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selves together by a solemn secret, || riod of human life by means of certain which they all swore inviolably to pre- | nostrums, and even to restore youth; serve; and obliged themselves, at their they were called Immortales, as they admission into the order, to a strict ob- || pretended to know all things, they have serı ance of certain established rules. been called Illuminati; and, because They pretended to know all sciences, they have made no appearance for seand chiefly medicine; whereof they | veral years, unless the sect of Illuminapublished themselves the restorers. ted which lately started up on the conThey pretended to be masters of abun- tinent derives its origin from them, they dance of important secrets, and among have been called the Invisible Brothers. others, that of the philosopher's stone; Their society is frequently signed by the all which they affirmed to have received letters F. R. C. which some among by tradition from the ancient Egyptians, | them interpret Fratres Roris Cocti; it Chaldeans, the Magi, and Gymnoso- || being pretended that the matter of the phists. They have been distinguished philosopher's stone is dew concocted, by several names, accommodated to the exalted, &c. several branches of their doctrine. Be- RUSSIAN CHURCH. See GREEK cause they pretend to protract the pe- Il Church.
SABBATARIANS, those who keep SABBATH, in the Hebrew language. the seventh day as the sabbath. They | signifies rest, and is the seventh day of are to be found principally, if not wholly | the week: a day appointed for religious among the Baptists. They object to the duties, and a total cessasion from work, in reasons which are generally alleged for commemoration of God's resting on the keeping the first day ; and assert, that seventh day; and likewise in memorial the change from the seventh to the first of the redemption of the Israelites from was effected by Constantine on his con- Egyptian bondage. version to Christianity. The three fol- Concerning the time when the sablowing propositions contain a summary || bath was first instituted there have been of their principles as to this article of different opinions. Some have mainthe sabbath, by which they stand distintained that the sanctification of the guished. 1. That God hath required seventh day mentioned in Gen. ii. is the observation of the seventh, or last only there spoken of deate aguantons, or by day of every week, to be observed by anticipation : and is to be understood of mankind universally for the weekly || the sabbath afterwards enjoined in the sabbath.-2. That this command of wilderness; and that the historian, God is perpetually binding on man till writing after it was instituted, there time shall be no more.- And, 3. That gives the reason of its institution : and this sacred rest of the seventh-day sab- this is supposed so be the case, as it is bath is not (by divine authority) chang- never mentioned during the patriarchal ed from the seventh and last to the first age. But against this sentiment it is day of the week, or that the Scripture urged, 1. That it cannot be easily sup: doth no where require the observation posed that the inspired penman would of any other day of the week for the have mentioned the sanctification of the weekly sabbath, but the seventh day || seventh day among the primæval transonly. They hold, in common with other actions. if such sanctification had not Christians, the distinguishing doctrines || taken place until 2500 years afterwards. of Christianity. There are two congre- | -2. That considering Adam was regations of the Sabbatarians in London ; || stored to favour through a Mediator, one among the general Baptists, meet- and a religious service instituted, which ing in Mill Yard ; the other among the man was required to observe, in testiparticular Baptists, in Cripplegate. | mony not only of his dependence on the There are, also, a few to be found in | Creator, but also of his faith and hope different parts of the kingdom, and some, in the promise, it seems reasonable that it is said, in America. A tract, in sup- an institution so grand and solemn, and port of this doctrine, was published by so necessary to the observance of this Mr. Cornthwaite, in 1740. See Evan8's service, should be then existent.--.
Sketch of the Denominations of the Chris- i That it is no proof against its existence tian World; and books under next article. Il because it is not mentioned in the patri
archical age, no more than it is against | upon the Christian and the Jewish its existence from Moses to the end of scheme.” David's reign, which was near 440 As the sabbath is of divine institution, years.-4. That the sabbath was men- so it is to be kept holy unto the Lord. tioned as a well known solemnity before Numerous have been tlie days appointthe promulgation of the law, Exodus, ed hy men for religious services; but xvi. 23. For the manner in which the these are not binding because of human Jews kept it, and the awful consequences institution. Not so the sabbath. Hence of neglecting it, we refer the reader to the fourth commandment is ushered in the Old Testament. Lev. xxvi. 34, 35. with a peculiar emphasis." Remember Neh. xiii. 16, 18. Jer. xvii. 21. Ezek. that thou keep holy the sabbath day.” xx. 16, 17. Numb. xv. 23-36.
This institution is wise as to its ends : Under the Christian dispensation, the That God may be worshipped ; man sabbath is altered from the seventh to instructed; nations benefited ; and fathe first day of the week. The argu- | milies devoted to the service of God. It ments for the change are these : 1. As is lasting as to its (uration. The abolithe seventh day was observed by the tion of it would be unreasonable ; unJewish church in memory of the rest of scriptural, Exod. xxxi. 13 ; and every God after the works of the creation, way disadvantageous to the body, to so. and their deliverance from Pharaoh's ciety, to the soul, and even to the brute tyranny, so the first day of the week has creation. It is, however, awfully vioalways been observed by the Christian lated by visiting, feasting, indolence, church in memory of Christ's resur- buying and selling, working, worldly rection.-2. Christ made repeated visits | amusements, and travelling.
" Look into his disciples on that day.-3. It is to the streets,” says bishop Porteus, called the Lord's day, Rev.i. 10.–4. On i on the Lord's day, and see whether this day the apostles were
they convey the idea of a day of rest. bled, when the Holy Ghost caine down Do not our servants and our cattle seem so visibly upon them, to qualify them to be almost as fully occupied on that for the conversion of the world.-5. On day as on any other? And, as if this was this day we find St. Paul preaching at not a sufficient infringement of their Troas, when the disciples came to break | rights, we contrive by needless enterbread.-6. The directions the apostles tainments at home, and needless jourgive to the Christians plainly allude to neys abroad, which are often by choice their religious assemblies on the first and inclination reserved for this very day:—7. Pliny bears witness of the first day, to take up all the little remaining day of the week being kept as a festival, part of their leisure time. A sabbati in honour of the resurrection of Christ : day's journey was among the Jews a and the primitive Christians kept it in proverbial expression for a very short the most solemn manner.
one ; among us it can have no such These arguments, however, are not meaning affixed to it. That day seems satisfactory 10 some, and it must be to be considered by too many as set confessed that there is no law in the apart, by divine and human authority, New Testament concerning the first || for the purpose not of rest, but of its di. day. However, it may be observed rect opposite, the labour of travelling, that it is not so much the precise time thus adding one day more of torment to that is universally binding, as that one those generous but wretched animals day out of seven is to be regarded. “As whose services they hire; and who, beit is impossible,” says Dr. Doddridge, ing generally strained beyond their “certainly to determine which is the strength the other six days of the week, seventh day from the creation ; and as, have, of all creatures under heaven, the in consequence of the spherical form of best and most equitable claim to susa the earth, and the absurdity of the pension of labour on the seventh." scheme which supposes it one great These are evils greatly to be lamente plain, the change of place will neces- ed; they are an insult to God, an injury sarily occasion some alteration in the to ourselves, and an awful example to time of the beginning and ending of any our servants, our children, and our day in question. it being always at the friends. To sanctify this day, we should same time, somewhere or other, sun- consider it, 1. A day of rest ; not inrising and sun-setting, noon and mid-deed, to exclude works of mercy and night, it seems very unreasonable to lay || charity, but a cessation from all labour such a stress upon the particular day as andcare.-2. As a day of remembrance ; some do. It seems abundantly sufficient of creation, preservation, redemption. that there be six days of labour and one -3. As a day of meditation and prayer, of religious rest, which there will be l in which we should cultivate comin'nion with God, Rev. i. 10.–4. As a day | ment be just which is given by the of public worship, Acts, xx. 7. John, church of England. By that church, xx. 19.-5. As a day of joy, Is. lvi. 2. the meaning of the word sacrament is Ps. cxviii. 24.-6. As a day of praise, declared to be “an outward and visible Ps. cxvi. 12–14.—7. As a day of anti- sign of an inward and spiritual grace cipation ; looking forward to that holy, given unto us, ordained by Christ himhappy, and eternal sabbath, that remains self, as a means whereby we receive for the people of God.
the same, and a pledge to assure us Sce Chandler's two Sermons on the thereof."- According to this definition, Sabbath;, Wright on the Sabbath ; baptism and the Lord's supper are cerIVatts's Hol. of Times and Places ; Or- tainly sacraments, for each consists of ion's six Disc. on the Lord's Day; an outward and visible sign of what is Kennicott's Ser. and Dial. on the Sab- believed to be an inward and spiritual bath ; Bp. Porteus's Scrmons, ser. 9. grace: both were ordained by Christ vol. 1 ; Watts's Scrmons, ser. 57. vol. i. himself, and in the reception of each S. Palmer's Apology for the Christian does the Christian solemnlı devo' e himSabbath; Kennicott on the Oblations of self to the service of his Divine Master. Cain and Abel, p. 184, 185.
(See BAPTISM, and Lord's SUPPER.] SABELLIANS, a sect in the third The Romanis:s, however, add to this century that embraced the opinions of number confirmation, fuenance, extreme Sabellíus, a philosopher of Egypt, who unction, or lination, and marriage, holdopenly taught that there is but one per- ing in all seven sacraments. (See son in the Godhead.
Popery.] Numerous, however, as the The Sabellians maintained that the sacraments of the Romish church are, Word and the Holy Spirit are only vir- a sect of Christians sprung up in Engtues, emanations, or functions of the land, early in the last century, whoisDeity; and held that he who is in hea- creased their number. The founder of ven is the Father of all things; that he this sect was a Dr. Deacon. According descended into the Virgin, became a to these men, every rite, and every child, and was born of her as a son; phrase, in the book called the Apostoand that, having accomplished the mys- lical Constitutions, were certainly in tery of our salvation, he diffused him-se among the apostles themselves. self on the apostles in tongues of fire, Still, however, they make a dis:inction and was then denominated the Holy between the greater and the lesser saGlicst. This they explained by re- craments. The greater sacraments are sembling God to the sun ; the illuniina- only two, baptism and the Lord's supted virtue or quality of which was the per. The lesser are no fewer than ten, Word, and its warming viriue the Holy viz. five belonging to baptism, erorcism, Spirit. The Word, they taught, was anointing with oil, the white garment, a darted, like a divine ray, to accomplish taste of milk and honey, and anointing the work of redemption, and that, be- with chrism or oinimer. The other ing reascended to heaven, the influences five are, the sign of the cross, imposiof the Father were communicated after tion of hands, unction of the sick, hely a like manner to the apostles.
orders, and matrimony. This sect, howSACOPHORI, a denomination in ever, if not extinguished, is supposed to the fourth century, so called, because be in its last wane. Its founder publishthey always went clothed in sackcloth, ed, in 1748, his full, true, and compreand affected a great deal of austerity hensive view of Christianity, in two and penance,
catechisms, octavo. SACRAMENT is derived from the SACRAMENTARIANS, a general Latin word sacramentum, which signi- name given for all such as hare held fies an oath, particularly the oath taken erroneous opinions respecting the Lord's by soldiers to be true to their country supper. The term is chiefly applied and general.-The word was adopted among Catholics, by way of reproach by the writers of the Latin church, to to the Lutherans, Calvinists, and other denote those ordinances of religion by Protestants. which Christians came under an obli- SACRIFICE, an offering made to gation of obedience to God, and which God on an altar, by means of a regular obligation, they supposed, was equally minister; as an acknowledgment of his sacred with that of an oath. [See Vow.) | power, and a payment of honage. SaOf sacraments, in this sense of the word, crifices (though the term is sometimes Protestant churches admit of but two; used to comprehend all the offerings and it is not easy to conceive how a made to God, or in any way devoted to greater number can be made out from his service and honour) differ from mere Scripture, if the delinition of a sacra- oblations in this, that in a sacrifice there
is a real destruction or change of the , and substituted satisfactions; and they thing offered; whereas an oblation is called the animals so offered [their only a simple offering or gift, without artefuxc] the ransom of their souls. any such change at all: thus, all sorts of “But if these notions are so remote tithes, and first fruits, and whatever of from, nay, so contrary to, any lesson men's worldly substance is consecrated that nature teaches, as they confessedly to God for the support of his worship are, how came the whole world to pracand the maintenance of his ministers, tise the rights founded upon them? It is are offerings, or oblations; and these, certain that the wisest Heathens, Pythaunder the Jewish law, were either of goras, Plato, Porphyry, and others, living creatures, or other things : but slighted the religion of such sacrifices, sacrifices, in the more peculiar sense of and wondered how an institution so the term, were either wholly or in part dismal (as it appeared to them ) and so consumed by fire. They have, by di- big with absurdity, could diffuse itself vines, been divided into bloody and un- through the world.-An advocate for bloody Bloody sacrifices were made the sufficiency of reason (Tindall supof living creatures ; unbloody, of the poses the absurdity prevailed by defruits of the earth. They have also grees; and the priests who shared with been divided intoexpiatory, impetratory, their gods, and reserved the best bits and eucharistical. The first kind were for themselves, had the chief hand in offe red to obtain of God the forgiveness this guinful superstition. But, it may of sins; the second, to procure some fa. well be asked, who were the priests in vour; and the third, to express thank the days of Cain and Abel? Or, what fulness for favours already received. gain could this superstition be to them, Under one or other of these heads may when the one gave away his fruits, and all sacrifices be arranged, though we the other his animal sacrifice, without are told that the Egyptians had six hun- being at liberty to taste the least part dred and sixty-six different kinds; a of it? And it is worth remarking that number surpassing all credibility. Va- what this author witiily calls the best rious have been the opinions of the bits, and appropriates to the priests, ap. learned concerning the origin of sacri- pear to have been the skin of the burnttices. Some suppose that they had their offering among the Jews, and the skin origin in siperstition, and were merely and feet among the Heathens.” the inventions of men; others, that they Dr. Spencer observes (De Leg. Heb. originated in the natural sentiments of lib. iii. $ 2,] that “sacrifices were lookthe human heart; others imagine that ed upon as gifts, and that the general God, in order to prevent their being of- opinion was, that gifts would have the fered to idols, introduced them into his same effect with God as with man; service, though he did not approve of would appease wrath, conciliate favour them as good in themselves, or as pro
with the Deity, and testify the gratitude per rites of worship. “But that aniinal and affection of the sacrificer; and that sacrifices,"saysalearned author, were from this principle proceeded expiatory, not instituted by man, seems extremely precatory, and eucharistical offerings. evident from the acknowledged univer- This is all that is pretended from natusality of the practice; from the wonder- ral light to countenance this practice. ful sameness of the manner in which the But, how well soever the comparison whole world offered these sacrifices ; may be thought to hold between sacriand from the erpiation which was fices and gifts, yet the opinion that saconstantly supposed to be effected by crifices would prevail with God must them.
proceed from an observation that gifts “ Now human reason, even among had prevailed with men; an observation the most strenuous opponents of the di- this which Cain and Abel had little opvine institutions, is allowed to be incapa-portunity of making. And if the coats ble of pointing cut the least natural fit of skin which God directed Adam to ness or congruity between blood and make were the remains of sacrifices, atonement; between killing of God's sure Adam could not sacrifice from this creatures and the receiving a pardon observation, when there were no subfor the violation of God's laws. This jects in the world upon which he could consequence of sacrifices, when proper- make these observations.” (Kennicott's ly offered, was the invariable opinion of second Dissert. on the Offerings of Cain the heathens, but not the whole of their and Abel, p. 201, &c.] opinion in this matter; for they had also But the grand objection to the divine a traditionary belief among them, that origin of sacrifices is drawn from the these animal sacrifices were not only Scriptures themselves, particularly the expiations, but vicarious commutations, following (Jer. vii. 22, 23:) " I spake not to your fathers, nor commanded them, || first was the diverting things appropria at the time that I brought them out of ated to sacred purposes to other uses.Egypt, concerning the matters of burnt- || 2. Robbing the graves, or defacing and offerings or sacrifices, but only this spoiling the monuments of the dead.very thing commanded I them, saying, | 3. Those were considered as sacrilegious Obey my voice, and I will be your persons who delivered up their Bibles God, and ye shall be my people." "The and the sacred utensils of the church to ingenious writer above referred to, ac- the Pagans, in the time of the Dioclecounts for this passage (p. 153 and 209) sian persecution.-4. Profaning the saby referring to the transaction at Marah craments, churches, altars, &c.-5. Mo[Exod. xv. 23, 26,] at which time God || lesting or hindering a clergyman in the spake nothing concerning sacrifices: it | performance of his office.-6. Depriving certainly cannot be intended to contra- men of the use of the Scriptures or the dict the whole book of Leviticus, which || sacraments, particularly the cup in the is full of such appointments. Another | eucharist. The Romish casuists aclearned author to account for the above, | knowledge all these but the last. and other similar passages, observes, SADDUCEES, a famous sect among “ The Jews were diligent in perform- || the Jews; so called, it is said, from ing the external services of religion ; | their founder, Sadoc. It began in the in offering prayers, incense, sacrifices, || tiine of Antigonus, of Socho, president oblations : but these prayers were not of the Sanhedrim at Jerusalem, and offered with faith ; and iheir oblations || teacher of the law in the principal diwere made more frequently to their vinity school of that city: Antigonus idols than to the God of their fathers. having often, in his lectures, inculcated The Hebrew idiom excludes with a ge- to neral negative, in a comparative sense, serve God in a servile manner, but only one of two objects opposed to one ano- out of filial love and fear, two of his ther, thus: I will have mercy, and not scholars, Sadoc, and Baithus, thence insacrifice.' (Ho ea, vi. 6.) For I spake ferred that there were no rewards at all not to your fathers, nor commanded after this life; and, therefore, sepathem, concerning burnt-offerings or sa- rating from the school of their master, crifices; but this thing I commanded they thought there was no resurrection them, saying, Obcy iny voice.'” (Lowth nor future state, neither angel nor spion Isaiah, xlii. 22, 24.] The ingenious rit. Mait. xxii. 23. Acis, xxiii. 8. Dr. Doddridge remarks, that, accord- || They seem to agree greatly with the ing to the genius of the Hebrew lan- Epicureans; differing however in this, guage, one thing seems to be forbidden, that, though they denied a future state, and another commanded, when the yet they allowed the power of God to meaning only is, that the latter is ge- create the world ; whereas the follownerally to be preferred io the former. ers of Epicurus denied it. It is said The text before us is a remarkable in- | also, that they rejected the Bible, exstance of this; as likewise Joel, ii. 13. cept the Pentateuch; denied predestiMat. vi. 19, 20. John, vi. 27. Luke, nation ; and taught, that God had made xii. 4, 5. and Col. iii. 2. And it is evi- man absolute master of all his actions, dent that Gen. xlv. 8. Exod. xvi. 8. | without assistance to good, or restraint John, v. 30. John, vii. 19. and many from evil. other passages, are to be expounded in SAINT, a person eminent for godlithe same comparative sense. (Paraph. ness. The word is generally applied by on the New Test. sect. 59.) So that us to the apostles and other holy perthe whole may be resolved into the sons mentioned in the Scriptures: but apophthegm of the wise man (Prov. | the Romanists make its application xxi. 3:] “ To do justice and judgment much more extensive; as, according to is more acceptable to the Lord than sa- them, all who are canonized are made crifice.” See Kennicott, above refei red saints of a high degree. See CANONIto; Edwards's History of Redemption, ZATION. p. 76, note; Outram de Sucrificiis ; SALVATION means the safety or TVarburton's Divine Leg. b. 9. c. 2; preservation of any thing that has been Bishop Law's Theory of Rel. P.
or is in danger; but it is more particu54; Jennings's Jewish Antiq. vol. 1. p. || larly used by us to denote our deli26, 28; Fleury's Manners of the Israel- verance from sin and hell, and the final ites, partiv.ch.4. M'Ewen on the Types. enjoyment of God in a future state,
SACRILEGE, the crime of pro- through the mediation of Jesus Christ. saning sacred things, or things devoted See articles ATONEMENT, PROPITIAto God. The ancient church distin- TION, REGONCILIATION, REDEMPTION, guished several sorts of sacrilege. The ) and SANCTIFICATION.