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the prize on this question (proposed by || production of a new principle which was the National Institute of France in the not before, and which man could not public sitting of the 15th Germinal, in himself produce, Eph. ii. 8, 10—3. It is the year 10), “ What has been the in- expressly denied to be of men, but defluence of the reformation by Luther on clared to be of God, John, i. 12, 13. the political situation of the different ' 1 John, iii. 9. The instrumental cause. states of Europe, and on the progress if it may be so called, is the word of of knowledge?" 11. Moore's léir ts to a God, Jam. i. 18. 1 Cor. iv, 15. The Young Princess, vol. ii. ch. 35.
evidences of it are, conviction of sin, REFORMED CHURCH. See holy sorrow, deep humility, knowledge, CHURCH REFORMED.
faith, repentance, love, and devotedness REFUGEES, a term first applied to to God's glory. The properties of it the French Protestants, who, by the re- are these: 1. It is a passive work, and vocation of the edict of Nantes, were herein it differs from conversion. JA constrained to fly from persecution, and regeneration we are passive, and receive take refuge in foreign countries. Since from God; in conversion we are active, that time, however, it has been extend- and turn to him.-2. It is an irresistible, ed to all such as leave their country in or rather an invincible, work of God's times of distress. See HUGUENOTS. grace, Eph. iii. 8.-3. It is an insianta
REGIUM DONUM MONEY, mo- neous act, for there can be no medium ney allowed by government to the Dis- | between life and death; and here it senters. The origin of it was in the differs from sanctification, which is proyear 1723. As the Di-senters approved gressive.-4. It is a complete act, and themselves strong friends to the house pe fect in its kind; a change of the of Brunswick, they enjoyed favour; and, whole man, 2 Cor. v. 17.-5. It is a being excluded all lucrative preferment great and important act, both as to its in the church, the prime minister wish- author and effects, Eph. ii. 4, 5.-6. It is ed to reward them for their loyalty, and, an internal act, not consisting in bare by a retaining fee, preserve them sted-outward forms, Ezek xxxvi. 26, 27,fast. A considerable sum, therefore, 7. Visible as to its effects, 1 John, iii. 14. was annually lodged with the heads of -8. Delightful, 1 Pet. i. 8.-9. Necesthe Presbyterians, Independents, and sary, John, ii. 3.–10. It is an act, the Baptists, to be distributed among the ne- blessings of which we can never finally cessiious ministers of their congrega- lose, John, xiii. 1. See CALLING, Contions.
VERSION ; and Charnocks Works, vol. REGENERATION, a new birth; ii. p. 1 to 230; Cole and Wright, but that work of the Holy Spirit by which especially Witherspoon on Regenerawe experience a change of heart. It is tion; Doddruge's Ten Sermons on the to be distinguished from baptism which Subject; Dr. Gill's Body of Divinity, is an external riie, though some have article Regeneration ; Dr. Owen on the confounded them together. Nor does it Spirit ; Lime Street Lectures, ser. 8. ward conduct. Nor is it a conversion remains of the bodies or clothes of saints from one sect or creed to another; or or martyrs, and the instruments by even from atheism. Nor are new fa- | which they were put to death, devoutly culties given in this change. Nor does preserved, in honour to their memory; it consist in new revelations, succession kissed, revered, and carried in procesof terrors or consolations; or any whis- sion. per as it were from God to the heart, The respect which was justly due to concerning his secret love, choice, or the martyrs and teachers of the Chrispurpose to save us. It is expressed in tian faith, in a few ages, increased alScripture by being born again, John, most to adoration ; and at length adoraii. 7. born from above, so it may be ren- tion was really paid both to departed dered, John, iii. 2, 7, 27. being quicken- | saints, and to relics of holy men, or holy ed, Ephes. ii
. 1. Christ formed in the things. The abuses of the church of heart, Gal. iv. 12. a partaking of the Rome with respect to relics, are very Divine nature, 2 Pet. i. 4. The efficient Hagrant and notorious; for such was cause of regeneration is the Divine Spi- the rage them at one time, that, as rit. That man is not the author of it is F. Mabillon, a Benedictine, justly comevident, if we consider, 1. The case in plains, the altars were loaded with suswhich men are before it takes place; a pected relics; numerous spurious ones state of ignorance and inability. John, being every where offered to the piety iii. 4.–2. The nature of the work shows and devotion of the faithful. He adds, plainly that it is not in the power of too, that bones are often consecrated, men to do it: it is called a creatio!), a which so far from belonging to saints,
probably do not belong to Christians. || Thcodosius the Great was obliged to From the catacombs numerous relics pass a law, forbidding the people to dig have been taken, and yet it is not known up the bodies of the martyrs, and to who were the persons interred therein. | traffic in their relics. In the eleventh century, relics were Such was the origin of that re-pect tried by fire, and those which did not for sacred relics, which afterwards was consume were reckoned genuine, and perverted into a formal worship of them, the rest not. Relics were, and still are, and became the occasion of innumerable preserved on the altars whereon mass processions, pilgrimages, and miracles, is celebrated : a square hole being made from which the church of Rome hath in the middle of the altar big enough to derived incredible advantage. In the receive the hand; and herein is the re-end of the ninth century it was not suflic deposited, being first wrapped in red ficient to reverence departed saints, and silk, and enclosed in a leaden box. to confide in their intercessions and suc
The Romanists plead antiquity in be- || cours; to clothe them with an imaginary half of relics: for the Manichees, out of power of healing diseases, working mirahatred to the flesh, which they consi-cles, and delivering from all sorts of dered as an evil principle, refused to calamities and dangers; their bones, honour the relics of saints; which is their clothes, the apparel and furniture reckoned a kind of proof that the Ca- | they had possessed during their lives, tholics did it in the first ages.
the very ground which they had touchWe know, indeed, that the touching | ed, or in which their putrefied carcasses of linen clothes, or relics, from an opi- were laid, were treated with a stupid nion of some extraordinary virtue de- veneration, and supposed to retain the rived therefrom, was as ancient as the || marvellous virtue of healing all disorfirst ages, there being a hole made in ders, both of body and mind, and of dethe coffins of the forty martyrs at Con- fending such as possessed them against stantinople expressly for that purpose. | all the assaults and devices of the deThe honouring the relics of saints, on vil. The consequence of all this was, which the church of Rome afterwards that every one was eager to provide founded her superstitious and lucrative himself with these salutary remedies : use of them, as objects of devotion, as a consequently, great numbers undertook kind of charms, or amulets, and as in- fatiguing and perilous voyages, and substruments of pretended miracles, ap- jected themselves to all sorts of hardpears to have originated in a very an-ships; while o:hers made use of this decient custom that prevailed among lusion to accumulate their riches, and to Christians, of assembling at the ceme- impose upon the miserable multitude teries or burying places of the martyrs, by the most impious and shocking infor the purpose of commemorating ventions. As the demand for relics was them, and of performing divine wor- prodigious and universal, the clergy emship. When the profession of Chris- | ployed the utmost dexterity to satisfy tianity obtained the protection of civil go- all demands, and were far from being vernment, under Constantine the Great, nice in the methods they used for that stately churches were erected over se- end. The bodies of the saints were pulchres, and their names and memo- sought by fasting and prayer, instituted ries were treated with every possible by the priest, in order to obtain a ditoken of affection and respect. This re- vine answer; and an infallible direction ; verence, however, gradually exceeded and this pretended direction never failed all reasonable bounds; and those pray- to accomplish their desires: the holy ers and religious services were thought carcass was always found, and that alto have a peculiar sanctity and virtue ways in consequence, as they impiously which were performed over their tombs: gave out, of the suggestion and inspirahence the practice which afterwards ob- | tion of God himself. Each discovery of tained of depositing relics of saints and this kind was attended with excessive martyrs under the altars in all churches demonstrations of joy, and animated the This practice was then thought of such zeal of these devout seekers to enrich importance, that St. Ambrose would not the church still more and more with consecrate a church because it had no this new kind of treasure. Many trarelics; and the council of Constanti- || velled with this view into the eastern nople in Trullo ordained, that those al- provinces, and frequented the places tars should be demolished under which which Christ and his disciples had hothere were found no relics. The rage || noured with their presence ; that with of procuring relics for this and other the bones and other sacied remains of purposes of a similar nature became so the first heralds of the Gospel, they excessive, that in 386, the emperor || might confort dejected minds, calm
trembling, consciences, save sinking || When Mr. Gillespie was deprived of states, and defend their inhabitants from his parish, he removed to Dumferline, all sorts of calamities. Nor did these and preached there to a congregation pious travellers return home empty : | who were attached to him, and vehethe craft, dexterity, and knavery of the men:ly opposed the law of patronage. Greeks, found a rich prey in the stupid Being excluded from the communion of credulity of the Latin relic-hunters, the church, he, with two or three other and made a profitable commerce of this ministers, constituted themselves into a new devotion. The latter paid consi- presbytery, called the Presbytery of derable sums for legs and arms, skulls, Relief; willing to afford relief to all and jaw-bones (several of which were “ who adhered to the constitution of the Pagan, and some not human,) and other church of Scotland, as exhibited in her things that were supposed to have be- creeds, canons, confessions, and forms Jonged to the primitive worthies of the of worship.” They are unwilling, it is Christian church ; and thus the Latin said, to be reckoned seceders. Their churches came to the possession of those licentiates are educated under the estacelebrated relics of St. Mark, St. James, blished church professors, whose certiSt. Bartholomew, Cyprian, Pantaleon, ficates they acknowledge. Many of their and others, which they show at this day people receive the Lord's supper with with so much ostentation. But there equalreadiness in the established church were many, who, unable to procure for as in their own. The relief synod conthemselves these spiritual treasures by sists of about sixty congregations, and voyages and prayers, had recourse to about 36,000 persons. violence and theft ; for all sorts of RELIGION is a Latin word, derived, means, and all sorts of attempts, in a according to Cicero, from relegere, cause of this nature, were considered, “ to re-consider;" but according to Serwhen successful, as pious and accepta- vius and most modern grammarians, ble to the Supreme Being. Besides the from religare “ to bind fast.” If the arguments from antiquity, to which the Ciceronian etymology be the true one, Papists refer in vindication of their wor- the word religion will denote the diliship of relics, of which the reader may gent study of whatever pertains to the form some judgment froin this article, worship of God; but, according to the Bellarmine appeals to Scripture in sup- other derivation, it denotes that obligaport of it; and cites the following pas- tion which we feel on our minds from sages, viz. Exod. xiii. 19. Deut. xxxiv. the relation in which we stand to some 6. 2 Kings, xiii. 21. 2 Kings, xxiii. 16, superior power. The word is sometimes 17, 18. Isaiah, xi, 10. Matt. xi. 20, 21, used as synonymous with sect; but, in a 22. Acts, v. 12, 15. Acts, xix. 11, 12. practical sense, it is generaliy consider
The Roman Catholics in Great Bri- ed as the same with godliness, or a life tain do not acknowledge any worship to devoted to the worship and fear of God. be due to relics, but merely a high ve- Dr. Doddridge thus defines it: “ Relineration and respect, by which means gion consists in the resolution of the they think they honour God, who, they will for God, and in a constant care to say, has often wrought very extraor- avoid whatever we are persuaded he dinary miracles by them. But, however would disapprove, to dispatch the work proper this veneration and respect may he has assigned us in life, and to probe, ils abuse has been so great and so mote his glory in the happiness of mangeneral, as fully to warrant the rejec- kind." [See GODLINESS.) The fountion of them altogether.
dation of all religion rests on the belief Relics are forbidden to be used or of the existence of God. As we have, brought into England by several sta- however, already considered the evitutes; and justices of peace are em
dences of the divine existence, they powered to search houses for popish need not be enumerated agair in this books and relics, which when found, place; the reader will find them under are to be defaced, and burnt, &c. 3. Jac. The article EXISTENCE OF GOD. 1. cap. 26.
Religion has been divided into natural RELIEF, a species of Dissenters in and revealed. By natural religion is Scotland, whose only difference from meant that knowledge, veneration, and the Scotch established church is the love of God, and the practice of those choosing their own pastors. They were duties to him, our fellow-creatures, and separated from the church in the year ourselves, which are discoverable by 1752, occasioned by Mr. Thomas Gilles. the right exercise of our rational facul. pie being deposed for refusing to assist ties, from considering the nature and at the admission of a minister to a pa- perfections of God, and our relation to r'ish who were unwilling to receive him. him and to one another. By revealed
rcligion is understood that discovery || written revelation, may be called nawhich he has made to us of his mind tural theology, and are of the utmost and will in the Holy Scriptures. As it importance, as being to us the first prinrespects natural religion, some doubt ciples of all religion. Natural theology, whether, properly speaking, there can in this sense of the word, is the foundabe any such thing; since, through the tion of the Christian revelation ; for, fall, reason is so depraved, that man without a previous knowledge of it, we without revelation is under the greatest could have no evidence that the Scripdarkness and misery, as may be easily tures of the Old and New Testaments seen by considering the history of those are indeed the word of God.” nations who are destitute of it, and who The religions which exist in the world are given up to barbarism. ignorance, have been generally divided into four, cruelty, and evils of every kind. So far the Pagan, the Jewish, the Mahomeas this, however, may be observed, that tan, and the Christian ; to which artithe light of nature can give us no pro-cles the reader is referred. The vaper ideas of God, nor inform us what rious duties of the Christian religion also worship will be acceptable to him. It are stated in their different places. See does not tell us how man became a fallen || also, as connected with this article, the sinful creature, as he is, nor how he can articles INSPIRATION, REVELATION, be recovered. It affords us no intelli- | and THEOLOGY, and books there regence as to the immortality of the soul, commended. the resurrection of the body, and a fu- RELIGIOUS, in a general sense, ture state of happiness and misery. The something that relates to religion. It is apostle, indeed, observes, that the Gen- also used for a person engaged by sotiles have the law written on their lemn vows to the monastic life; or a hearts, and are a law unto themselves ; person shut up in a monastery, to lead a yet the greatest moralists among them life of devotion and austerity under some were so blinded as to be guilty of, and rule or institution. The male religious actually to countenance the greatest are called monks and friars ; the fevices. Such a system, therefore, it is
males, nuns and canonesses. supposed, can hardly be said to be re- RELLYANISTS, or RELLYAN UNIligious which leaves man in such un- VERSALISTS, the followers of Mr. certainty, ignorance, and impiety: (See James Relly: He first commenced his REVELATION.] On the other side it is ministerial character in connection with observed, “that, though it is in the Mr. Whitefield, and was received with highest degree probable that the pa great popularity. Upon a change of his rents of mankind received all their views, he encountered reproach, and theological knowledge by supernatural was pronounced by many as an enemy means, it is yet obvious that some parts to godliness. He believed that Christ of that knowledge must have been capa- as a Mediator was so united to manble of a proof purely rational, otherwise kind, that his actions were theirs, his not a single religious truth could have obedience and sufferings theirs ; and, been conveyed through the succeeding consequently, that he has as fully regenerations of the human race but by stored the whole human race to the dithe immediate inspiration of each indi- vine favour, as if all had obeyed and vidual. We, indeed, admit many pro- suffered in their own persons; and upon positions as certainly true, upon the sole this persuasion he preached a finished authority of the Jewish and Christian salvation, called by the apostle Jude, Scriptures, and we receive these Scrip- “ The common salvation.” Many of his tures with gratitude as the lively ora- followers are removed to the world of cles of God; but it is self-evident that spirits, but a branch still survives, and we could not do either the one or the neers at the chapel in Windmill-street, other, were we not convinced by natural Moorfields, London; where there are means that God exists; that he is a be- different brethren who speak. They ing of goodness, justice, and power; are not observers of ordinances, such as and that he inspired with divine wisdom water-baptism and the sacrament; prothe penman of these sacred volumes. || fessing to believe only in one baptism, Now, though it is very possible that no which they call an immersion of the man, or body of men, left to themselves mind or conscience into truth by the from infancy in a desert world, would teaching of the Spirit of God; and by ever have made a theological discovery, the same Spirit they are enabled to feed yet, whatever propositions relating to on Christ as the bread of life, professing the being and attributes of the first that in and with Jesus the possess aji Cause, and duty of man, can be demon- things. They inculcate and main ain strated by human reason, independent of | gool works for necessary purposes;
but contend that the principal and only row for any thing past. In thcology it works which ought to be attended to, is signifies that sorrow for sin which prothe doing real good without religious os- | duces newness of life. The Greek word tentation ; that to relieve the miserics | most frequen'ly used in the New Tesand distresses of mankind according to tament for repentance is pusT17014, which our ability, is doing more real good than properly denotes an afterthought, or the the superstitious observance of religious soul recollecting its own actings; and ceremonies. In general they appear to that in such a manner as to procluce sorbelieve that there will be a resurrection row in the review, and a desire of amendto life, and a resurrection to condemna
Another word also is used tion; that believers only will be among (uetaulerereses,) which signifies anxiety or the former, who as first fruits, and uneasiness upon the consideration of kings and priests, will have part in the what is done.' There are, however, vafirst resurrection, and shall reign with rious kinds of repentance; as, 1. A naChrist in his kingdom of the millennium; tural repentance, or what is merely the that unbelievers who are after raised, effect of natural conscience.-2. A namust wait the manifestation of the Sational repentance, such as the Jews in viour of the world, under that con- Babylon were called unto; to which demnation of conscience which a mind
temporal blessings were promised, Ezek. in darkness and wrath must necessarily xviii. 30.-3. An external repentance, feel; that believers, called kings and or an outward humiliation for sin, as in priests, will be made the medium of the case of Ahab.-4. A hypocritical recommunication to their condemned bre- pentance, as represented in Ephraim, thren; and like Joseph to his brethren, | Hos. vii. 16.-5. A legal repentance, though he spoke roughly to them, in which is a mere work of the law, and reality overflowed with affection and the effect of convictions of sin by it, tenderness; that ultimately every knee which in time wear off, and come to shall bow, and every tongue confess nothing --6. An evangelical repentance, that in the Lord they have righteous- which consists in conviction of sin; sorness and strength; and thus every ene- row for it; confession of it; hatred to my shall be subdued to the kingdom it; and renunciation of it. A legal and and glory of the Great Mediator. A evangelical repentance are distinguishMr. Murray belonging to this society ed thus: 1. A legal repentance flows emigrated to America, and preached only from a sense of danger and fear these sen:iments at Boston and else- of wrath ; but an evangelical repentwhere. Mr. Relly published several ance is a true mourning for sin, and an works, the principal of which were, earnest desire of deliverance from it.· L'nion.” . The Trial of Spirits.' || 2. A legal repentance flows from un“ Christian Liberty.” “ One-Bapusm.” belief, but evangelical is always the fruit “ The Salt of Sacrifice.” “ Antichrist
and consequence of a saving faith.resisten.” “ Letters on Universal Sal- 3. A legal repentance flows from an vation.” “ The Cherubimical Mys- aversion to God and to his holy law,
but an evangelical from love to both.REMEDIAL LAW. See Law; and 4. A legal repentance ordinarily flows article JUSTIFICATION.
from discouragement and despondency, REMONSTRANTS, a title given to but evangelical from encouraging hope. the Arminians, by reason of the remon- -5. A legal repentance is temporary, strance which, in 1610, they made to the but evangelical is the daily exercise of states of Holland against the sentence the true Christian.-6. Á legal reof the synod of Dort, which condemned pentance does at most produce only a them as heretics. Episcopius and Gro- partial and external reformation, but an tius were at the head of the Remon- evangelical is a total change of heart strants, whose principles were first open- and life. ly patronised in England by archbishop The author of true repentance is Laud. In Holland, the Calvinists pre- God, Acts, v. 31. The subjects of it sented an address in opposition to the are sinners, since none but those who remonstrance of the Arminians, and have sinned can repent. The means of called it a counter-remonstrance. See repentance is the word, and the minisARMINIANS and Dort.
ters of it; yet sometimes consideration, REMORSE, uneasiness occasioned || sanctified afflictions, conversation, &c. by a consciousness of guilt. When it is have been the instruments of repentance. blended with the fear of punishment, The blessings connected with repentand rises to despair, it constitutes the ance are, pardon, peace, and everlastsupreme wretchedness of the mind. ing life, Acts, xi. 18. The time of reREl’ENTANCE, in general, is sor- pentance is the present life, Isaial, Iv.