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28118 1490 Portolano Editio Princeps. Questa e vna opera neces

saria a tutti li navigāti chi vano in diuerse parte del mondo per la qual tutti se amaistrano a cognoscere starie fundi colfi vale porti corsi dacque e maree comiciando da la cita de cadex in spagna dretamente fina nel porto de la schiuse passando p. i canali fra la ixola de ingelterra e la terra ferma scorendo le bāche de fiādra fino a la ixola de irlanda, sm. 4to. FIRST EDITION, OF EXTREME RARITY, fine copy, red morocco extra gilt edges, said to be by Roger Payne, from the Beckford library, £36.

Venexia, 1490 The authorship of this excessively rare volume is attributed to Luigi Cadamosto, the great voyager and geographer who sailed to the Canaries and other Atlantic Islands and down the West Coast of Africa for the Infante of Portugal (Prince Henry the Navigator—see Mr. Major's valuable work, a masterpiece of geographical history and criticism); and whose name is associated with that of Vespucci in the early editions of the Paesi novamente ritrovati.

- see Behaim in section History of Discovery. 28119 1490-1500 Africa. Leonis (Joannis, Africani) de totius Africæ

descriptione libb. ix. in Latinam linguam conversum Joan. . Floriano interp. 12mo. vellum, £2.

Antv. 1556 On the reverse of the cover is pasted a curious early bookplate “Wiguleus

Hundt de Lavterpach Juris Co. M.D.LVI.28120 LEO, Geographical History of Africa, written in Arabicke and

Italian by John Leo, a More, translated by John Pory, 4to. with Map, old calf, £2. 16s

1600 Although the Arabic original was written about the year 1515 (translated by the author himself into Italian some ten years later) the information in this volume represents for the most part a somewhat earlier period. It gives us the historical geography of Africa as known to educated Granadan and Moorish Mohammedans about the year 1490.

Modern Geography (1492-1876). 1492-1507 Geography of America -see sections History of

Discovery, and Narratives of Voyagers. 28121 1500-1592 KUNSTMANN, die Entdeckung Amerikas .. mit Atlas ..

4to. text and folio Atlas of 13 maps coloured in facsimile of original MSS. charts of the sixteenth century, £3. 108 München, 1859 1503-1508 Geography of Asia-see VARTHEMA, in section of

Voyagers. 1506 Hydrographie Portugaise, or Admiral's Map-see

on next page under date 1513. 28122 1506-7 Unknown printed Map of the New World.

TRITEMII (Ioannis) Abbatis Spanhemensis, Epistolarum
Familiarium libri duo ad diversos Germaniae Principes,
Episcopos, ac eruditione praestantes viros, sm. 4to. hf. morocco,
gilt top, £4. 4s

Hagenoae, 1536 The passage on p. 296 of this volume, which Mr. Harrisse quotes with unfortunate simplicity, is one that deserves consideration. The letter in which it occurs is dated 12 August, 1507; consequently, there existed at that date a printed map showing the discoveries of Vespucci in the New World, as far as 10 degrees south latitude. As it is quite certain that Ruysch's map was not printed till late in 1507 or the beginning of 1508, at Rome; as the

S. Dié map, although designed in 1507, was not finished till 1513 ; and as, moreover, neither of them corresponds to the mention of the 10 degrees south latitude, we must conclude that a map at present unknown

was printed before 1507, exhibiting the new discoveries in the west. 1507 Cosmographiæ Introductio—see under VESPUCCI in ' section

Narratives of Voyagers. 28123 1508 PTOLEMÆI Geographia, latine reddita, correcta a

Marco Beneventano et Joanne Costa, folio, THE MAPS ONLY, that of Livonia wanting, water-stained, old calf, £15.

Roma, Evangel. Tosinus, 1508 The maps are the same as those in the edition of 1490, with seven new ones added. Among the additional ones is the celebrated map of Johan Ruysch, entitled “ Universalior Cogniti Orbis Tabula ex recentibus confecta observationibus." THIS IS THE FIRST ENGRAVED MAP ON WHICH ANY PART OF THE TRUE AMERICA WAS SHOwn. Greenland (here attached to the North-East of Asia) is in this map drawn for the first time separated from Europe. A little below Greenland there is a peninsula marked" Terra Nova,” which represents perhaps the results of Cabot's voyages. Below this appear Cuba (only half of which is drawn), Spa la and the

other islands. Beneath these again is drawn the north-east corner of South America, entitled "Terra sancte crucis sive Mundus novus." The present is the issue with the “ Plisacus

Sinus" marked upon the east coast of Asia. 28124 1511 CLAUDII PTHOLEMAEI Alexandrini Liber Geo

graphiæ cum tabulis et universali figura et cum additione locorum quæ a recentioribus reperta sunt, diligenti cura [BERNARDI SYLVANI EBOLIENSIS] emendatus et impressus, roy. folio, title printed in red, 92 leaves, of which the last 30 contain 28 large woodcut maps, with the names printed in red and black upon them, hf. bd. £8. 8s

Venetiis, J. P. de Leucho, 1511 28125

lio, clean copy, vellum, £10. 108; 28126

the same, folio, fine copy, ruled, with initial letters painted, old calf, £12. 12s

RARE. It is three years later than the Roman edition with Ruysch's map which contained the first published delineation of America (South America, Cuba and the islands). The map of the world, which is in the above volume, represents the New World in an extremely curious way. Brazil, a large tract, is called Terra Santa Crucis, and the cartographer evinces acquaintance with the results of Columbus' third voyage, and Vespucci's second and third voyages. The continuity is broken by the margin in consequence of the peculiar plan of the map, so that Cuba and Hispaniola appear next above near their proper places ; and far beyond them, at the same degree of latitude as Ireland, an unfinished shore bearing the words “Regalis Domus, ," indicates the northern continent, while Labrador (Terra Laboratorus) is represented as an island off the coast. THIS IS THE FIRST GRAPHIC RECORD OF THE DISCOVERIES (in 1500) OF CORTE REAL. Greenland (Engronelát) is drawn as a peninsula of north-west Europe. Coming nearer home, it is remarkable that in this book, Scotland is properly drawn for the first time as forming a northern extension of England. It is also remarkable for the manner in which the names are printed on the maps, this having been done by types after the woodcut had been worked off. This is the first instance

in which such a method of operation was ever adopted. 28127 1513 PTOLEMEI (Claudii) · · GEOGRAPHIE opus nouissima

traductione e Grecorum archetypis castigatissime pressum (edentibus Jacobo EsZLER et Georgio UBELIN), large folio, stained, some leaves mended, otherwise a fair copy, 47 woodcut maps, hf. od. hogskin, £25. Argentine, Joannes Schott, 1513

The most remarkable of the early Ptolemies in its geographical importance. It contains two maps which were here printed for the first time, and which

the same,

may undoubtedly be held to represent the cartographical labours of Amerigo Vespucci. One of them is the Hydrographia (or “Hydrographic Portugaise" as it is often called), which forms the first of the supplementary maps ; the other is the Tabula Terre nove, which is the second of that series, and which might be thought to contain the New-World portion of the Hydrographia engraved on a larger scale and more detailed, but it is really quite a different map. Only one map is alluded to in the address Ad Lectorem wbich precedes those supplementary maps, and it is said to have been presented to the editors more than six years earlier, by René Duke of Lorraine, when they had commenced to work on the publication of Ptolemy. The history of the edition is probably to be explained thus. On the publication of Vespucci's four voyages early in 1505, a copy with the dedication altered so as to suit the recipient, was sent to King René, along with two manuscript maps prepared apparently by Vespucci's hand. He delivered the book and the maps to the Şt. Dié College, and they produced the Cosmograpbia of 1507 as a translation of the Italian text. The maps were reserved to be used for an edition of Ptolemy then projected, and the work of engraving was probably begun at opce, but difficulties arose with regard to the text when they began to edit the Latin translation of Ptolemy. Finding it necessary to collate it with a Greek text, Philesius was sent to Italy. Pico di Mirandola furnished him with a Greek MS. for the use of the editors, and sent a highly complimentary letter, which is printed at the beginning of the volume, bearing date 1508. The labour must have proved enormous and discouraged the editors, for they say in the Ad Lectorem that it had gone to sleep six years before in the rocks of the Vosges, and was now at last roused into publication in Strassburg. The words concerning the procurement and the authorship of the map are as follows:-"Charta autem marina quam Hydrographiam vocant per Admiralem quondam serenissi. Portugalie regis Ferdinandi ceteros denique lustratores 'verissimis peragrationibus lustrata, ministerio Redati, dum vixit, nunc pie mortui, Ducis illustriss. Lotharingie liberalius prelographati uni tradita est." The blunder either in the name of the king or that of the country has led to various interpretations, and the Admiral referred to is generally supposed to mean Columbus, but it is more probable that the phrase refers to Vespucci, who, in 1504, was a sea-captain in the Portuguese service. It is a trilling matter, but one of soine significance for the determination of this disputed point, that in the delineation of Spain, there is no town or port marked except Lisbon.

The first map or Hydrographia is a general view of the world from Cathay on the right hand to the New World on the left. The American portion consists of the coast of South America from the Gulf of Venezuela to the port of Cananea (12 degrees North to 25 degrees South latitude—it is marked 15 N.L. to 35 S.L.), with the islands of Cuba and S. Domingo. There are only a few inscriptions, seven in all; and there is nothing further, except the outlines of a small portion of detached coast lying opposite Ireland, in the mid-sea, between 50 and 62 degrees N.L. This is evidently intended to represent the discoveries of Corte Real. The second map is the Tabula Terre Nove above mentioned. It omits entirely the Corte-real coast which appears in the Hydrographia, but extends in S. America to the same degree of S.L. as that map. It is full of names along the sea coast from Cabo del Mar Usiano on the north, to about 25 (marked 35) degrees of south latitude, where it ends with Rio Cananor (Cananea Bay), and seems to correspond exactly with the extent claimed by Vespucci as having been explored in his four voyages (including also an evidence that Cabral's discovery was included). There can be little doubt, notwithstanding the absence of the peninsula of Yucatan (which proves that during the coasting voyage described by Vespucci as his first, the usual hydrographic observations were frequently pretermitted) that we have in the northern portion a delineation of the Gulf of Mexico, the coast and point of Florida, and the coast of the Eastern United States as far as Cape Hatteras. As for the degrees of latitude they are of course monstrously exaggerated. The equator is placed about 5 degrees norih of its true level both in America and in Africa ; and as the design extends northward, the error diminishes on the eastern side of the Atlantic but increases on the western. Cuba is placed 10 degrees north of its true latitude, and the Cabo del Mar Usiano (Cape Hatteras) is some 19 degrees above its proper place.

This map-prepared for the engraver by Martinus Waldseemüller (Hylacomylus)-bears the inscription “ Jlec terra cum adiacentibus insulis in venta est per Columbum Januensem ex mandato Regis Castelle," which appeared here for the first time, and was frequently repeated on later maps. Not only may the Ptolemy of 1513 be said to contain the Editio Princeps of the Admiral's map, but it would even be correct to describe it as (excluding its reissue in Schott's second edition of 1520) the only edition of that map, since all the later reproductions, except of course modern facsimiles, follow the Ptolemy of 1522. Humboldt has put forward an opinion that Waldseemüller executed these maps, and also those which appeared in the Ptolemy of 1522 and 1525. A faithful comparison will preclude all supposition that the same hand could have been employed in both; for although the maps of 1522 and 1525, published by Laurentius Frisius, are ostensibly close reproductions of those of 1513, yet the difference between them is scientifically and critically very great. It can at once be seen that the original maps are valuable and authentic documents, while the latter ones are careless and inexact imitations, not only without any attempt to improve upon the earlier labour, but even omitting some of the names because they were too numerous or not sufficiently clear ; blurring, rounding, and distorting the coast-outlines.

On the fly-leaf is pasted an inscription in Latin (dated Sept. 1, 1540), to the effect that this book was given by John Faber, Bishop of Vienna, to the

students of the College of St. Nicholas. 28128 1513 MAJOR (R. H.) On a Mappemonde by LEONARDO DA VINCI,

being the earliest map hitherto known containing the name of

America, impl. 4to. facsimile of MS. Mappemonde, cloth, 15s 1865 28129 1515 SCHENER (Joannis) Luculentissima quædā terrae totius

descriptio: cū multis vtilissimis Cosmographiæ iniciis, with the rare slip of Errata, and the separate leaf which contains a large woodcut of his terrestrial globe, small 4to. £25. Noriberg., 1515

The Luculentissima Descriptio is the second geographical work in which the name of America was used to designate the New World. (The first was the Cosmographia, which see post in the section “ Narratives of Voyagers” VESPUCCI.)

In some respects the early ideas of Schöner were superior to the later. In 1515 he held that “America sive Amerigen novus mundus” was the “quarta orbis pars” and an “insula miræ magnitudinis." He goes on to say that “ Parias insula" is not a portion of the preceding island, but a special great portion of the new fourth part of the world. This implies the recognition of a new and distinct continent, which he rejects in the late Opusculum. We know that by Parias is not meant the gulf and coast of Paria, in South America, which Columbus visited in 1499, but the Lariab of Vespucci (miswritten or misprinted Parias in the Cosmographice Introductio of 1507), which was probably in Guatemala ; and therefore, having regard to the article “Brasiliæ regio," a little further on, we may conclude that Schöner's idea was that of a new continent, consisting of three great islands, lying from northwest to south-east, Lariab or Parias being the northernmost, and corresponding to North America; America sive Amerigen lying in the middle and corresponding to Yucatan, Central America, Nicaragua; Brasilia lying south-east, and corresponding to South America. In his description of the minor islands of the New World, we find Spagnolla, Isabella, etc., and the Madeiras. He sums up his chapter by saying, Thus the world is known as being of four parts; the first three parts are continents, that is, terra firma, and the fourth an island, since on every side it is observed to be surrounded by the sea. The word insula, an island, may be taken to inean insular in a general sense, but the statement that the insularity was proven, in conjunction with the assertion that “modica est distantia ab hac Brasiliæ regione ad Mallaquam ubi S. Thomas apostolus martyrio coronatus," is a singular circumstance in a book which preceded Magellan's voyage by some years.

8130 1520 SOLINUS. Joannis Camertis in C. Julii Solini IIoluistwpa

Enarrationes, FACSIMILE of A PIANUS' celebrated MAP (the earliest issued in any printed book with the name of AMERICA inscribed)

belonging to this edition, folio, 218 Viennce Austriæ, 1520 28131 1522 APIANI (Petri) Declaratio: et Vsus Typi Cosmographici,

sm. 4to. 8 leaves, with little woodcut Mappa Mundi on the title showing an island lying in the ocean east of Asia and marked with the letters Am, red morocco, by Bedford, £21.

(Landisutæ] 1522 The particular value of this tract lies in its excessive rarity, and the fact that it contains the small map with the word " Am.” two years before the first edition of the Cosmographicus Liber. There is also a section of the text with the heading " America ” following similar paragraphs headed “ Europe,

Asia,” “ Aphrica,” and one with the general heading “Mundi in quattuor partes divisio.” 28132 PTOLEMY. Map of America (Terra Nova) and the W. Indies,

entitled Tabula Ter. Novo, extracted from Ptolemy of 1522, on å folio sheet folded, with letterpress on the back describing the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, 368 1522 This map was also inserted in the Pomponius Mela of 1522.

It is a copy of the corresponding map in the 1513 Ptolemy, with a few added inscriptions, including the word America on the Southern continent, and the name PARIAS on the land which coasts the Gulf of Mexico. This peculiarity is significant as showing where the “Lariab” of Vespucci's first

voyage was supposed to lie. See note to Schöner, No. 28129. 28133 1523 SCHÖNER (J.) Lettre à propos de son Globe, ecrite en 1523 (en Latin), réimpression fidèle, 8vo. sd. 3s 6d St. Petersburg, 1872

Only 40 copies reprinted by Varnhagen. 28134 1524 APIANI (Petri) Cosmographicus Liber, sm. 4to. FIRST

EDITION, numerous woodcuts, maps, and Geometrical and Astronomical Diagrams, with Volvelles and other movable pieces, stamped pigskin, £12.

Excusum Landshutæ typis Jo. Weyssenburgers, 1524 “ Edition très-rare, et la première qui ait paru de cet ouvrage.”Brunet. Contains : Title ; Dedication, i leaf ; Index, 2 leaves ; Text, 104 numbered pages ; Appendix, 3 leaves. Harrisse gives the collation as : Title, 5 prel. 11. (which sometimes appear at the end of the book) and 104 11. of text.

Apianus was the designer of the map which appeared in the celebrated work of Camers upon Solinus in 1520, and was consequently the first promoter of the name America in the long series of maps issued with geographical treatises. The Cosmographicus Liber has two small maps, on pages 2 and 63, bearing the delineation and title of AMERICA, and the fourth chapter of the second part is an article devoted entirely to America and Vespucci, ignoring the name of Columbus. In the seventeenth chapter, “ America " is mentioned as an island

along with Sicily, Java, and Rhodes. 28135 1525 CLAUDII PTOLEMAEI Geographicæ Enarrationis

libri octo Bilibaldo Pirckeymhero interprete, (acc.) annotationes J. de Regio Monte in errores commissos a Jacobo Angelo in translatione sua, folio, curious initials with borders, 50 large woodcut maps, original calf, slightly stained and wormed, £6. 10s

Argentoragi (sic) J. Grieninger, 1525 28136

the same, folio, large copy in half calf, £9. 9s 1525 The Bodleian Library possesses only an imperfect copy of this edition, and there is none at all in the Grenville Library. Harrisse (Bibl. Americana)

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