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of the latter to one of the former “ The perfectly clear glass was, (which has continued to be the flux however, most valued. Nero gave for glass from the earliest to the for two cups, of no very extraordiprefent times) in furnaces, into nary fize, with two handles to each, masses of a dull black colour. These upwards of fix thousand festertia, or were again melted by the refiners, above fifty thousand pounds ftereither into a colourless glass, or ling. But, though the finest kinds tinged of any hue they thought of glass were so valuable and rare, proper. The gross mals. from the yet I apprehend, from the frequent first fusion, seems to have been call- mention of glass in Martial, and ed ainmonitrum, and probably did from what Pliny says, that glass not differ much from the lapis ob- for drinking veliels had nearly sufidianus, which is faid to have been perseded the ute of gold and silver, of Æthiopian or Egyptian origin. that the inferior forts must have It is said to have been a kind of been common enough. black vitreous substance, but still “ Pliny likewise mentions the pellucid, which was used for casting effects of hollow glass globes, filled into large works. Pliny says, he with water, in concentrating the faw folid ftatues of the emperor Au- rays of light, so as to produce flame gustus made of this material; and in any combullible fubitance upon the same emperor dedicated four which the focus fell, and relates, elephants of the same substance in that fome surgeons in his time made the Capitol. It appears to have use of it as a caustic for ulcers and been known froin great antiquity, wounds. as Tiberius Cæfar, when he go- " He was also acquainted with verned that country, found a statue the comparative hardness of gems of Menelaus of this composition. and glass, as he observes, that the Xenocrates likewise, according to lapis obsidianus would not scratch Pliny, speaks of the same compofi- gems. And he likewise mentions tion, as in use in India, Italy, and the counterfeiting of the natural Spain. Sidon in
Sidon in Phænicia had gems by glass, as a very lucrative been, in early times, famous for art, and in high perfection in his glass. In the time of Pliny, that time ; and the same seems to be con of the Bay of Naples was pre- firmed by Trebellius Pollio. Vo. ferred.
piscus says, that Firmus furnished “ The Romans were acquainted his house with square pieces of with the art of engraving upon, or glass, fastened together with bitucutting glass, which is expresly men- men or other subltances; but whetioned by Pliny, and confirmed by ther they were to serve for winthe antique gems fo frequently dows, or as reflectors of the light found. It was formed either by and objects, does not appear. hlowing it with a pipe, grinding it “ As specula, or metal reflectors, in a lathe, or caiting it in a mould in the prefent age, bear some refelike metal. The colours princi- rence to glass, and as they were in pally in use were an obscure red considerable use among the ancients, glass, or perhaps rather earthen I Mall here subjoin a few words ware, called hæmatinon ; one of va. concering them. rious colours, called myrrhinum, a 6 The antiquity of fpecula, or clear red, a white, a blue, and in- metal reflectors, must, according to deed most other colours.
Plutarch, have been very great.
He tells us in his Life of Numa, “ Pliny is still more particular in that it was one of the insticutions of his account. He speaks of their that prince, that if the sacred fire composition, as being of tin and of the veltal virgins rould, at any copper, which is the fame with that time, be extinguished, that it should generally used at present. He says, be rekindled by means of the sun's horever, that filver fpecula were rays, collected by a polished, con- preferred, and were firii introduced cave metalline speculum,
by Praxiteles, in the time of Pon“ Aulus Gellius quotes fome pey the Great. I fuppofe, he here verses of Laberius, a contemporary means pure silver; for that filver of Julius Cælar, which mention a was, at least, part of the compofi, metalline burning speculum being tion of them in early times, ap. contructed by Democritus of Ab- pears from the pasiage of Plautus dera, a contemporary of Hippo. above quoted. Probably, as a white crates, the celebrated physician who metal, it might be usej with the lived about two hundred and tifty fame intent tin is at present, to ycars after Numa. Reflecting spe- whiten and harden the copper. Sil. cula were common in the time of ver specula were however so fre. Plautus, as appears from several quent, Pliny says, as to be in compassages, and were then, it seeins, mon use with the maid servants. He mostly made of silver, which, how- mentions the proportion of the tin ever, was much alloyed with copa to the copper, to be two of the for, per *, from its giving a smell to the mer to one of the latter, which hands of those who rubbed it. seems to have been that moft eiieem.
• Vitruvius appears to have been ed; other proportions were equal well acquainted with the proper parts of copper, lead, and tin, and construction of specula, as he ob- another of two parts of copper, two serves, it was necessary they should of lead, and one of tin; but these be of a considerable thickness, else were held much inferior, as the lead they were apt to warp, and to re- debased the quality of the compo, fleet indistinct images of objects. fition very inuch. He mentions
“ Seneca was more completely various forms of them in use, as informed on this subject. He knew concave, convex, multiplying, difthe powers of reflecting, concave torting, &c. Their burning qua, specula in magnifying objects, and lity, when opposed to the fun's speaks of some other kinds that di- rays, was likewise known to Pliny. minished, and exhibited other va- “ Aulus Gellius mentions seves rious distortions of the human ti- ral properties of specula, which gure. He also knew, that a por- thew the nature and confruction of tion of a hollow sphere was the pro- them to be well understood in his per figure for the magnifying spe- time, such as the non-inversion of cula. He was also acquainted with objects, the appearance of an obmultiplying specula, which he par: ject in the centre of a concave spc. ticularly mentions.
culum, and several others.” * Yt Speculum tenuifti, metyn ne oleant argentum manus. Mof. Aç. . Sc. 3,
OBSERVATIONS on the PRACTICE of ARCHERY in ENG.
LAND. By the Hopourable DAINES BARRINGTON.
[From the Seventh Volume of the Archäologia.) S some of our most signal who was killed by an arrow at the A in , ries were chiefly attributed to the Hemmingford mentions to have it Englith archers, it may not be un- fued from a cross-bow. Joinville interesting to the Society if I lay likewise (in his Life of St. Lewis) before them what I have been able always speaks of the Christian balito glean with regard to the more starii. flourishing itate of our bowmen, till « After this death of Richard their prefent almost annihilation. the First in 1199, I have not hap
“This fraternity is to this day pened to stumble upon any passages called the artillery company, which alluding to archery for nearly one is a French term signifying archery, hundred and fifty years, when an as the king's bowyer is in that lan- order was issued by Edward the glage 1tyled artillier du roy, and Third, in the fifteenth year of his we leem to have learnt this method reign, to the serives of most of the of annoying the enemy from that English counties for providing five nation, at least with a cross-bow. hundred white bows, and five hun.
* We therefore find that Wil. dred bundles of arrows, for the liam the Conqueror had a consider- then intended war against France. able number of bowmen in his army • Similar orders are repeated in at the battle of Hattings, when no the following years, with this dif. mention is made of such troops on ference only, that the Meriff of the Gide of Harold. I have upon Gloucestershire is directed to furnish this occasion made use of the term five hundred painted bows, as well bowmen, though I rather conceive as the faine number of white. that these Norman arehers shot " The famous battle of Cressy with the arbalest (or cross-bow), was fought four years afterwards, in which formerly the arrow was in which our chroniclers state that placed in a groove, being termed in we had two thousand archers, who French a quadrel, and in English a were opposed to about the fame bolt.
number of the French, together “ Though I have taken fome with a circumitance, which seems pains to find out when the shooting to prove, that by this time we used with the long-bow first began with the long-bow, whilst the French ar. us, at which exercise we afterwards chers shot with the arbalest. became fo expert, I profess that I “ Previously to this engagement cannot meet with any pofitive proofs, fell a very heavy rain, which is faid and must therefore state fuch to have much damaged the bows of . grounds for conjecture as have oc- the French, or perhaps rather the curred.
ftrings of them. Now our long“ Our chroniclers do not men- bow (when unstrung) may be most tion the use of archery as expreily conveniently covered, so as to pre applied to the cross, or long-bow, vent the rain's injuriog it; nor is till the death of Richard the firit, there scarcely any addition to the
weight from such a case ; whereas afterwards at Poićtiers and Aginthe arbale it is of a most inconveni- court. ent form to be feltered from the 6. The battle of Poiciiers was weather.
fought A. D. 1356, four years af66 As therefore in the year !342, ter which a peace took place be. orders illued to the ilerives of each tween England and France. county to provide five hundred .6 When treaties are concluded, bows, with a proper proportion of it generally happens that both naarrows, I cannot but infer that these tions are heartily tired of the war, were long-bow's, and not the arba- and they are commonly apt to supleit.
pole, that no freth rupture will " We are fill in the dark indeed happen for a considerable time ; when the former weapon was firit whence follows the difuse of miiiintroduced by our ancestors ; but I tary exercises, especially in troops will venture to shoot my bolt in this which were immediately difoandid obscurity, whether it may be well upon the cessation of hoitilities, and directed or not, as poilibly it may the officers of which had no halfproduce a better conjeciure fioin pay. others.
* We find accordingly, that in 6. Edward the First is known to the year 1363, Edward the Third have served in the holy wars, where was obliged to itsue an order, forhe must have fçen the effect of ar- bidding many rural sports, and enchery from a long-bow to be much joining the use of archery, which fuperior to that of the arbaleit, in
even in the space of four the use of which, the Italian ftates, begun to be neglected. This order and particularly the Genoefe, had was again repeated in 1365. always been distinguified.
66 The Black Prince diea in i 373, This circumstance would ap- and Edward survived hiin but four pear to me very decilive, that we
years: we cannot therefore expect owe the introduction of the long- any farther regulations for promotbow to this king, were it not to be ing archery, after the lait order obferved, that the bows of the Ifia- which I have stated, and which iftics (though dificring totally from fucd in 1363. During the fix firi the arbalest) were yet rather un- years of this interval, the prince of like to our long-bows in point of Wales was in foreign parts, and forın.
the whole ten were the dregs of Ed" This objection therefore muit ward's life. be admitted ; but still poilibly, as " Richard the Second, who sucthe Atiatic bows were more power- ceeded, is well known to have lite ful than the arbalett, some of our tle attended to the cares of governEnglish crusaders might have sub-ment. In the fifteenth year howNituted our long-bows in the room ever of his reign (A. D. 1392) he of the Asiatic ones, in the same issued an order, directing all the znanner that iinprorements are fre- fervants of his household never to quently made in our present artil. travel without bows and arrows, lory: We might confequently, be, and to take cvery opportunity of fore the battle of Cretly, have had vling this exercite, which injunction fuch a fufficient number of troops seems to prove that it had during trained to the long-bow, as to be the greater part of his reign been deeilive in our favour, as they were much neglected.
“ Henry the Fourth, though of the sherives in the following year, & more warlike difpofition, freins to viz. 1418. have done little more for the en- “ In 1421, though the French couragement of archery than his had been defeated, both at Crefly, predeceffor, as the only itatute of Poictiers, and Agincourt, by the his reign which relates to this head, English archers, yet they fill congoes no farther than obliging the tinued the use of the crois-how, for arrowsmiths to point their arrows which reason Henry the Fifth, as better than they had hitherto done. duke of Normandy, confirms the
" The wars during his reign charters and privileges of the baliwere indeed confined to this couin- itarii, which had been long estatry; but the use of archers seemsblished as a fraternity in his city of to have been well known, as the Rouen. duke of Exeter, at the beginning " During the long reign of Henry of his rebellion, entertained a con- the Sisth, I do not meet with any fiderable band of them. Fourscore statute, or proclamation, concernarchers are said also to have contri- ing archery; which may be well acbuted greatly to a victory of this counted for, whilst this king was same king over a large body of re- under age, or the weakness of mind beis at Cirencester, some of which which ensued, as far at least as reseem to have been of an Amazo- lates to his personal interference in nian difpofition, as his majesty at- this maiter ; but it is rather extratributes this success to the good ordinary, that his uncles should not women, as well as men of this town, have enjoined this exercise, as they and for these their services, grants were so long engaged in wars with them annually fix bucks and a hogf. France, the loss of which kingdom head of wine.
may be perhaps attributed to this “ I do not find any act of par- neglect. liament of Henry the Fifth in re- “ It was necessary for Edward lation to this exercise ; and all the the Fourth, who succeeded, to be orders in Rymer, till the battle of prepared against the Lancaftrians; Agincourt, rclate to great guns, and yet we find much earlier stafrom which he seems at first to have tutes for the promotion of archery expected more considerable advan- in Ireland, than in England, which tage than from the training of bow- was more likely to become the scene men.
of civil war. “ It should seem, however, that 66 In the fifth year therefore of this sort of artillery, from its un- liis reign an act passed, that every wieldiness, bad and narrow roads, Englishman, and Irishman dwelling together with other defects, was as with Englishmen, thall have an ayet but of little use in military ope- English bow of his own height, rations. In the year 1414 this' which is directed to be made of king therefore afcribes his victory yew, wych, hazel, afh, or at Agincourt to the archers, and burne, or any other reasonable tree directs the Terives of many coun- according to their power. The ties to pluck from every goose fix next chapter also directs that butts wing feathers for the purpose of im- fall be made in every township, proving arrows, which are to be which the inhabitants are onliged paid for by the king.
to Moot up and down every fe.ist “ A fimilar order again issues to day, under the penalry of a half