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and laborious, when employed by their own people, than when in our service. They teach more hours and feel more interested for the advancement of the scholars, they being more immediately responsible to the people. The sons of brahmins are not unfrequently taught in their own house by their father or some friend, who teaches the children of the family with two or three boys in the neighborhood. They are here taught, in addition to the above mentioned branches, to read and recite the several books, and a variety of things called science, which are to be found in the shasters. The value of this more perfect education, is of course nothing, while the common branches are truly valuable as far as they go. They every where furnish readers for our books; and enable the people to transact their business with one another.
In the common schools there are no books, except as they have been obtained through missionaries. The boys first learn to write on sand boards; and in this way they learn the alphabet, after having drawn out the characters on their respective boards. They next write out words of one syllable; and so proceed by a very disadvantageous process, till they are able to read. Then they have manuscripts, written out generally by their teachers, which they multiply as they have occasion. These manuscripts are scraps of the shastres, stories of gods and saints, traditions, old letters, etc., which are picked up by the teacher where he can get them.
There seems to be no want of schools of this description in Ahmednuggur. I am unable to say what is the number.
They are generally small and the teach
ers iniserably paid. These schools we regard rather as auxiliary than injurious to our operations. It is very desirable to supply them with books; and, where we can, to take them under our charge. We have been able to do this in a few Instances.
Mr. Read mentions also another class of schools, under the patronage of the government, which are found in most of the large towns and villages in the Deccan, better supplied with books, the teachers better paid, and more popular than those just mentioned, but from which christian books and all christian instruction are entirely excluded.
There is no prejudice existing against education in general—certainly none among the higher classes of people; and
|. very strong prejudices against the lower castes being taught all common branches of education. The shastres, which are considered the foundation of all true knowledge, are not accessible to the latter, of course they have no part in the study of theology; and education, with all but the brahmins, consists in general of nothing more than reading, writing, and accounts. It may perhaps be said in truth that all classes are fond of having their boys taught thus much. Prejudices against female education ever have been and still are very strong. It is a current proverb among the Hindoos and the Mussulmans, that “A woman's wisdom should not extend beyond the oven.” She need know nothing more than how “to make her ...i. This prejudice, in general, remains but little shaken. In a few places, as Bombay, Calcutta, etc., where missionary operations, in connection with long intercourse with Europeans, have exerted their influence, the more intelligent natives have been brought, in some degree, to see the advantages of female educa|tion, and consequently their prejudices have very much softened; but still very little desire has been created to have their females educated. Very little effort has yet been made on their part to accomplish it on this side of India, as the records of female schools in Bombay will show. Few of any high caste have ever yet been collected in our schools, and still fewer of the brahmin caste. It is said that the success which has attended the attempts to educate the lower classes has had a reflex influence on the brahmins to induce them to educate their daughters in their own houses, fearing that the Shaddra women will be superior to their own, if the latter are left uneducated. The success which has hitherto attended female education ve do not think is to be attributed, except in a very few cases, to a desire among the natives to have their daughters educated, but to the pecuniary encouragements which are held out, both to the teacher and to the scholar. On account of the difficulty of obtaining girls, the teacher is paid at least twice as much for instructing a girl, as he is for a boy. While the girls are in their turn acted on by the force of presents, and in some other manner. o extra allowance for teaching is a complete quietus to the conscience of a brahmin schoolmaster. It removes every religious scruple, and induces him to do all in his power to obtain girls in his school. While, on the other hand, the pecuniary benefit which is held out to the girls removes the objections of their parents, who are generally poor. Since female schools have become rather common in Bombay, the odium is very much diminished. Girls thus being drawn in and taught to read, their fathers no doubt feel gratified with their attainments, and wish them to continue in school. Still, however, in most instances, the withdrawal of the presents would, we fear, be followed with a withdrawal of nine tenths of the scholars. In the manner explained, the prejudice against female education has been considerably diminished—not as we could wish, by any
eneral desire among the people to have #. girls educated, in itself considered. There are, no doubt, some among the brahmins and Parsees who would like to have their girls educated, but have an objection to sending them to a christian school.
A full statement of the circumstances of the melancholy and lamented death of Messrs. Munson and Lyman, so far as the circumstances were known, was given in the Herald for March, pp. 98–105. It will be recollected that one part of the work committed to their charge, was to make a tour of observation and inquiry among the islands of the Indian Archipelago; especially those commonly denominated the Malayan group, comprehending Sumatra and some small islands in its neighborhood, Java, Celebes, Borneo, etc. In the prosecution of this work, they left Batavia in April, 1834, visited Pulo Battoo, and Pulo Nyas, with the smaller islands adjacent, which are situated near the southwestern coast of Sumatra, and proceeded to the latter island, where they were cut off by the Battas. The vessel in which they embarked conveyed them directly to Padang, about midway on the coast of Sumatra. The following article contains a few extracts from their journals, which will show the kind of labors in which they were engaged and the spirit which animated them in the closing period of their life.
•Anticipations respecting the Voyage— Intercourse with the Passengers.
o: 7, 1834. Embarked on board the Diederieca, capt. Townsend, for Padang.
In looking forward to this time I have had some anxious forebodings as to the future, and even the startling question came up, Can I leave my family? But the Lord happily brought me to a full, and entire acquiescence in his will, in a way peculiarly his own. A few evenings since a thunderbolt struck so near our house, that the sound caught my attention almost before the flash, and with a startling crash, the likeness of which I never before heard. It seemed to bring home, with such force to Iny mind the power of the Almighty, his power to take life, even when we might be dwelling under the same roof; and to preserve it, even when we might be exposed to the ferocity of wild men and wilder unimals, that I felt like a little child at his feet, and have since felt nought but a perfect acquiescence in his will on the subject. On the contrary, I have rejoiced in that my name was written in heaven. And truly I can say when the time of separation came, I seemed to lean on the promises, “As thy day, so shall thy strength be;” and “Lo, I am with you always,” as one would lean on the arm of a friend. 8. We weighed anchor at half past six o'clock this morning, and with a gentle breeze soon left the shipping in the roads far astern. It was indeed encouraging to reflect that as the sails are filling to the breeze to bear us on our perilous and responsible enterprise, the friends of Christ are assembling in our native land for united prayer to the God of missions, that he will prosper all who are laboring in foreign lands; and I am not without hope that we, too, are remembered at the throne of grace, not so much on our own account, as on account of the reference our labors have to the kingdom of God. To embark at any time in this cause we would fain have confidence in the Almighty, that he would give prosperity to his cause. But to weigh anchor and move out of the harbor under the prayers of the church is truly animating and encouraging. Our barque, which is only of 250 tons burthen, (though having much deck room,) presents quite a Babel scene. There are American, Indian, and Dutch passengers, besides soldiers, European and native, and twenty-five convicts in chains; while the crew are made up of Portuguese, Bengallees, and Malays. The languages spoken by these ninety souls are twelve in number, viz., English, French, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, Danish, Bengalee, Moor, Javanese, Malay, Chinese, and Niyas, while there is
scarcely an individual, if one, on board who does not understand more or less of Malay. 11. Our passengers consist of a lieutenant in the Dutch service, a French catholic infidel, and a young man in the employment of government. We had, this evening, quite an interesting discussion. The lieutenant had read Voltaire ten times, but not once the Bible, because he was not allowed to by the priests. With him it was all a lie—on the same level with the Koran, etc. He is very much of a gentleman, and stated his difficulties with a great deal of apparent honesty. I endeavored to answer them at some length, although I regretted that my limited knowledge of Malay, in which language only we could converse, prevented my presenting the arguments as clearly as I could wish. It is a lamentable fact that infidel books are abundant in India. They are brought out in immense numbers on speculation, and sold at auction for about sufficient to cover the duty. And who will try the speculation of sending a cargo or two of Bibles? I believe much good has been done in America by the Constant sale of Bibles at auction. It furnishes them at a cheap rate to those who would not otherwise possess one. I know that much evil has been done in India by sales, in the same way, of infidel books. Now, shall not good be attempted by selling Bibles. The foreign o is not the only portion that as received evil. Many of the natives, Sf Calcutta especially, speak and read nglish. They are partaking of the poison, and thus the labors of the missionaries are, if not undone, hindered. I do not object to free inquiry; but I do object to a man's reading Voltaire ten
times, and not the Bible once. [Mr. Lyman.
Dangers from a Storm.
17. We have had light and variable winds for a number of days. Found ourselves on Wednesday about half way from Bencoolen to Padang. During the day there had been a light sea breeze, and at night we were expecting a wind from the land. But instead of this we saw a dark cloud gathering in the northwest, which soon brought on a hard squall. We expected it would soon subside, but expected in vain. It was the commencement of a gale. The captain id not seem disposed to put back, but set the ship in order and laid to. At twelve o'clock the gale increased. The
rain descended in torrents; the sails that were set could not be taken in;–some were torn, and others beat loose in the wind. The darkness that reigned—the officers calling aloud to the crew—the sails beating against the rigging—and the winds roaring like thunder—presented altogether a most terrific scene. Yet I was destined to witness it again and again repeated. The next morning the winds abated a little, it cleared up, and we hoped our troubles were at an end. But the clouds returned, the wind increased, and our situation seemed perilous indeed. The sea rose high, and the ship rolled and trembled, as if herself afraid of the waves. One sailor standing forward was pitched into the sea. But the serang (or boatswain), with a presence of mind which we should little expect, threw him a rope with such promptness and dexterity that he caught it and was drawn in. It was a moment of awful solicitude to see the struggling wretch clinging to the rope and escaping from the bosom of a wave that was yawning to receive him. To lose his hold was inevitable death. Yet through the mercy of God he was saved. Scarcely half an hour had elapsed when my teacher went forward, and a wave broke over him, and had not the serang caught him also, he would have been beyond the reach of human aid. That night the wind increased to a height that I had before no conception of. The sailors were on deck all night. o possible effort was made to put the s | in the best condition for a gale. Though the wind blew hard continually, yet during that night we had two squalls, which I could compare to nothing else than a tornado added to a hurricane. The next day appearances were a little more favorable; but on Friday night the squalls returned, and the winds roared more fearfully than ever. The shrouds gave way—the masts bent—and every moment we expected to see them go over the sides, and the ship become a complete wreck. But the Lord had mercy on us, and we are saved. Blessed be his holy name. The soldiers and convicts suffered exceedingly. They were drenched with rain, and exposed to the fierce wind. One convict, an old man, suffered so much, that on Friday night he died, and yesterday morning we committed him to a watery grave. in the morning, Saturday, the captain found that we had been driven back, ninety miles in thirty-six hours, though the position of the ship was such that, with an ordinary wind, we
should have lost nothing. He then resolved to put into Pulo Bay to repair. We arrived here yesterday at two o'clock.
Bencoolen—Distribution of Tracts.
22. At ten o'clock, a horse and buggy having been sent from Bencoolen, (about ten miles distant) we set off for that #. Our road was the sea beach. he waves broke a long distance from the shore, so that four or five might be seen approaching at the same time. Some of them washed our path. Indeed I sometimes felt in doubt whether our conveyance was by land or water. At one o'clock reached Bencoolen. 23. Called on the “assistant resident,” and obtained permission to distribute a few tracts among the Chinese, of whom there are about 500 in Bencoolen. Went out with the small supply which I had brought from the ship, and before I had proceeded half through the village, I had not a tract left. Tried to say something to them about Jesus Christ, of wholn they are always ready to hear. Met with one Chinaman who could speak English. I returned to Iny lodgings and procured for him an English testament, for which he seemed very grateful. I left him with the promise that he would read it every day. The Lord grant that it may prove a light to his feet, and uide him in the way of salvation. The alay population of Bencoolen is not far from 5,000. There are also fifteen or twenty Europeans. Bencoolen holds out many encouragements to missionary effort; at least, were an active missionary occasionally to visit the place for the purpose of circulating books among the Malays and Chinese, his labors might be attended with the happiest effects.
Referring to the advice given them relative to their future labors, Mr. Lyman remarks under the same dates as above—
We being tired, and the sun hot, spent the remainder of the day in the society of Europeans, of whom we learned much in reference to the future that promises to be of much utility. We have heretofore been advised to make our chief residence at a Malay (Mohammedan) village on Nyas, and not trust ourselves among the Nyas people. Now, the advice was to avoid the Mohammedan village, because they were interested in the same object with ourselves, to go directly in among the people themselves, and we
should be well received. We also learned that there is a Christian, Thomas Messam, a native of Calcutta, on the island, married to one of the prince's daughters. We have previously been advised to go armed, which we have strongly resisted, and determined to risk the contrary course. Now we were recommended to go without arms and give up ourselves entirely to the generosity of the natives. Bencoolen was built by the English, and has been possessed by them till 1825, when it was given over to the Dutch, as an equivalent for other places. It now forms a part of the residency of the west coast of Sumatra, and has an assistant resident stationed here, which is the case with no other place on the coast, the resident residing at Padang. 23. After breakfast we paid our respects to the assistant resident. He labored under some embarrassment from a want of a perfect fluency in the English tongue. Nevertheless he was very polite, seemed interested in our announcement of the intentions of the Board in reference to these islands, and expressed a willingness that we should distribute books in this place. We accordingly set ourselves to work, I taking the Malay part of the population. At first the people seemed backward at receiving them, till I met a priest, with whom I entered into conversation, and in the presence of many gave him a testament and two tracts, after reading which aloud for a few minutes, he walked on with them in his hand through the bazar. Whether his example exerted an influence on the people I know not, but soon I was necessitated to return to my lodgings for more, and it was not till the books were all gone, that I refused the request of many for books. I here distributed fifty tracts, parts of the Bible, etc. I was surprised at the number of children and youth able to read, and the earnest request of parents for books for their children. The Lord grant that this may not all prove seed sown by the wayside, nor among thorns, nor on stony ground; but that it may bring forth an hundred fold. When the English had possession, this place was blessed for a while with the labors of Ward, Evans, and Burton. But for quite a number of years, there has been no one here to break the bread of life.
26. About noon Padang Head and Pulo Pesang were in sight, and just as the sun was setting, orders were given to let go the anchor and clew up the sails. We proceeded immediately to the town, distant three miles, and once more took lodgings on terra firma, after a possage of nineteen days. “Thanks for mercies past received.” 29. Spent most of the day in company with Mr. N. M. Ward formerly of the English Baptist Society. He now carries on a sugar plantation, and also is pursuing the study of the Malay, lanage. He has already translated the §. Testament, and has collected 40,000 words and upwards, derivative and primitive, for a dictionary, which is more than 3,500 more than Marsden has in his dictionary. He came out as a rinter, and first lived at Bencoolen and |. there successfully for about five . having established schools and rought them under good regulations. Soon after the place was made over to the Dutch, he removed to this place and labored about two years. Mr. Evans, who was originally established here, and labored five years, left about the time Mr. Ward came, on account of ill health. He is now living in England. Mr. Burton labored two years in Tappanooly and vicinity among the Battas. He gathered two small schools, but did not accomlish much before ill health compelled im to abandon the station. From thence he proceed to Bengal, where both he and his wife died. A manuscript collection of words which he made in the Batta language, and some of his other manuscripts are in the college at Serampore; and they, or copies of them, may be obtained; and would, perhaps, be of some use to future missionaries. [Mr. Lyman.
Padang—Population—State of Religion —Importance of Padang as a Field of Missionary Labor.
30. I have now been long enough in Padang to form some estimate of the place and people. The town is an inconsiderable place, situated on the Padang river, a small stream a hundred yards wide, and extending twenty-five miles into the interior. To the south and east the town is hedged in by high mountains. It enjoys a fine sea breeze every day, is on the whole a very healthy place. The river is so shallow that there is not more than two fathoms of water at its mouth. The shipping finds a safe anchorage under Pulo Pesang. The numerous monuments scattered here and there, built over the re
mains of Europeans, show that many, from one cause or another, have fallen. Exclusive of soldiers, of whom there are two thousand Europeans and Javenese, there are 600 free Nyas men, Europeans 200, Chinese 700, and Malays on the whole plain 40,000, slaves 2,000, Cling men 200. The Nyas men are poor and wretched, but more civilized than in their native country. The Chinese are, many of them, from Pulo Pesang; some speak a little English. They are next in rank to European merchants. They do not, as in Batavia, deal in small articles; this is all left to the Malays. Most of them are wholesale merchants, very intelligent, nearly all able to read, and apparently men of wealth. The Malays have one bazar more than half a mile in length, where the shops, which Join each other, contain almost every thing. Some sell articles of food, others clothes, and others still manufacture iron, brass, silver, and gold. The goldsmiths manifest an ingenuity which one would not expect to find in such society. With a handful of tools of the rudest construction, they draw gold and silver wire, and make ornaments that would do credit to any European shop. They are able to distinguish gold and silver from all counterfeits, of which there are here many, almost by intuition. They are so expert at this that their word is law, even with Europeans. The Cling men are butlers, washermen, and petty merchants. They are all Mohammedans. The Malays have mosques, and the Chinese have a temple, all of which are frequented; but the Europeans have a church, which is deserted. They have a regularly organized church, but for want of a minister it is going fast to decay. Their little meeting-house, in which the Rev. Mr. Evans used to officiate, has been so much injured by an earthquake, that it inust be taken down. .May 3. Went out this morning to distribute tracts among the Chinese. Every where well received. Nearly all could read. Found one old man who seemed much pleased with the tracts. But seeing an idol in the room I took occasion to ask him if he worshipped that for his God; he seemed a little confused, but finally said, that he worshipped God through the idol; or, according to the true catholic principle, he used the image only to give him a more exalted idea of the Deity!. But how faint a ray of the almighty Jehovah must shine through such a represcntative! Distributed about fifty tracts and returned.