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387. Cadence means a descent, or fall Laconics. 1. No change in external appear. of the voice: here, it means the proper man- ance, can alter that, which is radically wrong. 2. ner of closing a sentence. In the preceding Seize an opportunity, when it presents itself; if examples, the pupil sees how it is made once lost, it may never be regained. 3. Vicious The best cadence, that which rests most men, endeavor to impose on the world, by assumpleasantly on the ear, is the fall of a triad; ing a semblance of virtue, to conceal their had i. e. a regular gradation of three notes from habits, and evil propensities. 4. Beware of selfthe prevalent pitch of voice; which is gen- love, for it hardens the heart, and shuts the mind to erally the fourth or fifth: tho' different voices all that is good and true. 5. The excessive pleasare keyed on different pitches: hence, each | ure one feels-in talking of himself, ought to make must be governed by his own peculiarities him apprehensive, that he affords little to his auin this respect. Beware of confounding ca- ditor. 6. In our intercourse with the world, we dence with inflections; and never end a sen- should often ask ourselves this question—How tence with a feeble and depressed utterance. I would I like to be treated thus ? 7. In all ages Tho' nature-weigh our talents, and dispense, and countries, unprincipled men may be found, To every man, his modicum of sense,
who will slander the most upright character, and Yet-much-depends, as in the tiller's toil, find others as base as themselves, to join in the proOn culture, and the sowing of the soil.
pagation of their falsehoods. The brave man-is not he, who feels no fear,
Confinement of Debtors. The prosper. For that--were stupid—and irrational ;
ity of a people is proportionate to the num. But he, whose noble soul his fear subdues, [from. ber of hands and minds usefully employed. And bravely dares the danger, which he shrinks To the community, sedition is a fever, cor. He holds no parly with unmanly fears;
ruption is a gangrene, and idleness is an Where duty bids, he confidently steers ;
alrophy. Whatever body, and whatever so. Faces a thousand dangers at her call,
ciety-wastes more than it acquires, must And trusting in his God, surmounts them all. gradually decay: and every being, that con. What is life?
tinues to be fed, and ceases to labor, takes
away something from the public stock. The 'Tis not to stalk about, and draw in fresh air,
confinement, therefore, of any man in the From time to time, or gaze upon the sun; sloth and darkness of a prison, is a loss to 'Tis to be FREE.
the nation, and no gain to the creditor. 388. WORD-PAINTING. There is noth- For, of the multitudes, who are pining in ing in any of the other fine arts, but what is those cells of misery, a very small part is involved in oratory. The letters are analo. suspected of any fraudulent act, by which gous to uncompounded paints; words—to they retain, what belongs to others. The paints prepared for use; and, when arranged rest are imprisoned by the wantonness of into appropriate and significant sentences, pride, the malignity of revenge, or the acri. they form pictures of the ideas on the can-mony of disappointed expectation. vas of the imagination: hence, composition, whether written or spoken, is like a picture, exhibiting a great variety of features, not Whose edge-is sharper than the sword, whose tongue only with prominence, but with degrees of
Outvenoms all the worms of Nile; whose breathprominence: to do which, the painter,
Rides on the sporting winds, and doth belie
All corners of the world: kings, queens, and states, speaker, or writer, applies shades of the
Maids and matrons, the secrets of the gravesame color to features of the same class, and
This viperous slander enters. opposing colors to those of different classes. Mercy to him that shows it, is the rule,
And righteous limitation of its act, Government. The ordinary division of
By which heaven moves, in pardoning guilty man. governments into republican, monarchical,
And he, that shows none, (being ripe in years, and despotic, appears essentially erroneous; And conscious of the outrage he commits,) for there are but two kinds of government, Shall seek it, and not find it, in his turn. goud and bad : governments are national His words--are bonds; his oaths-are oracles ; and special. The essence of the former His love-sincere; his thoughts-immaculate; consists in the will of the nation constitu His tears—pure messengers, sent from his heart :
His heart—is as far from fraud, -as heaven-from earth. tionally expressed; that of the latter, where there are other sources of power, or right, Be earnest!—why shouldst thou for custom's sake, than the will of the nation.
Lay a cold hand upon thy heart's warm pulse, Anecdote. Punctual Hearer.
And crush those feelings back, which, uttered, make man, who always used to attend public wor.
Links in the chain of love? Why thus convulsa ship with great punctuality, and took care A soul, that overflows with sympathy to be always in time, was asked how it was for kindred souls, when thou art called to be -she could always come so early; she an The Heart's Apostle, loving, pure, and true? swered very wisely, that it was part of The smooth hypocrisies, the polished lies, her religion-not to disturb the religion of the cold dead forms—and hollow mockeries others."
Current among the many, by the few,
Who know their manhood, should be held in scorn!
Speak freely thy free thought-and other souls Or lay his head upon his desk,
To thine shall answer—as from living coals As if almost asleep.
Together kindled, light and heat are born!
389. DYNAMICS. This, in mechanical phi Maxims. 1. The credit that is got by a lie, losophy, means the science of moving-powers; 1-only lasts till the truth comes out. 2. Zeal, in elocution and singing, it relates to the mixed with love, is harmless--as the dove. 3. force, loudness, harshness, strength, rough. A covetous man is, as he always fancies, in want. ness, softness, swell, diminish, smoothness, 4. Hypocrites—first cheat the world, and at last, abruptness, gentleness of voice: that is, its themselves. 5. The borrower is slave to the lender, qualities, which are as various as those of the and the security--to both. 6. Some are too stif human mind; of which, indeed, they are the to bend, and too old to mend. 7. Truth has alrepresentatives. Observe—that the names of ways a sure foundation. 8. He, who draws these qualities, when spoken naturally, ex
others into evil courses—is the devil's agent. 9. press, or echo, their natures. The Loud, A spur in the head-is worth two in the heel. 11.
To do good, is the right way to find good. 10. Rough, Soft, Smooth, Harsh, Forcible, Full, Better spared, than ill spent. 12. Years teach Strong, Tremulous, Slender, &c. all of which
more than books. are comprehended in force, pitch, time, quan
Anecdote. Love and Liberty. When an tity, and abruptness of voice. 390. Let the following examples be ren- with his princess, by Cyrus, and was asked,
Armenian prince-had been taken captive dered perfectly familiar—the feelings, tho’ts, words and appropriate voice: nothing, how. what he would give to be restored to his kingever, can be done, as it should be, without dom and liberty, he replied : “As for my having the most important examples memo- kingdom and liberty, I value them not; but
if my blood-would redeem my princess, I rized, here and elsewhere. (Loud) “But when loud surges—lash the sounding shore; would cheerfully give it for her.” When (Rough) The hoarse rough voice, should like Cyrus had liberated them both, the princese the torrent roar.” (Soft) “ Soft is the strain, which she replied, “I did not observe him;
was asked, what she thought of Cyrus? To when Zephyr gently blows; (Smooth) And the smooth stream, in smoother numbers my whole attention was fixed upon the geneflows.” (Harsh) “On a sudden, open fly, liberty with his life.”
rous man, who would have purchased my with impetuous recoil and jarring sound, the infernal doors, and on their hinges grate harsh
Prejudice—may be considered as a conthunder.” (Soft) “Heaven opened wide
tinual false medium of viewing things; for her ever-during gates (harmonious sound) prejudiced persons—not only never speak on golden hinges turning.” (Soft) “ How well
, but also, never think well, of those charming—is divine philosophy! (Harsh)
whom they dislike, and the whole character Not harsh, and rugged, as dull fools sup
and conduct is considered—with an eye to pose. (Soft) But musical—as is Apollo's that particular thing which offends them. lute.” (Harsh, Strong and Forcible.) “ Blow Varieties. 1. Every thing that is an obwind, and crack your cheeks ! rage! blow ject of taste, sculpture, painting, architecture, your cataracts, and hurricane spout, till you gardening, husbandry, poetry, and music have drenched our steeples. You sulphuri- come within the scope of the orator. 2. In a ous and thought-executing fires, vaunt couri-government, maintained by the arm of powers to oak-cleaving thunderbolts ; and thou, er, there is no certainty of duration; but one all shaking thunder, strike flat the thick ro- cemented by mutual kindness, all the best tundity of the world.”
feelings of the heart are enlisted in its sup(Soft and Smooth.)
port. 3. Who was the greater tyrant, DionyHow sweet the moon-light sleeps upon this bank; sius or the bloody Mary? 4. Beauty, unacHere will we sit, and let the sounds of music, companied by virtue, is like a flower, withCreep in our ears; soft stillness, and the night, out perfume; its brilliancy may remain, but Become the touches of sweet harmony.
its sweetness is gone; all that was precious (Quick and Joyous.)
in it, has evaporated. 5. We might as well Let the merry bells ring round,
throw oil on a burning house to put out the And the jocund rebeck sound,
fire, as to take ardent spirits into the stomach, To many a youth-and many a maid, to lessen the effects of a hot sun, or severe
Dancing-in the checkered shade. exercise. 6. The understanding must be A want of occupation—is not rest,
elevated above the will, to control its desires; A mind quite vacant—is a mind distressed. but it must be enlightened by the truth, that As rolls the ocean's changing tide,
it may not err. So-human feelings--ebb—and flow : The pathway-to the grave—may be the same, And who could in a breast confide, And the proud man-shall tread it,-and the low,
Where stormy passions-ever glow! With his bowed head, shall bear him company. Remote from cities-lived a swain,
But the temper-of the invisible mind, Unvexed-with all the cares of gain; The god-like-and undying intellect, His head-was silvered o'er with age, These are distinctions, that will live in heaven, And long experience-made him sage. When time,- is a forgotten circumstance.
391. DYNAMICS CONTINUED. These con Maxims. 1. All is soon ready in an orderly trasts produce great effects, when properly house. 2. Bacchus has drowned more than Nepexhibited, both in elocution and music. The tune. 3. Despair-has ruined some, but presumprushing loud, indicates dread, alarm, warn- tion-multitudes. 4. Flattery—sits in the parlor, ing, &c.; the soft, their opposites : the tend-while plain-dealing is kicked out of doors. 5. He ency of indistinctness is, to remove objects to is not drunk for nothing, who pays his reckoning a distance, throwing them into the back with his reason. 6. If the world knew what passes ground of the picture; and of fullness, to in my mind, what would it think of me. 7. Give bring them into the fore-ground, making Close not a letter—without reading it, nor drink
neither counsel nor salt, till you are asked for it. 8. them very prominent; thus — the polyph. water-without seeing it. 9. A fool, and his money, onist deceives, or imposes upon the ear, mak, are soon parted. 10. If few words—will not make ing his sounds correspond to those he would
you wise, many will not. represent, near by, and at a distance.
Anecdote. Charity Sermon. Dean Svrift 392. FORCIBLE. Now storming fury rose, and clamor; such as heard in heaven, till but was cautioned about having it too long:
-was requested to preach a charity sermon; now, was never: arms on armor, clashing, he replied, that they should have nothing to brayed horrible discord; and the maddening fear on that score. He chose for his text wheels of brazen chariots raged. Full:high these words—" He that hath pity on the poor, on a throne—of royal state, which far out- lendeth unto the Lord; and that which he shone the wealth of Ormus, and of Inde; hath given—will he pay him again.” The or where the gorgeous East, with richest Dean, after looking around, and repeating hand, showers on her kings barbaric, pearl | his text in a still more emphatic manner, and gold, Satan, EXALTED, sat. Strong:
added—“My beloved friends, you hear the him, the Almighty Power hurled headlong, terms of the loan ; and now, if you like the flaming from the ethereal skies with hideous
security, down with your dust." The reruin and combustion, down to bottomless
sult was, as might be expected,-a very large perdition - there to dwell in adamantine
collection. chains, and penal fire,—who durst defy the
Precept and Example. Example Omnipotent to arms.
works more cures than precept; for words, SO MILLIONS—are smit-with the glare of a toy:
without practice, are but councils without efThey grasp at a pebble—and call it-a gem,
fect. When we do as we say, it is a confirAnd tinsel—is gold, (if it glitters,) to them;
mation of the rule ; but when our lives and Hence, dazzled with beauty, the lover is smit, The hero—with honor, the poet-with wit;
doctrines do not agree, it looks as if the lesson
were either too hard for us, or the advice not The fop—with his feather, his snuff-box and cane, The nymph with her novel, the merchant with gain: worth following. If a priest—design to edify Each finical priest, and polite pulpiteer,
by his sermons, concerning the punishment Who dazzles the fancy, and tickles the ear,
of the other world, let him renounce his lust, With exquisite tropes, and musical style,
pride, avarice, and contentiousness; for whoAs gay as a tulip—as polished as oil,
ever would make another believe a danger, Sell truth-at the shrine of polite eloquence, must first show that he is apprehensive of it To please the soft taste, and allure the gay sense. himself.
Miscellaneons. 1. Fair sir, you spit on Varieties. 1. The first book read, and me-on Wednesday last; you spurned me- the last one laid aside, in the child's library, such a day; another time — you called me is the mother: every look, word, tone, and dog; and for these courtesies, I'll lend thee gesture, nay, even dress itself - makes an thus much moneys. 2. I stand-in the pre-everlasting impression. 2. One who is consence-of Almighty God, and of the world; scious of qualities, deserving of respect, and and I declare to you, that if you lose this attention, is seldom solicitous about them; charter, never, no NEVER—will you get an- but a contemptible spirit-wishes to hide itother. We are now, perhaps, arrived at the self from its own view, and that of others, by parting point. Here, even HERE, we stand-show, bluster and arrogant pretensions. 3. on the brink of fate! Pause! for HEAVEN'S The blood of a coward, would stain the char. sake, pause. 3. Can you raise the dead?acter of an honorable man; hence, when we Pursue and overtake the wings of time? And chastise such wretches, we should do it with can you bring about again, the hours, the the utmost calmness of temper. 4. Cultivate Dars, the YEARS, that made me happy? the habit—of directing the mind, intently, to 4. Put grant- that others can, with equal whatever is presented to it; this is the founglory, look down on pleasure, and the bait of dation of a sound intellectual character. 5. sense, where shall we find a man, that bears We are too apt, when a jest is turned upon afflictions, great and majestic in his ills, like ourselves, to think that insufferahle, in anCato?
other, which we looked upon as very pretty Oh then, how blind to all that truth requires, and facetious, when the humor was our own. Who think it freedom, where a parl-aspire.
Never purchase friendship by gifts.
393. Words are paints, the voice -- the imitation! Anxiety about the opinions of brush, the mind--the painter ; but science, others--fetters the freedom of nature, and practice, genius, taste, judgment and emu- tends to awkwurdness ; all would appear tion—are necessary--in order to paint well: well, if they never tried to assume—what and there is as much difference between a they do not possess. Every one is respectable good and bad reader, as there is between a and pleasing, so long as he or she, is perfectly good painter and a mere dauber. What natural and truthful, and speaks and acts gives expression to painting? Emphasis. from the impulses of an honest and affectionWe look upon some pictures and remark, ate heart, without any anxiety as to what " that is a strong outline ;” “a very express- others think. ive countenance :" this is emphasis : again, Laconics. 1. Modesty—in your discourse, we look upon others, and there is a softness, will give a lustre—to truth, and excuse—10 your deicacy, and tenderness, that melts the soul, errors. 2. Some—are silent, for want of matter, or as she contemplates them; this is emotion. assurance; others -- are talkative, for want of
394. Throw the following lines on the sense. 3. To judge of men—by their actions, one canvas of your imagination; i. e. picture and that the world—was one immense mad-house.
suppose that a great proportion was mad, them out there.
4. Prodigals-are rich, for a moment-economists, BEAUTY, WIT AND GOLD.
forever. 5. To do unto others, as we would they In her bower—a widow dwelt;
should do to us, is a golden maxim, that cannot be At her feet—three suitors knelt:
too deeply impressed on our minds. 6. Continue Each-adored the widow much,
to add a little-to what was originally a little, and Each-essayed her heart to touch;
you will make it a great deal. 7. The value-of One—had wit, and one—had gold,
sound, correct principles, early. implanted in the And one-was cast in beauty's mould;
human mind, is incalculable. Guess—which was it-won the prize,
Those who are talentless, themselves, are Purse, or tongue, or handsome eyes ?
the first to talk about the conceit of others; First, appeared the handsome man,
for mediocrity — bears but one flower -Proudly peeping o'er her fan;
ENVY. Red his lips, and white his skin;
Anecdote. Too Hard. About one hunCould such beauty-fail to win ? Then-stepped forth-the man of gold,
dred years ago, Mahogany—was introduced Cash he counted, coin he told,
in England as ballast for a ship, that sailed Wealth-the burden of his tale ;
from the West Indies; and one Dr. Gibbons Could such golden projects fail?
wished some furniture made of it: but the Then, the man of wit, and sense,
workmen, finding it too hard for their tools, Moved her-with his eloquence;
laid it aside. Another effort was made; but Now, she heard him-with a sigh;
the cabinet-maker said it was too hard for his Now—she blushed, she knew not why: tools. The Doctor told him, he must get Then, she smiled-10 hear him speak,
stronger tools then: he did so, and his effort Then, the tear-was on her cheek :
was crowned with success. Remember this, Beauty, vanish! gold, depart!
ye who think the subject of elocution, as here WIT, has won the widow's heart.
treated, too difficult : and if you cannot find IN POLITENESS, as in everything else, con- a way, make one. Press on! nected with the formation of character, we
Varieties. 1. A good reader may become are too apt to begin on the outside, instead of the inside: instead of beginning with the for there is nothing in any of these arts, that
a good speaker, singer, painter and sculptor: heart, and trusting to that to form the man, may not be seen in true delivery. 2. Old ners, many begin with the manners, and Parr, who died at the advanced age of 152, leave the heart to chance and influences, gave this advice to his friends ; “Keep your The golden rule—contains the very life and head cool by temperance, your feet warm by soul of politeness : “Do unto others--as you exercise: rise early, and go early to ber ; would they should do unto you." Unless and if you are inclined to grow fat, keer children and youth are taught-by precept and example, to abhor what is selfish, and not these excellent life-pills ? 3. As the lark
your eyes open, and your mouth shut.” Are prefer another's pleasure and comfort to their sings at the dawn of day, and the nightinown, their politeness will be entirely artifi- gale at even, so, should we show forth the cial, and used only when interest and policy loving kindness of the Lord—every morndictate. True politeness—is perfect freedom ing, and his faithfulness--every night. 4. and ease, treating others—just as you love to Is not the science of salvation—the greatest be treated. Nature—is always graceful: af- of all the sciences? fectation, with all her art, can never produce Without a star, or angel—for their guide, anything half so pleasing. The very perfec-Who worship God, shall find him: humble Love, tion of elegance-is to imitate nature; how (And not proud Reason,) keeps the door of heaven : much better—to have the reality, than the Love-finds admission, where Science-fails.
895. MODULATION-signifies the accom Maxims. 1. The follies of youth-are food for modation of the voice, (in its diversifications repentance in old age. 2. Truth-may languish, of all these principles,) to every variety and but it can never die. 3. When a rain man hears shade of thought and feeling. The upper another praised, he thinks himself injured. 4. Anpitches of voice, we know, are used in calling tiquity—is not always a mark of truth. 5. That persons at a distance, for impassioned em
trial is not fair-where affection is judge. 6. phasis of certain kinds, and for very earnest Business—is the salt of life. 7. Dependence—is a arguments; the middle pitches--for general poor trade, 8. He, who lives upon hope, has but conrersation, and easy familiar speaking, of
a slender diet. 9. Always taking out of the meal a descriptive and didactic character; and the tub, and never putting in, soon comes to the bot
tom. 10. He, who thinks to deceive God, deceives lower ones, for cadences, and the exhibition
himself of emphasis in grave and solemn reading and
Anecdote. An ill thing. Xenophanus, Speaking.
an old sage, was far from letting a false mo396. Who can describe, who delineate—desty lead him into crime and indiscretion, the cheering, the enlivening ray? who--the when he was upbraided, and called timorous, looks of love? who—the soft benignant vi- because he would not venture his money at brations of the benevolent eye? who—the any of the games. “I confess," said he, twilight, the day of hope? who—the internal “ that I am exceedingly timorous, for I dare efforts of the mind, wrapt in gentleness and not do an ill thing." humility, to effect good, to diminish evil, and
Education. It is the duty of the instrucincrease present and eternal happiness? who tors of youth to be patient with the dull, and --all the secret impulses and powers, collect- steady with the froward,--to encourage the ed in the aspect of the defender, or energy of timid, and repress the insolent,-fully to emtruth? of the bold friend, or subtle foe- of ploy the minds of their pupils, without overwisdom? who--the poet's eye, in a fine burdening them, -- to awaken their fear, phrenzy rolling, glancing from heaven--to without exciting their dislike,--to communiearth, from earth--to heaven, while imagina-cate the stores of knowledge, according to the tion — bodies forth the form of things un- capacity of the learner, and to enforce obediknown.
ence by the strictness of discipline. Above Notes. The pitch of the voice is exceedingly important in all, it is their bounden duty, to be ever on the every branch of our subject, and particularly, in the higher parts; watch, and to check the first beginnings of and this-among the rest. You must not often raise your voice to the eighth note ; for it will be harsh and unpleasant to the ear, and vice. For, valuable as knowledge may be, very apt to break: nor drop it to the first note; for then your ar virtue is infinitely more valuable; and worse ticulation will be difficult and indistinct, and you cannot impart than useless are these mental accomplishany life and spirit to your manner and matter; as there is little or ments, which are accompanied by depravity DO compass below this pitch: both these extremes must be carefully avoided.
of heart. Patrick Henry's Treason. When this Varieties. 1. Can charcoal-paint fire; worthy patriot, (who gave the first impulse to chalk-light, or colors-live and breathe the ball of the revolution,) introduced his ce | 2. Tattlers—are among the most despicable lebrated resolution on the stamp act, in the of bad things; yet even they—have their use; Virginia House of Burgesses, in 1765, as he for they serve to check the licentiousness descanted on the tyranny of that obnoxious of the tongues of those, who, without the fear act, exclaimed —“Cesar--had his Brutus ;
of being called to account, through the instruCharles the First, his Cromwell; and George mentality of these babbling knaves, would the Third”—“ Treason !" cried the speaker ; run rint in backbiting and slander. “ treasm; treason; TREASON;" re-echoed
Tis the mind, that makes the body rich; from every part of the house. It was one of
And, as the sun-breaks the darkest cloud, those trying moments, which are decisive of
So, honor-peareth-in the meanest habit. character ; but Henry faltered not for an in
No: let the eagle—change his plume, stant ; and rising to a loftier attitude, and
The leaf-its hue, the flow'r—its bloom;
But ties-around the heart were spun, fixing on the speaker--an eye, flashing with
That could not, would not, be undone. fire, continued --“may PROFIT--by these examples: if this be treason, make the most Oh, who—the exquisite delights can tell,
The joy, which mutual confidence imparts? of it."
Or who—can paint the charm unspeakable,
Which links. in tender bands. two faithful hearts !
6. Many things — are easier felt, than told. The venerable woods; rivers, that move
7. It is no proof of a man's understanding, In majesty, and the complaining brooks, (all,
to be able to affirm-whatever he pleases ; That make the meadows green; and, pour'd round but, to be able to discern, that what is true, Old ocean's gray and melancholy waste;
is true, and that what is false, is false—is the Are but the solemn decorations a!l
mark and character of intelligence. Of the great comb of man.
Nature-sells everything for labor.