« FöregåendeFortsätt »
Corea, and Lewchew; in which places, as in Japan, it is so greatly altered, or, as in Corea, so equally mixed, as to have lost, in its spoken form, almost every perceptible resemblance to its native character.
Where such barbarous tribes were not found, or where, being less firmly established, they were more easily expelled, the language continued to maintain in a greater degree its original character, and was subjected chiefly to those changes alone which are the universal attendants of progressive improvement, or to those discrepancies which are the natural consequences of the separation of the several parts of an extensive empire. Revolutions, conquests, and divisions have been not less frequent in China than elsewhere, wherever the human heart is left free to the impulses of criminal ambition, revenge, and animosity. Nor have invasions been wanting to aid the effect of the separations thus occasioned, by the introduction of foreign terms and idioms. The dialects that have been chiefly affected in this way are those of Keangnan (or Keangsoo and Nganhwuy), Keangse, the chief part of Chekeang, and Iiookwang. But the northern provinces, where the language was first spoken, Shense, Shanse, Cheihle, and Honan, having been frequently subjected to invasions, are those in which the language lias been chiefly affected in this way; while Keangnan, having, in consequence of such hostile inroads, been for a long period, the residence of the Chinese court, and the chief seat of learning, is now regarded as the place where the language is spoken in its greatest purity. Shantung, the birth-place of Confucius, shares with it this distinction.
Those provinces which have been populated at a more modern period, by colonization, have received the language without any great detraction from its purity. Such are the lately colonized districts of Sungara, and, in a measure, the provinces of Kansuh and Szechuen, together with some portions of Kwangtung and Kwangse. Yunnan is too little known for us to hazard even an opinion respecting it. With regard to many of the other provinces, which are at a distance from the coast, we are compelled also to speak with caution and diffidence; and such must continue to be the case, not only on this, but on many other subjects, which the Romish missionaries in China have but slightly touched upon, until the gates of this empire shall have been thrown open, to admit the free intercourse of foreigners with its own people.
General Character of some of the Dialects.
The characteristics of the general language of China (often but improperly called the mandarin dialect,) vary a little in different parts of the empire, according to the more lively or more phlegmatic character of the people who speak it. of this we may convince ourselves even by the very slight intercourse which it is here permitted us to maintain with the better classes of people from other provinces: but we cannot venture to enter into details on the sub
ject, until we have obtained a more intimate acquaintance with the various parts of the empire. The main characteristics of the language are, however, everywhere the same. The most prominent of these is the absence of all consonantal terminations, nasals alone excepted, and the frequent recurrence of short vowels at the end of words, which, in the Fuhkeen dialect, are commonly altered by the addition of one or other of the mute consonants k, p, t, and usually also in the Canton dialect; while in the northern provinces they are drawn out into their corresponding long vowels. From the nature of the language, it must necessarily want the smooth flow of words, and the beauty, of a polysyllabic language; but at the same time we cannot regard it as very rough in its structure, much less as harsh and dissonant. Neither can it be considered peculiarly a nasal language, though from the not unfrequent occurrence of ng, at the beginning of a word, it may often appear so to Europeans, who can hardly enunciate the sound in that position. It may be mentioned as a peculiar characteristic of the general language of China that its consonants are almost all such as require the use of breath alone, without the exertion of vocal organs. From the prevailing character and habits of the people, the language abounds in terms of politeness, formality, and servile adulation, while it is in an equal degree barren of all tender and endearing expressions. In the dialects of the north, many guttural sounds are introduced which are foreign to Chinese, and the aspirates are softened down or corrupted. The short vowels are lengthened, so as to remove the native abruptness and vivacity of the central provinces. Of those dialects the peculiarities of which are strongly marked, that of Canton and the adjoining districts comes nearest to the general language; but it does not generally possess in common with the latter the liquid sound of y after a consonant; it is more guttural, and is also in other respects more rough and dissonant than the general language. The character of the people of this province and the natural tone of their voices, are such as to give them often the appearance of anger, even in their ordinary conversation. The dialect of Fuhkeen, which extends, with slight modifications, into the eastern districts of Kwangtung, is the most strongly marked of all the dialects of China. It is exceedingly nasal, and is very harsh and rough. It abounds, however, in the vocal consonant h, which is unknown in all the other dialects: in the northern districts of the province this consonant, however, becomes either p or m, the same as in the general language. But what is most remarkable in this dialect is the strong distinction between the reading of the written, and the speaking of the oral, languages. Thus, the character, one of the names of Fuhkeen, is in reading pronounced Bin; but in speaking the same name is pronounced | Ban. This kind of double language may af. ford a subject of curious inquiry to the philologist: it exists likewise in Cochinchina; the language of which country bears a general resemblance, in other respects also, to the
Fuhkeen; with however one conspicuous ex- 1 reption, the absence of the highly nasal char. acter of the latter. The sound of r, which is hardly known in China, is common in Cochinchina and Tungking. The Chinese language as spoken in Japan has undergone great changes; but we have not the necessary acquaintance with its variations to enable us to speak of them in detail. Much of the change wrought in it may probably be attributable to the adoption of an alphabet. It seems to be wholly devoid of the nasal sound ng, nor do the nasal n and m occur frequently. Consonantal terminations are com
mon. It remains only to advert to the language of Corea. which present to us another curious anomaly. In that country, the Chi. nese language, without any great corruption, holds a mere equality with the native language of the country. For instance, to sit is in Chinese expressed by tso; while in Corean it is expressed by indiil cho; indjil being the original native word, and cho a slight corruption of the Chinese.—With these brief and unconnected remarks we must leave this interesting subject to the further researches of philologists.
3mitritan i50art of Commission tra for Jortign jūissions.
Mrs. Wilson, wife of the Rev. Henry R. Wilson, was removed by death on the 18th of July, after being sick of a sever about two
weeks. She had been among the Choctaws but a few months, but had become much at- ||
tached to them, and had exhibited endowments
and qualifications, connected with activity and zeal, which gave promise of great usefulness, if her life had been spared. Her confidence in Christ on the bed of death was strong and unwaving, and her end eminently peaceful.
The bereaved husband, under date of July 27th, furnishes the following particulars respecting her sickness.
Her disease was remittent fever, of a very obstimate and highly bilious character. I was permitted to be with her during the whole of her illness; though without any assistance; having to act as physician, cook, and nurse. The Lord dealt very tenderly with her during her sickness, permitting her to rest her soul with unshaken confidence on Christ, and not suffering a single cloud to obstruct her view of Him, until the hour of her release. Often when asked if she needed any thing, she would say, “No, nothing, I have Christ, what can I want beside?” Her hope was in the peace-speaking blood and atoning righteous: mess of the Lord Jesus Christ. “I know,” said she, “I am a vile polluted sinner, but the blood of Jesus cleanseth from all sin.” When asked, a short time before her death, if she had still a hope in Christ, she replied, “Yes, I know in whom I have believed—l know that my Redeemer liveth, and though worms may destroy this hody, yet in my flesh shall I see God.” Have you peace in your mind? “Yes, as much as I can realize and more than I can express.” “Oh how precious are the promises of God—how sure a foundation on which to build our hopes.” She often requested me to to her from the word of God. The third Psalm in particular gave her
ght. “Yea, though I walk through of the shadow of death, yet will |
fear no evil, for Thou art with me, thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.” On being asked, if she had her choice, whether she would rather live or die, she said, “If it were my Father's will to release me from sin and suffering I should rather”—she was going to say “die,” but after a short pause, she said, “But oh! this poor people, what have I done for them? I came here for their salvation, but I have done nothing for them. If it were the Lord's will, I should like to live for them, but not my will but thine be done.” On being asked, if she regretted having left her friends to come here and die among a people who knew not the Lord, she replied, “No, never— never—never.” On Saturday morning, the 18th instant, she began to sink very rapidly, and about ten o'clock, A. M., without a struggle, a groan, or even the distortion of a feature, she fell asleep in Jesus, to wake with him in glory. “Even so come Lord Jesus.”
Mr. Wright, in noticing the decease of Mrs. Wilson, remarks—
But one thing appeared to cause regret at the thought of death, and that was, that she had been able to do no more, directly, for the spiritual geod of the poor Choctaws. This she had much at heart. And to enable her to do this she had made considerable proficiency in acquiring the native language: but though unable to communicate instruction in it, she seldom suffered any female who came for medicine or any other purpose to go away, without endeavoring to impart to them some instruction respecting the Savior, through a female interpreter who was always at hand.
Perhaps few if any females have entered our Indian missions possessing in a higher degree more qualities of heart which inspire confidence and love in their fellow-laborers, and which fit for usefulness, than Mrs. Wilson did. Although she had been a member of the mission but a few months, she was greatly beloved. That one so eminently fitted for usefulness should be so soon removed, appears a dark dispensation; but it is right, for the Lord hath done it; and we desire to bow with much submission to his holy will.
MR. Homan Hallock, connected with the printing establishment at Smyrna, is now on a visit to this country, with the consent of his mission and the approbation of the Prudential Committee. His object is to superintend the cutting of punches for two or three founts of type in the Armenian character, and the casting of the necessary amount of type. ascertained that the proper type could no where be procured in the Levant, and that the only way to obtain them was to prepare matrices expressly for the purpose. This could be done most advantageously and economically in the United States.
Mr. and Mrs. Powers, whose embarkation was mentioned in the last volume, arrived at Smyrna on the 12th of January, after a voyage of sixty-three days. They reached Coustantinople on the 19th, and Broosa on the 13th of February.
MR. Goodell has begun to revise the translation of the Old Testament, made by Bishop Carabet into Armeno-Turkish while at Malta. In due time it will no doubt be printed at the expense of the American Bible Society. The Armeno-Turkish New Testament commands a good price, and nearly all the copies have been issued.
MR. Thomson and Mr. Pease have explored the greater part of the island of Cyprus, and made their report to the Committee. In consequence of the lamented death of Dr. Dodge, mentioned at p. 281, Mr. Pease will remain, for the present at least, in Syria. He went out with a conditional appointment to Cyprus.
INTELLIGEN ce has been received of the arrival of Messrs. Lindley, Wilson, and Venable at Griqua Town, which is about half way from Cape Town to Kurrechane, the place of their destination.
J.M.B.A. it ration or mission Arti Es.
On the 20th of July the Rev. James T. Dick
inson, formerly pastor of a church in Norwich,
Can., Rev. William Arms, who, two years
16,46; contrib. 53,13; 69 59 Dorchester, 2d chh. Gent. 182; la. 68; juv. asso. for Mary Codman in Choc. na. 30; 280 00 Village chh Gent. 53,35; la. 52,10; mom. con. 10,80; 116 25 Milton, La. sew. circle, 40 00 Stoughton. Mon. con. 27 00 Walpole, Mon. con. 24 50–557 34
South Middleser confer. of chhs. Ms.
Valley of the Mississippi, Aux. So. W. T.
406 53 Williams, Tr.
Total from the above sources, $3,263 75
VARIOUS COLLECTIONS AND DONATIONS,
.Acworth, N. H. Mon, con. in cong, chh. 19; Miss L. McFerson, 10; Miss H.
Weare, 5; 34 00 ...Attica, N. Y. Presb. chh. 7 50 Bangor, Me. Mon. con. in Theol. Sem. 32 00 Belchertown, Ms. Contrib. at com. 20; la. sew. so. of 1st cong. so. for bibles for China, 20; 40 (10 20 00
Boston, Ms. J. Field,
burn, for do. 22 25 Brookline, Ms. Kingsbury so. for Cher, miss. 20 00 Campo Bello, N. B., C. box, of H. and J. C. for hea. chil. 75 Canaan Centre, N. Y. Indiv. (which and rev. pay. constitute Rev. Hutchins Aylon an Honorary Member of the ..., 43 75 Canton, N. Y. Mon. con. 15 00 Dryden, N. Y. Presb. chh.. to constitute Rev. Luther Clark an Honorary Member of the Board, 50 00 Fort Snelling, U. Missi. H. H. Sibley, 25 00 Georgia, Vt. La. asso. 18; two fem. friends, 5; for Dwight, 23 00 Hartford, Ct. La. sew. so. for Nathan Strong in Ceylon, 90 00 Holliston, Ms. La. benev. read. so. for Choc. miss. 8 00 Lancaster, Pa. W. Kirkpatrick, 20 00 Lynnfield, Ms. Chh.. contrib. 12 00 JMachias, Me. Mon. con. 10 00 .Madison, N. Y. La. cent so. 29; mon, con. 21; to constitute Rev. FRANcis JANEs an Honorary Member of the Board, 50 00 .Manlius, N. Y. Mon. con. 42,19; sub. 137,50; 17969
.Marblehead, Ms. Mon. con. 12 00 | Montpelier, Vt. Services of Rev. C. Washburn, 16; Miss R. H. B. 2; Miss C. C. 2; for Dwight, 20 00 .Metrark, N.J., E. Conger, 50 00 .New Haven, Ct. Three friends, ann. contrib. for Grove Hall school in Ceylon, 30 00 .New Lebanon, N. Y., R. Woodworth, U.S. pensioner, 10 00 .New Orleans, La. Presb, chh. (Rev. J. Parker's,) 429 41 .Netr Providence, N. J. Mrs. M. Riggs, (of which to constitute Rev. Elias Riggs of Argos and Rev. Thomas P. Coch RAN Honorary Members of the Board, 100;) 150
.Northumberland, Pa. Fem. miss. so. 14,19;
the Board, 50 00 West Randolph, Vt. Contrib. for Dwight, 10 07 Wolcott, Vt. Two friends, for do. 75 LEGACIES. South Salem, N. Y. Mary Gilbert, by Josiah Gilbert, Ex’r, 400 00
ExTRActs from The JOURNAL OF MR. pertkins AT TABREEZ.
In the numbers of this work for February, April, and May, an account was given of the journey of Mr. Perkins from Constantinople to Tabreez, his visit to Oormiah, his reception by the Nestorians of that province, and of his temporary establishment of himself at Tabreez, with a Nestorian bishop and priest obtained from Oormiah, as his teachers. The following are portions of his journal of a later date.
.April 1, 1835. Intelligence reached here of the capture of Shiraz by the king's forces under Sir Henry Bethune. A rebel prince had attempted to establish himself in that city as king of Persia. Nothing now remains to be done to leave Mohammed Shah in quiet possession of his throne. The Lord has
|size. All who are interred at Karbula
been far more kind to us and to the
country, in the event of this succession,
than we had apprehended.
priest started for Oormiah to visit their
friends. They have studied nearly six
months very well, and I was quite wil
ling to give them a month of vacation, alike to gratify them and their friends,
and for the benefit of my own health.
him with abhorrence. This evening there was a very splendid display of fire-works at the palace, in which the Persians are very skilful. They learned the art from the English. In riding around the city to-day with Mr. N., I noticed multitudes of boys with clubs in childish glee, representing the tragedy of Hassan and Hoesan, in anticipation of the approaching festival of Moharrem. Here the riddle was unfolded. I have often wondered how, from generation to generation, this, annual festival returns with such thrilling interest to all classes of Persians, and with ! such power to perpetuate their hatred !, towards the Turks. But now I saw the germ taking deep root in the infant mind. Oh could the seed of the gospel be as