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Joseph Allen, 31, Steward-street, Spitalfields; John Arch, Cornbill; T. F. Buxton, Truman, Hanbury and Co.'s Brewhouse, Brick-lane; Thoinas Kincey, New Road, Whitechapel; John Kitching, 142, Whitechapel; John Messer, Prince Edward-street, Mile End New Town; Robert Prvor, 58, Shoreditch; William Phillips, George Yard, Lombard-street; Benjamin Reed, 6, Princes-street, Spitalfields; Thomas Richardson, 28, Lombard-street; Samuel West, Billiter-lane. These details are submitted to the public, with an ardent wish that they may encourage benevolent individuals to go and do likewise. If further information of a nature to be communicated through the channel of this work should be thought desirable, an application may be made to the Editor, directed to the care of Longman and Co.

PHILO.

African Institution.

On the 25th of March the African Institution held its anniversary meeting at the Freemasons' Tavern, at which the Duke of Gloucester presided. As usual, the attendance was highly respectable, and we were glad to see a large number of the early and steady friends to the cause, both mernbers of parliament and others. The report was read, stating the efforts of the Institution during the last year to counteract the now felonious attempts of the slave-trader; some important extracts were given, by permission of Governinent, from the last unpublished manuscript of Mungo Park. These, with the correspondence of John Kizel, an intelligent colonist of Sierra Leone, who was sent by the governor to persuade some of the native princes to discourage the slave-trade, will form a most interesting part of the Appendix. An account was also given of experiments made upon some indigo manufactured by Warwick Francis, a Black settler at Sierra Leone, which prove that it is not at all inferior to that sent by the East-India Company when they first made it an article of commerce. Twelve grains of the African indigo are required to produce the same depth of colour in woollen cloth which is obtained from six grains of the East-India at 4s. 8d. per pound: so that it is just half as good; and as the process is susceptible of great improvements, which will be immediately pointed out to the settlers,

the experiment must be considered as a very promising one. The report was ordered to be printed.

On account of the zealous, long-continued, and invaluable services of Zachary Macauley, who from the commencement of the institution had gratuitously filled the office of Secretary, there was a strong feeling in the metting to bestow upon him some mark of its respect, and of the sense it entertained of his services. A motion was accordingly made, and carried unanimously, to present him with a piece of plate, value one hundred guineas, with an appropriate inscription, and a committee was appointed to carry it into effect.

Letters have been received in London fiom Capt. Cuffee, memoirs of whom are given at page 32 of this volume, dated Sierra Leone, 2 month Feb. 8, by which it appears that he had transacted his business there, and was on the point of departing for West Port Massachu sets, where he hoped to arrive about the beginning of the 4th month April. He has bought a house and lot of land in the town, and, if he meets with encouragement, will probably send the brig again to Sierra Leone next season.

He states that many houses in the colony are going to decay, and that divers of the inhabitants have no means to repair them. They now saw all their wood by hand, and he suggests the expediency of erecting a saw-mill upon a stream which passes by the west end of Free-Town, and has a fall of thirty feet. This would be a very important acquisition, as timber, of which there is such a vast variety, might then easily be brought into a state fit for building, and even in process of time for exportation. Commissioner Dawes bas brought home several interesting specimens of their woods, which would be useful in this country in a variety of ways. Capt. Cuflee further states, that on the same stream, a mill for grinding corn, cleaning rice, &c. might easily be erected, and that, if proper mechanical contrivances were adopted, these mills might be worked even in the dry seasons.

Letters are also in town from some of the most intelligent of the colonists, by which it appears that nothing but a suitable degree of encouragement on this side the water is wanting to rouse their industry to the most beneficial exertions. In our opinion, if proper use is made of the disposition and abilities of Captain Cuflee, more will be done towards the civilization of Africa in one year, than in all the time which has elapsed since the first. attempts were made.

To the Editor of the PRILAVIN ROPIST.

" L'humanité envers les peuples est le premier devoir des grands, et l'usage le plus delicieux de la grandeur. Quiconque n'est pas sensible à un plaisir si vrai, si touchant, si digne du ceur, il n'est pas ne. grand, il ne mérite pas même d'être homme." MASSILLON.

It is now nearly five years since one of the most glorious achievements that humanity and justice ever gained over mi. sery and oppression, was happily effected : I mean the aboli. tion of the Slave Trade. Peculiarly grateful to the feeling mind is the retrospect of that memorable day, when the Slave Trade Bill received the royal assent-a day on which the honest endeavours of the virtuous advocates for the cause of the injured Africans were so signally blest, and their unparal. leled perseverance in a long and arduous contest crowned with the most complete success. Now it has occurred to me that much good might probably accrue from encouraging the pleas. ing emotions and benevolent feelings which the contemplation of the happy event that struck the death-blow to this nefarious traffic seems calculated to excite in the heart : that while we congratulate Africa on the joyful termination of her wrongs, we may not rest satisfied with any former labours, but be animated to continue our exertions in the cause of humanity and justice.

What person, fifty years ago, would have believed it possible that any set or combination of men should be able to co away an evil of such formidable magnitude as the Slave Trade; an evil sanctioned by the laws, and so deeply rooted?

Yet, by the united offiirts of persons of the brightest talents, the purest feelings, and the most consummate benevolence, this desirable object has bren at length attained. For after a long and contested struggle of upwards of twenty years, the virtuous advocates for justice were enabled to accomplish their grand and glorious design, having waded through every difficulty, and surmounted every obstacle which interested or unprincipled inen found mcans to lay in their way. The parliamentary dis

cussion of the Slave Trade Bill forms a memorable æra in the annals of English eloquence. N ver at any former period had the British senate made a more brilliant di play of the oratorial powers of her members; and never did the argumentative talents of that ever-to-he lamented statesman Charles James Fox, or the Ciceronian eloquence of his illustrious rival William Pitt, shine with more untarnished lustre, to excite the admiration of a listening world, than when this important subject was under debite. Lit, then, their memories remain ever dear to the British nation for the part which they took in the interest and liberty of injured Africa ; and let the recollection of the political animosity that once existed between these distinguished personag's be buried with them in the silent oblivion of the tomb, But in thus recording the names of those to whom we are most particularly indebted for the accomplishment of the abolition of the Slave Trade, we must never lose sight of the venerable Wilberforce, who, both as a senator and an individual, so decidedly proved himself the Negro's friend. Nor should we forget the indefatigable Clarkson, who so honourably devoted his time, his talents, his profession, in fact, his all, to the service of the Africans ; to rescue that unhappy people from the yoke of tyranny and oppression. May the magnanimous conduct of these noble-minded philanthropists be handed down to posterity as an example to succeeding generations ! Since, then, the abolition of the Slave Trade is happily in progress, and by the subsequent formation of that excellent establishment, the African Institution, (which merits our aid and support,) the rights of Africa may be secured, and her civilization gradually promoted, surely there is nothing to which the bencvolent and humane may with greater propriety turn their attention, than towards attempting an emendation of the penal code of this country, which is so exceedingly severe as imperiously to de mand the interference of an enlightened public, as well on behalf of the unfortunate persons who by their misdemeanours come under its cognizance, as for the general welfare of civil society. Those parts of our penal system which most loudly call for reformation are the statutes relative to capital offences, by which the punishment of death is inflicted for crimes that are very inadequa'c to so awful a mode of correction.

Without going so far as to aflirm that it is unjustifiable on Christian principles, for man, as a finite and an accountable being, to take away the life of a fellow creature, under any pretence whatever, we may safely iissert that a coile which annexes death to nearly two hundred different offences should not be suffered to exist any longer without revision. That benevolent and patriotic statesman sir Samuel Romilly brought several bills into par, Jiament last sessions for the mitigation of capital punishments, which passed the House of Commons with respectable majorities, but which were unfortunately rejected in the Lords. This, though a cause of great regret, is however satisfactory, inasmuch as it evinces that the legislature bas not shown itself inattentive to a subject of such particular moment, and one in which the interests of the country are so deeply involved. It is also confident. ly to be hoped that, by a steady uniform perseverance on the part of the triends of humanity, the anticipated reformation in our laws may in time be accomplished, Solitary confinement in penitentiary houses is the punishment proposed to be substituted for that of death, over which it possesses decided advantages, 1, It renders the offender equally incapable of re. newing his offence, setting aside the chance of escaping. 2. It affords a more striking example to deter others from conmitting a similar injury. 3. It holds out a prospect of compensation to the party injured, which depriving the offender of lite does not afford. 4. It gives the guilty person an opportunity of becoming, by repentance, a reformed character before he dies. A grand point too, in consideration, with re. spect to the imperfection of our criminal laws, is, that through their un ea onable severity a great number of offenders escape without punishment. There are many persons who shuddır at the idea of clouding their minds with the horror of being accessary to the death of any one, even of the rogue who has stolen their property. They therefore forbear to prosecute him; although they are well aware that he merits punishment, and they would consider it a duty which they owed to themselves and to society to apprehend him, were the mode of correction solitary confinement, or much as would not deprive him of life. I am inclined to believe that instances of this kind are very frequent. Another striking defect in our penal system appears to be the vast discretionary power vested in ihe Judges, which gives the criminals great room to expect lenity fro i them. Now all these things weigh materially in the minds of offenders, who construe them into so many chances of their escape or acquittal; and thus they become less fearful of perpetrating their wicked designs. It seems also astonishingly inconsistent and impolitic, to affix the same punishment to robbery as to murder.

"'To equal robbery with murder is to reduce murder to robbery ; to con

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