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CONTAINING

RULES OF SYNTAX AND MODELS

FOR

ANALYZING AND TRANSPOSING;

TOGETHER WITH

SELECTIONS OF PROSE AND POETRY

FROM WRITERS OF STANDARD AUTHORITY.

BY ALLEN H. WELD, A. M.
LUTHOR OP LATIN LESSONS AND READER, AND AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

FIFTEENTH

EDITION

HARVARD

UNIVERSITY
PORTLAND:

LIBRARY
SAN BORN ,

1848.

Entered according to Act of Carstens, in the year 1847, by ALLEN H. WELD, in the Clerk's Othce of the District Court of Maino.

SYNOPSIS OF GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS.

See Gram. Q$ 35, 36, 37, 28, 34, or Parsing Book, pages 5, 6.
SUBJECT.
MODIFIERS OF THE SUBJECT.

PREDICATE. MODIFIERS OF THE PREDICATE,
The SUBJECT of a ser tence The Mod:PIERS of the subject may

The PREDICATE of a The Modifiers of the predicate may
may be a noun or prononn; a be a noun in apposition; an adjec sentence may be a verb ; be a noun in the objective case, (if the
verb in the infinitive : a clause; tive; a preposition with its object or the verb be with any verb is transitive;) a verb in the infini-
or any word or leiter of which (adjunct); a participle; a verb in the word or expression con tive; an adverh; a preposition with
something can be afirmed. infinitive; a relative clause; and rare nected with it, to coin its object (adjunct); à clause ; an!
ly an adverb.

plete an assertion. rarely an adjective. The Subject, whose meaning is modified by one or more words, The Predicate, whinse meaning is modified by one or more words, is called the MODIFIED (or logical) SUBJECT.

is called the MODIFIED (or logical) PREDICATE.

He,

SIMPLE SENTENCES.
MODIFIED SUBJECTS.

MODIFIED PREDICATES.
SUBJECT
MODIFIERS OF THE SUBJECT.

PREDICATE.

MODIFIERS OF THE PRED. Ferdinand, the king,

held

a council at Cordova. the marquis of Cadiz, beheld

from a distance, the peril of

the king.
To die
in peace,

is the privilege of the good.
That you have wronged me by your denial,

is evident

from your own admission. Evergreens only, among the trecs, look

verdant, in the winter. An, called an article,

is derived

from a Saxon word. so fair and beautiful to-day, may wither and fade to-morrow. Those, who are obliging,

to be accommodated.

The rose,

may expect

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[graphic]

MODIFICATION OF WORDS.

NOUN OR PRONOUN. VERB OR PARTICIPLE.

ADJECTIVE.

ADVERB. A noun or pronoun may be modified A verb or participle may be mod An adjective may be An adverb may be modifier 1. By a noun in apposition; as, George,

ified

modified

1. By another adverb; as, Most the king,

1. By a noun in the ohjective case, 1. By an adverb; as, Very assuredly. 2 By an adjective; as, A tall mast. if the verb is transitive; as, The rich.

2. By a preposition with its ob3. By a preposition with its object (ad sun gives light.

2. By a verb in the infini ject (adjunct); as, Agreea-
junct); as, A life of toil.

2. By a verb in the infinitive; as, tive; as, Pleasant to bly to nature, most of all,
4. By a participle; as, The sun rising. He hopes to return.

behold.

PREPOSITION.
5. By a verb in the infinitive; as, A time 3. By a preposition with its object; || 3. By a preposition with'its
to die.

as, I walk in the grove.

object; as, True to nature. A preposition may be modified 6. By a relative clause; as, I, who speak 4. By a clause; as, I hope that you || 4. By another adjective; 1. By an adverb; as, For beroith you.

are well,

as, Deep blue; Liver yond. 7. Rarely by an adverb; as, Not my feet 5. By an adjective; as, The wind pool deep blue earthen 2. By a noun in the objective only.

blows fresh.

pitchers.

case; as, Over the hills.

COMPOUND SENTENCES. A Compound Sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences joined by connectives. CONNECTIVES are, 1. Conjunctions ; 2. Conjunctive Adverbs ; 3. Relative words. See Gram. $ 112, or Parsing Book,

pages 6, 7.

ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.

CLASSIFICATION OF SEN.
A Sentence may be analyzed by dividing it into

TENCES.
the parts of which it is composed, and explaining 1. Declarative; as, I write.
their relations.

2. Interrogative; as, Do you

write?
viz: the Subject or Modified Subject, the Predicate
1. Divide the sentence into its two general parts. 3. Imperative ; as, Buy the

truth.
or Modified Predicate.

4. Subjunctive; as, If it rains,
2. Explain the mutual relations, and point out 5. Exclamatory; as, How
the office of every word which has any modifying much he resembles his
influence.

father!

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NOUNS INDEPENDENT. Nouns which have no grammatical connection with the subject or predicate of a sentence, are said to be independent; as, O virtue !

PREFACE.

The selections which compose the body of the following work are so arranged as to constitute a gradual course of Exercises in Analyzing and Parsing.

The Rules of Syntax are taken from WELD's English GRAMMAR by permission of the Publishers, and to these rules, and also to the Grammar from which they are taken, references are occasionally made, to assist the learner in explaining idiomatic or difficult pas

sages.

As the extracts are from some of the most accomplished and approved writers, the Ornaments of style, Figures of Rhetoric and Scanning, may be profitably attended to by advanced classes.

The book may be used by learners in almost any stage of attainment after the elementary principles of Grammar are understood. The work is designed to take the place of Pope's Essay, Thomson's Seasons, Young's Night Thoughts, and other entire poems, which are used as parsing books in Schools. A variety in the selections, it is believed, will be more profitable and interesting to the learner, than any single work can be, which exhibits no gradation in style, and the peculiarities of one writer only.

A. H. W.

RULES OF SYNTAX.

1. Syntax treats of sentences, and teaches the proper construction of words in forming them.

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. Sentences are of four kinds, declaratory, imperative, interrogative and conditional.

A declaratory sentence is one in which any thing is simply affirıned or denied of a subject; as, 'Time flies; he will not understaud.

An imperative sentence is one in which a command is expressed; as, Buy the truth, and sell it not.

An interrogative sentence is one in which a question is asked; as, Who hath believed our report?

A conditional sentence is one in which something contirigent or hypothetical is expressed; as, If it rains; though he slay me.

Sentences are either simple or compound. A simple senlence consists of but one proposition; a compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences.

The simple propositions which make up a compound sentence, are called clauses or members.

The leading clause is one on which the other members depend.

A dependent clause is one which makes complete sense only in connection with another clause.

SIMPLE SENTENCES. A simple sentence contains only one subject or nominative, and one predicate.

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