground between this and Constantinople and given you our report.”
Journal of MR. SPAULDING, on The conti NENT.
[Continued from p. 146.]
Since this journal was written, Messrs. Hoisington and Todd, members of the reinforcement which left this country in July 1833, have removed from the island of Ceylon, and opened a new station at Madura, a large town among the Tamul people on the adjacent continent. The place was visited by Mr. Spaulding, during this tour, and is mentioned on a subsequent page.
January 30, 1834. Again at Palamcottah. This afternoon went with Mr. Rhenius to Tinnevelly, a town which is very large, containing, it is said, twentytwo thousand inhabitants. On the Palamcotta side of the river there are perhaps six thousand. I intended to visit more of this town or city before leaving it, but find that I shall not be able. The town is really very large, and for a native place, bears the marks of wealth. Many of the houses are two stories high with small and grated windows. In this town the missionaries have one chapel