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and, together with the other temples and buildings three in breadth, from north to south.* The second annexed to it, comprehended all that space upon body was about a perch less in length and breadth
which the great cathedral church now stands, part than tbe first; the third as much less than the "I am bæta gatherer and disposer of other men's
of the greater market-place, and part likewise of second; and the rest in proportion, so that upon WOTTON.
the streets and buildings around. Within the in- each body there remained a free space or plain
space within the walls was curiously paved with rected as to-tle dimensions, from that author's own THE GREATER TEMPLE OF MEXICO. sucb smooth and polished stones ihat the horses of description, and other historians... . .. .
the Spaniards could not move upon them without Upon the fifth body was a plain, which we shall
slipping and tumbling down. In the middle was call the upper area, which was about forty three (From the History of Mexico,)
raised an immense solid building of greater length perches long, I and thirty-four broad, and was as .BY ABBE D, FRANCESCO SAVERIO CLAVIGERO.
than breadth,t covered with square equal pieces of well paved as the great area below. · At the eastern
pavement. The building consisted of five bodies extreinity of this plain were raised two towers to The Mexicans, and other nations of Anahuac, nearly equal in height, but differing in length and the height of fifty-six feet, or nearly nine perches. like all civilized nations, had temples and places breadth; the highest being yarrowest. The first allotted for the purposes of religion, where the peo- budy, or basis of the building, was more than fifty Sahagun gives to the first 'body upon every side ple assembled to worship their gods, aod implore perches long from ens
perches long from east to west, and about forty-three hundred and sixty Toledan feet, and that is the their protection. They called the temple Teocalli,
measure of its length. Gomara gives it fifty brazas, that is, the house of God, and Teopan, the place of
which is the measure of its breadth. Three hundred God; which names they applied with greater pro "The Anonymous Conqueror says, that what was and sixty Toledan feet make three hundred and eight prigly to the temples erected in honour of the true within the wall was like a city. Gomara affirms, that Parisian, or a little more than fifty perches. Fifty God, after they embraced Christianity.
the wall was a very long bowshot in length upon every brazas, or estados make two hundred and fifty-seven The city and kinodom of Mexico hecan with the side. Torquemada, although agreeing with Gomara, Parisian feet, or about forty-two perches. The city and kingdom of Mexico began with the
in book viii. chap. 2, says afterwards in ch. xix. that the building of the sanctuary of Huitzilopochili, or
+ A copy of the drawing of the temple made by the circumference of the wall was above three thousand the Anonymous Conqueror, is to be found in the colMezitli, whence it has derived its name. That.
I paces, which is plainly a mistake. Dr. Hernandez, in lection of Jo. Ramusio ; and another in Father Kiredifice was then a miserable but. Itzcoatl, the first his prolix description of the temple, preserved in ma-l cher's work, entitled, Edipus Ægyptracus. king agd conqueror of that nation, after the taking nuscript in the library of the Escurial, and which of Azca pozalco, enlarged it. Montezuma I. bis Father Nieremberg has made use of in his Natural
# Sahagun, whose measures have been adopted by Successor, built a new temple, which had some shew History, allows to the wall, of every side, two hundred | Torquemada, allows no more than seventy Toledan of magnificence; and, at length Ahuitzotl raised Toledan cubits, which is about eighty-six perches.
feet square, which is about ten perches, to the upper
area ; but it is impossible that five hundred Mexican and dedicated that immense temple which his pre.
+ Sahagun makes the temple perfectly square, but nobles, as Cortes asserts, could have stood to fight against decessor Tizoc bad planned. This was the temple
the Anonymous Conqueror, both in the description and the Spaniards, in such a narrow space; especially if we which the Spaniards celebrated so highly after they in the figure which he has left us, represents it to have believe Bernard Diaz, who says, that four thousand had destroyed it.
been of greater length than breadth, like those of Mexicans fortified themselves in that temple, and that This great temple occupied the centre of the city, Teotihuacan which served as models for all the rest. numbers had got up before the nobles ascended ,
Eacb was divided into three bodies, of which the emancipation of old Spain, for which they The Spanish armies, however, were un. lower was of stone and lime, and the other two of both toiled; and if we are to give full credit able to cope with the numerous and veteran wood very well wrought sud painted. The in- to this account, it was no fault of Xavier's troops that Napoleon poured into the coun. ferior body or basis of each were properly the that the revolution of 1820 had not taken try, and being defeated in every regular sanctuaries where, upon an altar of stone five effect in 1813.
encounter, they retreated before the French. feet high, were placed their tutelary idols. One! The extract forms the introductory chap. The Catalonian army, after being deof these two sanctuaries was consecrated to Huit. ter to the body of the work : and we re- feated at Belchite, a town to the southward zilopochtli, and the gods of war, and the other publish it not merely because it will not of Saragossa, fell back to Tortosa, while to Tezcatlipoca. The other bodies were destined fail to prove interesting to the reader, but the French occupied the line extending in to the keeping of some things belonging to the the perusal of a small portion may lead to the direction of the southern frontier of F worship, and the ashes of some kings and lords a wish to possess the whole.
Arragon and Catalonia. who, through particular devotion, desired that
It was in this gloomy situation of affairs, to be done. The doors of both sanctuaries
that Xavier Mina formed a determination
EXTRACTS. were towards the west, and both the towers termi.
which had the most important effects, not
Xavier Mina was born in the month of only upon his own fortune in life, but upon nated in a very beautiful wooden cupola. There is
December, 1789. He was the eldest son the whole war in Spain. He resolved to no author who bas described the internal disposition
of a well born and respected proprietary pass through the line of the French posiand ornaments of the sanctuaries ; bor indeed the whose domains lav near the town of Mon-liion, and. -gaining his native province of size of the towers ; 80 that what is represented in real, in the province or kingdom of Navarre. | Navarre, to make its mountains and fastthe engraving is only delineated from conjecture. Breathing from his infancy the mountain nesses the theatre of his hostile operations; However, we may venture to say without danger of air, he was accustomed to wander in val- I to hang on the rear of the invaders, to inmistake, that the height of the building without the leys rich with the fruits of Southern Eu-l tercept their convoys and couriers, and cut lowers, was not less than nineteen perches, and rope, or to pursue the game which sought off their straggling detachments. with the towers, exceeded twenty-eight. From that in their migrations every spring and autumn In an evening walk he first communicated height one might see the lake, the cities around, and a passage over the mountains and isthmus to a friend and kinsman his plans and a great part of the valley; and it has been affirmed of the Pyrenees. Thus nurtured and exer- schemes, and unfolded his hopes and fears, by eye-witnesses to be the finest prospect in the cised, the faculties expanded, and the hardy | his strong enthusiam, and visions of glory. world.
qualities of the mind were matured in early The sky was bright with the tints of a brilIn the upper area was the altar for the common life. The bold and rugged scenery of liant sun-set, and, as the sun descended
Clover that for the cladiatorial, mountains : the cheerful and buoyant feel-below the horizon, his fancy drew the reBefore the two sanctnaries were two stone stoves of ings they excite, and the wild aspect of semblance to tbe glorious death of the hero the height of a man, and of the shape of our holy nature are well known to have a powerful who falls in the cause of his country. His pyx, in whieh they preserved a constant fire, night ettect upon the formation of character. I
kinsman heard him to the end in silence, and day, with the utmost care ; fearing that if ever The early studies of Mina were made at and then pointed to a gibbet that stood it went out, they should suffer the most dreadful Pampeluna and at Saragossa. In 1808, at near, -" If you succeed, it will be great; punishment from heaven. In the other temples and the commencement of the resistance of the if you fail, there is your portion." In reply religious buildings comprised within the inclosure | Spaniards to the French invasion, he was a to his solicitation to be permitted to put his of the great wall, there were six hundred stoves, of student in the University of Saragossa. I plans in execution, the Spanish General : the same size and figure, which in the night time. I Then between eighteen and nineteen 'years | told him it would only be throwing away when they used all to be burning, presented a very
a very old, he felt the strong enthusiasm of the time, his life, as he would be cut off from the pleasing sight.
and when the massacre at Madrid, on the army. “I do not (replied Mina) think I 2d of May, shook all Spain, and the cry of am cut off, so long as I can find a path for
vengeance was heard from the Ebro to the my horse." Finally, he left Tortosa with XAVIER MINA.
Guadiana, he abandoned his studies, joined twelve men, and passing with skill through the army in the north of Spain, as a volun- the line occupied by the French army, ar
| teer, and was present at the battles of At-rived in Navarre. Of those twelve one is (From the Philadelphia Union.)
cornes, Maria, and Belchite. The events at present a Lieutenant; another has re
of that period are still in our remembrance :/ tired with nine wounds; the rest fell in bat. The failure of Mina's attempt to free the general rising of the Spanish nation, tle. Mexico in 1816 is well known : and the and the heroism of the Spanish people, The first essay of Mina was upon a small murderous scenes in which his romantic suddenly awakening from a slumber which guard of about a dozen French; he attacked career was closed, was described by some had bound them since the days of Charles them with about twenty men, and captured officers who escaped the unsparing massacre the Fifth.
them without much resistance. The next of his little army. But, so far as we know, Irritated at the capture of his armies, attempt was on a party of thirty men. The there has neither been published any circum. Napoleon at this time began to pour fresh Spaniards, having about the same number, stantial narrative of the expedition, nor any troops into Spain, and it became more im- lay concealed behind a stone wall, and rose coinplete developement of the internal state portant than ever for the Spaniards to have and fired upon the enemy. Some of them of society, nor institutions, in that portion of a communication with France as the means defended themselves bravely ; a tall grena. South America. The extract we are about of procuring intelligence. The gallant dier fired at Mina with a deliberate aim, to give, is, however, from a work now in young Mina undertook the enterprize, and and, taking shelter behind a tree, encouthe course of publication, that purports to availing himself of his knowledge of the raged his party ; but the Spaniards leaping supply much of this information; drawn up country, the peasantry, and the passes of the wall, rushed on, and satiled the combat by the Commissary General of the expedi- the mountains, he executed it with complete with their sabres. This successful begin. tion, with some additional notes and re- success: establishing a secret means of ning produced most important results. The marks by Mr. Wm. D. Robinson, who fol. communication with the provinces of France spirits of the peasantry were roused; many lowed the liberating army, and has recently adjacent to the Pyrenees, by which much successful adventures took place ; the escaped from the prison of Cadiz. Espoz valuable information of what was passing in French foraging parties were cut to pieces ; y Mina, the uncle of Xavier here men- France was obtained for the Spanish Ge- their convoys attacked and plundered, and tioned, is now reaping the fruits of that! nerals.
I their couriers intercepted. When the Spanish Government had scarcely finished | EXTRAORDINARY RUSSIAN FESTIVAL.
Antiquities. their rejoicing for the first success of Mina, they were again surprised when he sent Towards the end of the year 1739, the Empress
TO THE EDITOR OF THE GLASGOW them a large body of prisoners, with a Catherine gave a comical entertainment, Prince Gal
CHRONICLE. Lieutenant-Colonel; and, at another time, litzin was the occasion of it: though about 40 years seven hundred prisoners, with a quantity of of age, and even having a son serving in the army, SIR-In levelling the ground for the Rev. Dr. Dick's military equipments, stores and money in the rank of lieutenant, he was made at once new church in Albion-street, about 250 to 300 complete
The French were not passive spectators page and buffoon of the court, by way of punish- human skeletons have been found in good preservation, of these chivalrous exploits. Upwards of ment for his having changed his religion. His first embedded in fine loam, about 6 feet from the surface, thirty individuals nearly or remotely con- wife being dead, the Empress told him he ought to of the ground. They were uniformly placed with the nected with Mina's family, were suddenly marry again, and that she would be at the expense head to the west and the feet to the east: in some cases arrested and sent into France. Among the of the wedding. He accepted the proposal ; and, the body lay on one side. There was no instance of relatives of Mina, thus torn 2, thus torn from
from their pitched upon a girl of low life, acquainted the
their pitched upon a girl of love life, scauainted the more than one in a grave, nor any bones but those be. country, was an accomplished young lady, Empress of his choice, and claimed her promise.
longing to the body.' There was one instance where the object of his early attachment. Sepa- | The Empress, in giving this entertainment, had
| three bodies lay by the side of each other : no vestige of a rated from each other, time and the waves a mind at the same time, to see how many diffe
coffin or clothing is to be seen, nor is there the least dis. of an adverse fortune, bore them still far-rent kinds of inhabitants there were in ber vast
crimination of rank or condition. There are no children's ther asunder, and the tender affections, the doininións. Accordingly, she caused orders to be
bones, nor those of half-grown persons, nor the bones of sport of events, sunk and were lost for
any other animal found among them. Every skull had ever.
atched to the governors of the provinces to a case of excellent teeth, both in the upper and un
send up to Petersburgh scveral persons of both der jaw; and although I examined at least fifty of Repeated expeditions were undertaken
sexes. These being arrived, they, at the expense them, I could not discover any traces of tooth-ache, to destroy Mina, but the affections of every peasant being with him, and having correct,
of the court, were new-dresser, each in the habit of and many of them were so young as to want the dentes
his respective country. M.Walinsky was appointed sapientiæ. Are we not to infer from this that they were intelligence of every movement, he was enabled not only to baffle and elude his
manager of the arrangements for this wedding, young persons, in the vigour of life? One skull had a enemy, but frequently to come on them
and winter was the season chosen for the celebra-cleft in the forehead, four inches long. These bones unexpected, defeating and destroying his
owe their preservation to the close nature of the red tion of it. The Empress, to make it the more com
mud in which they were found; and it is remarkpursuers. When he found the forces op. pletely extraordinary, had a house built wholly of
able, that although there is two feet of rich soil above posed to him too numerous to be openly
ice: it consisted of two chambers, in which every this mud, there is no visible trace of it down to these resisted, he appointed a place of rendezvous,
thing of furniture, even tbe bed-place for the new-l bodies, so that the graves must have been made previous dispersed his band, and, separating, eluded married couple. was to be of ice. There were four to the formation or deposition of the black soil. The pursuit. The armed mountaineers retired small cannon and two mortars made of the same bones are all of an age, that is, they are all in the same to their homes or to secret recesses, and matter. The cannon were fired several times with state of preservation, and seem to have been buried all there waited till their leader gave the sig- an ounce of powder in each, without bursting ; and at one time. nal, when there appeared to spring from little wooden grenades were thrown out of the | We are informed in one of the histories of Sir Wil. the earth, like the men of Cadmus, a legion mortars, without their being damaged,
| liam Wallace, that in year 1300, (that is 520 years ago) himself. with a select. On the wedding day that the feast was to be cele. Jour immortal countryman, with his uncle Adam Walband, the nucleus of his army, retired to brated, all the guests were assembled in the court.
lace, and Boswell, of Auchinleck, with 300 cavalry, the mountains. A hill near his father's yard of Wulinsky: thence the procession set out,
marched from Ayr, and on the same day attacked Earl mansion was his principal retreat. He was and passed before the Imperial palace, and through
Percy and Bishop Beak, with 1000 men, whom they familiar with its fastnesses and solitary re- the principal streets of the town.
found drawn up in the order of battle on ground near
There was a treats, and the neglected flocks of his own great train, consisting of more than 300 persons. I with his own hand, 700 of his men were also slain, and
where the College now stands, that he killed Earl Percy family farnished him and his brave compa- | The new-married couple were placed upon an
| The new-married couple were placed upon an ele- the remainder pursued by Wallace to the castle of Bothnions with food. When he determined on phant, in a great cage. The guests two and two, I well: here again he fell in with a new party of the Engo striking a blow, he gathered his forces like were in a sledge drawn by all kinds of beasts, as lish, whom he also attacked and beat. the tempest on the mountain top, then he
rein-deer, dogs, oxen, goats, hogo, &c. Some were From what has been before mentioned, it would ap. descended in terror and swept the province
mounted on camels. After the procession had gone ) pear that these skeletons are the remains of Earl Percy's to the very gates of Pampeluna. Thus was began the Spanish insurrection
the round prescribed, it was brought into the duke men who fell in this battle; and in confirmation of this in the province of Navarre. From this of Courland's riding house, where a Aporing of conjecture, three bodies were found under similar cir.
cumstances in College-street, when laying some of the period, bands of Guerillas were organized planks had been laid for the purpose, and where
large water pipes; that ground, like Mr. Rattray's garthroughout the country, and thus coin-1
there was a diquer prepared for them on several den, never having been built upon or turned up. menced that system which was the great
tables; each was treated according to the manner! It would oblige some of your readers if any of your means of keeping up the spirit of desperate
of cookery in his own country. After the repast, ingenious correspondents could throw some light on this animosity, and, eventually, the means of
there was a ball; each nation had its own music, subject, through the medium of your paper. delivering Spain from her invader. The and its own way of dancing. When the ball was
I am, Sir, &c. success of Mina ran through the country over, the bridegroom and bride were conducted into
A CITIZEN. with a powerful stimulus on the minds of the house of ice, where they were put into a disthe people, and he soon raised a respectable mally cold bed, with guards posted at the door, 1
: TO THE EDITOR. division of troops, whose numbers were in- that they might not get out before moroing. etlased by the peasantry, when it was contemplated to strike a blow. The central Sir Thos. Gresham, who built the Royal Exchange,
SIR,—The following expenses of the materials for Junta at Seville conferred upon him the was the son of a poor woman, who left him in a field, a dinner given by William Mingay, Esq. Mayor of title of Colonel, and soon after, the dignity
when an infant ; but the chirping of a grashopper lead | Norwich, at which he feasted the Duke of Nor.
ing a boy to the place where he lay, his life was preof Commandant General of the Army, of served. From this circumstance the future merchant / folk, &c. the Lords, Knights, and Gentry of the Navarre. The Junta of Arragon also ap- | took the grasshopper for his crest; and hence the cause |
the grasshopper for his crest; and hence the cause county, in the year 1561, the beginning of the reiga
of that insect being placed over the Royal Exchange. lof Queen Elizabeth; compared with what the expointed him Commandant General of Upper
| A Society of Men of Letters is at present occupied in Arragon. laying, in the South of France, the foundation of a town, peas
penses would at this day amount, will perhaps be (To be concluded in our next.)
I in which the only language spoken shall be Latin! | amusing to some of your readers, And if you, Mr.
Editor, can spare room in one of the corners (occa. 1
· SONG. sionally) in your Mirror, you shall hear further. Yours, &c. T.W, E.
My blithesome love! my bosom's pride! £ 8. d.
Wha's opening graces charm mine ee; 8 Stone of Beef, 141b. to the stone...... 0 5 4
Tho' hills and streams maun us divide, 2 Collars of Brawa.................... 0 14
My heart shall ever be wi' thee. 4 Geese............................ 0 1 4
Oft shall I through the garden stray, 8 Pints of Butter......... ...0 16
Poetry. A fore quarter of Veal.... 0 0 10
Or sit beneath our fav’rite tree, A hind do. 0 1 0
Whar, at the close o' Simmer's day,
TO THE OCEAN. 1 Leg of Mutton... 0 0 3
I lov'd to win a smile frae thee. Loin of ditto and Shoulder of Veal. 0 1 0
Thon, while the winds o' Winter howl, A Breast and Coat of Mutton .....
(From the Marcian Colonna; a Poem.] 7
And sob the billows o' the Dee, 6 Plovers.........................
BY BARRY CORNWALL.
0 4 Brace of Partridges,............... 0 2 0
I'll power the sorrows o' my soul, 4 Couple of Rabbits .............. 1 8 O Thou vast Ocean! ever sounding Sea!
And breathe a fervent prayer for thee. 2 Guinea Pigs ................ Thou symbol of a drear immensity;
Oh! if thou felt'st what now I feel, 4 Couple of Hens ............. 2 0 Thou thing that windest round the solid world,
Soon, soon would'st thou return to me; 2 Bushels of Flour............ Like a huge animal, which, downward hurl'd
But vain is sorrow,-fare thee weel ! 16 Loaves of White Bread... From the black clouds, lies weltering and alone,
I shall, sweet maid, remember thee. R. M. 2 Couple of Mallards....
Lashing and writhing till its strength be gone! 34 Eggs................... 18 Loaves of Wheaten Bread ... Thy voice is like the thunder, and thy sleep
CHIT CHAT AT A COUNTRY BALL. 3 Ditto of Mislen Ditto...
Is as a giant's slumber, loud and deep. 1 Barrel of Double Beer .......
Thou speakest in the East and in the West * 1 Ditto of Small Ditto ........
Says the Captain so fine, as he handed Miss down,' At once; and on thy heavily laden breast 1 Quarter of Wood.....
" What a number of Belles for a small country lown;" Fleets come and go, and shapes, that have nor life Nutmegs, Mace, Cinnamon, and Greens
Miss, smiling, reply'd, “ Few towns can boast more, Nor motion, yet are moved, and meet in strife. Four pounds of Barberries, and Sugar..
For the great church has seven, and the little church Fruit and Almoods..... The earth hath nought of this : no chance nor change
four.” Sweet Water and Perfumes, i....
Ruffles its surface, and no spirits dare 16 Oranges ..............:
Give answer to the tempest-waken air; 2 Gallons White Wine and Claret. But o'er its wastes the weakly tenants range
THE BEAUTIES OF 1 Quart of Sack.... At will, and wound its bosom os they go ;
Chess. 1 Ditto of Malmsey .........
Ever the same, it hath no ebb, no flow; 1 Ditto of Bustard ... 1 Ditto of Muscadine........ But in their stated rounds the seasons come,
“ Ludimus effigiem belli.”............ VIDA.
The White undertake to checkmate with the Pawn 74
| in FIVE Moves, without taking the black Pawn 7-6 Dies in his stormy manhood; and the skies man:- .
Weep, and flowers sicken, when the Summer flies. “Maister Mayor of Norwich, -And it please your Thou only, terrible Ocean! hast a power,
(Lolli, page 541.) worship, you have feasted us like a King: God bless a will, a voice; and in thy wrathful hour, the Queen's Grace! We have fed pleutifully, and when thou dost lift thine anger to the clouds, now whilome I can speak plain English, I heartily a fearful and magnificent beauty shrouds
Black. thank you, Majster Mayor, and so do we all. Thy broad green forehead. If thy waves be driven
8 9 ç & I. Answer, boys, answer.--Your beer is pleasant and Backwards and forwards by the shifting wind, potent, and will soon catch us by the caput, and How quickly dost thou thy great strength unbind, stop our manners. Aod so, huzza ! for the Queen's And stretch thine arms, and war at once with Heaven ! Majestie's Grace and all her bonny-browed Maids of Thou trackless and immeasurable Main ! Honour. Huzza! for Master Mayor, and our good On thee no record ever lived again dame Mayoress, his Noble Grace, there he is, God I To meet the hand that writ it; line nor lead save him! and all this jolly company. To all our
Hath ever fathomed thy profoundest deeps. friends, sound country, who have a penny in their
Where haply the huge monster swells and sleeps,
King of his watery limit, who, 'tis said, purse, and an English heart in their bodies, to keep
Sep can move the mighty ocean into storm. out Spanish Dons, and Papists with their faggots to I oh! wonderful thou art, great element! burn our whiskers.-Shove it about-twirl your cap- and fearful in thy spleeny humours bent, cases-bandle your jugsmand huzza! for Maister And lovely in repose: thy summer form Mayor, and his brethren their Worships.
Is beautiful ; and when thy silver waves
I love to wander on thy pebbled beach,
Marking the sun-light at the evening hour,
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 was very penurious in his habits, went one evening. I“ Eternity, Eternity, and Power.” muffled in a cloak, to Moore's a cheesemonger, and
WHITE. bought a cheese. After completing his purchase, he asked the seller which was the best way to keep it. THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL.
SOLUTION. Moore, who had smoaked bis Lordship under his
BLACK masquerade, replied, with true Irish naiveté, “ Why, “ I cannot think that the great mind of man, Sir, I don't know how to keep cheeses; my business is “ With its accumulated wisdoms too,
1 King ....7-8 to sell them; but if you follow the Archbishop's plan, “Must perish: why, the words he utters live.
2 Castle ....5-8+ 2 King ....8-7 you will find it answer to admiration.” “ What plan
“And is the spirit, which gives birth to things,
3 Kuight ..8-5
3 Pawn ...,8-5 is that, my friend?” “ Faith, by my conscience, nei- | “ Below its own creations.”
4 Pawn ....7-6+ 4 King ...,840 ther cuc it yourself, nor let any body else cut it!"
BARRY CORNWALL. 5 Pawn ....7-5+MATE.
Scientific Notices. repairing the waste, supplying the accession of new merable ramifications as fine as hairs; so that every
substance, and distributing to every part of our frame part of the organization contributes to bring the atCIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD. the nourishment which it requires. .
mosphere and the blood as nearly as possible in a state The foregoing outline affords a general idea of the of contact : thereby manifesting the necessity of air to
circulation of the blood, so far as it is connected with the healthful constitution of this latter fluid. [ORIGINAL.]
our growth and nutrition ; bus when considered with From the variety of important purposes answered by
reference to RESPIRATION, it will be necessary to take the blood in its course through the body, it must be The discovery of the circulation of the blood by Dr. a more particular review of this function. The beart evident that the health and vigour of our system Harvey, in 1628, forms an important era in the annals | is a double organ; it is, as we have already mentioned, mainly depend on the purity of this vital fluid; and of medical science; it has contributed, in an eminent divided into two cavities, each of which is the centre this most essential object is no less accomplished by degree, to the improvement of the healing art, and has of a particular and distinct circulation. .
respiration than it is by digestion. As air and aliment unfolded one of the most beautiful systems of provi.
bus systems of provie | The blood distributed by the aorta from the left contribute so eminently to the formation and constitudential arrangement in the entire department of or
cavity of the heart, is brought back again by the veins, tion of the blood, the healthy condition of the animal
cavity of the heart is brought baek again by the veins. Jtion of the blood, the healthy ganized pature.
not to the left cavity, from whence it set out, but to frame depends, in a great measure, on a conjoint supThe blood may be considered as the fountain of life;
te; the right cavity. Another large artery, called the ply of these two essentials in a state of purity. it circulates through our system by means of two sets PULMONARY ARTERY, arises from the right cavity. If a due portion of wholesome food be necessary to of vessels, whieh, from their respective offices, are This artery is distributed solely through the lungs, enable the stomach to recruit the waste of the sangui. called arteries and veins. The heart is the centre and | where it becomes subdivided into extremely minute
ferous system-a due supply of pure air is equally nethe great moving power of the circulation. The ar
branches. By means of this artery the blood is pro
By means of this artery the blood is processary to enable the lungs to assist and perfect the teries and veins are hollow, cylindrical tubes, which
pelled from the right cavity of the heart through the pervade almost every part of the body, and which
operations of the stomach. If the digestive organs lungs, and having been there exposed to the influence krve as channels through which the blood is constantly
convert food into chyle-respiration converts chyle into . of the air, which we are constantly respiring, it is
blood-and while the former are engaged in replenish, circulating. The external appearance of the heart is
conveyed, by the PULMONARY VEINS, to the left cavity |ing the mass of the circulation with fresh supplies, the familiar to every one: its internal structure and eco
of the heart, to be again circulated through the general the lungs are employed in the equally essential offices nomy are so extremely beautiful, and evince in so system.
of freeing it from its impurities, and in fitting it for .. many points the admirable contrivance of the Supreme
The importance of the lungs, and of respiration, is Architect, that we conceive we shall perform an ac
the sustension of health and life. rendered more evident through this admirable meceptable service to our readers, by rendering it the
The circulation of the blood, and its connection with chanism, by which the blood, having run one course subject of a future essay. The object of the present
the stomach is, not unhappily, described by the poet in through the body, to administer to its various functions, one will be fully answered, by stating generally, that is then circulated through the lungs, to be fitted to per
the following words : the heart is divided, by means of a strong muscular form a second circulation.
The blood, the fountain whence the spirits flow, partition, into two cavities, which, from their respec
The gen'rous stream that waters ev'ry part, We will form a more accurate estimate of the great tive situations, are called the right and left cavities of
And motion, vigour, and warm life conveys the heart. A large artery, called the AORTA, arises extent of the action which the inspired air exerts on
To ev'ry particle that moves or lives, from the left cavity of the heart; in its progress this the blood, from reviewing the ample provision made
This vital fluid, chro' unnumber'd tubes artery divides itself into innumerable branches, through by nature for its exercise, both in the rapidity of the
Pour'd by the heart, and to the heart again which the blood is conveyed to every part of our syscirculation and in the structure and economy of the
Refunded-scourg'd for ever round and round, tem. The blood thus distributed from the heart, by lungs. The number of arcerial pulsations varies in
Enraged with heat and toil at last forgets different individuals, and varies also in the same perthe arteries, is returned to this organ by the veins.
Its balmy nature ; virulent and thin
son at different periods of life. The passions of the
It grows; and now, but that a thousand gates all parts of the body. The veins convey this fluid
Are open to its night, it would destroy accelerate or retard the niotion of the blood. from all parts of the body to the heart. The ARTERIES
The part it cherish'd and repair'd before. increase in number, and decrease in size, in their pro. We may state generally the number of arterial
Besides the flexible and tender tubes gress from the heart, till, ultimately divided into an | pulsations as seventy-five per minute, during which
Melt in the mildest most nectarious tide innea anumerable series of minute branches, they terminate period the heart also contracts seventy-five times.
That rip’ning nature rolls, as in the stream in, and four their contents into the veins. The veins and at each contraction it pours its contents into
Its crumb'ling banks. But what the vital force collect the blood by their extreme branches, which the arteries. The quantity of blood discharged by
Of plastic fluids hourly batters down, crease in size, and decrease in number. till they ul. each contraction of the heart, and the total amount of
That very force those plastic particles timately constitute two great trunks, which terminate this muid circulating in the system, are questions of
Rebuild; so mutable the state of man. in, and pour their contents into the heart; to which extremely difficult solution. It must be evident too,
For this the watchful appetite was given, the blood returns as to its source, and from whence
that the amount is liable to considerable variation from Daily with fresh materials to repair it is again circulated and diffused.
difference in age, sex, constitution, structure, and other This unavoidable expense of life, The blood is the great vital current froni which all causes. If we estimate the quantity of blood dis
This necessary waste of flesh and blood. our secretions are elaborated, and from which the
charged from the left cavity of the heart by each con Hence the concoctive powers with various art, . muld, as well as the solid parts of our bodies the bones traction at two ounces and a half, the total amount of I
Subdue the cruder aliments to chyle, as well as the muscles, derive the principles of their the circulating fluid at 30 pounds, and the contractions
'The chyle to blood, the foamy purple tide formation, growth and renovation.
of the heart at 75 per minute, it follows tbat the entire To liquors which through finer arteries The office of the stomach is to recruit the mass
mass of the blood passes through the heart 23 times in To different parts their winding course pursue, of the circulation with fresh supplies, to enable it to | an hour, or that it describes one circuit through the body
To try new changes and new forms put on. continue the performance of the important purposes
in less than three minutes. The whole volume of the for which it is designed. The nutritive portion of the
blood therefore passes through the lungs 552 times in food which we consume, is, by the action of the stothe course of the day, to be subjected to the influence
Scientific Records. mach and other organs, converted into a milky-like of the ai
a millevulike of the air which we constantly respire. floid, called cuYLE. This chyle is poured into the The structure of the lungs is extremely well calculated
PHILOLOGY. blood, to which it becomes assimilated by the function to facilitate the exercise of the chemical affinity which of respiration, and then it forms a homogenous part of prevails between the air and the blood. The mem
Mr. Jacks, librarian to the Royal Library at Bamberg,
has discovered there a manuscript of the Roman history the general circulation. brane which lines the cavities of the lungs is thinner
of Eutropius, which was probably brought from Rome Thus ibe nutriment which we derive from our food than the finest cambric, and if disengaged from its by the Emperor Henry, the founder of the Bishopric of becomes, by the operation of a variety of agencies, evolutions and extended, it would cover a space Bamberg. The MS. is more complete than any of the ultimately converted into blood; while this vital and equal to the whole external surface of the body. On
best editions hitherto published of this author, and very
likely to correct a number of false readings. Professor sanguine stream, pursuing its uninterrupted course this delicate and extensive membrane, the branches of Goeller. of Cologne, had previously discovered in the through an innumerable series of vessels, is incessantly the pulmonary, artery and veins are spread out in innu- Royal Library a MS. of Livy.