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278. INVOLUNTARY EFFORTS. Let no one Proverbs. 1. It is well not only to seem pure; imagine, that it is the design of this system to but, to be pure. 2. Aim at desert, rather than remake arbitrary readers, and speakers; far ward. 3. If you are in a thriving way, stick to it, from it: if the system were not founded in and let well enough, alone. 4. Trifles-often deNATURE, such might be the result. By mak-cide much-concerning the character of a person. ing use of the principles here developed, we 5. Believe yourself capable of learning what others return to truth and nature; provided we have have learned. 6. Avoid all ectremes ; and live, wandered from them; consequently, the ef- and act, in the golden medium. 7. The loaded

tree - always bends with its fruits ; as virtug fort becomes involuntary: as was the case with the whistling of little Jimmy, in school; stoops beneath humility. 8. Without frugaliy,

none can be rich; and with it-few can be poor. who, when his teacher was about to correct 9. The used key—is always bright. 10. Man is a him, exclaimed, “No, no; it was not I that being who makes bargains; one dog never ex. whistled, it whistled itself.No one can be changes bones with another dog. 11. You can do a good reader, or speaker, till the effort be- it

, if you only think so, and try. 12. Quick becomes involuntary; he must will, and it shall lievers,need broad shoulders. be done. Unfortunately, some think they

Anecdote. New Character. Lord Hardy, must do some great thing; whereas, they who was so much addicted to the bottle, as to have only to wash, and be clean.

be always under the influence of liquor, pre279. Epic, or heroic poetry, has for its sub-vious to a masquerade night, inquired of Foot, ject the exploits of some hero, or heroes, of “what new character he ought to appear in ?" national celebrity; Lyric poetry is designed “New character," said the other,—“suppose to be set to music, as psalms, hymns, odes you go sober, my lord.” He took the hint of and songs; Elegiac poetry involves solemn, the comedian, and actually reformed. or mournful subjects; Epitaphs are inscrip- Industry. If industry is no more than tions on tomb-stones; Pastoral poetry treats habit, 'tis at least an excellent one. “If you of rural affairs, and the social affections; it is ask me, which is the real hereditary sin of appropriate to shepherds ; Didactic poetry is human nature, do you imagine I shall answer designed to convey instruction; Satyric pride, or luxury, or ambition, or egotism? poetry is for reproving the vices, errors and No; I shall sayindolence. Who conquers follies of the world, by holding them up to indolence, will conquer all the rest.” Indeed, ridicule ; Descriptive poetry describes inter- all good principles must stagnate, without esting subjects, mental or natural; and mental activity. Romantic poetry has for its subjects, tales, Varieties. 1. A prime minister romances, and novels, probable, or supernat asked, how he could perform such a vast ural.

amount of business, and yet, have so much 280. CAUSE AND EFFECT. Such are the de- leisure? He replied, I do every thing at the fects of our education, that we are brought up time. 2. Would wings — be folded in the almost as ignorant of our bodies and minds, worm, if they were not one day to enable it as of the man in the moon: the consequence to fly? 3. The perfection of religion and is, we are imposed upon by the shoe-maker, science—will be united; their sphere of opethe tailor, the mantua-maker, the carpenter ration ascertained, and their periods of vicisand joiner, the cabinet-maker, the miller and situdes known in that better age, which is baker, the cook and the washer, and by al- approaching. most every body else: we are a race of abusers

Let foolsthe studious despise ; of one another. When we get a pair of shoes, There's nothing lost, by being wise. the first question is, how well do they look?

Whatever perilsmay alarm us, So also of the coat and dress, the house, the

Kind words—will never harm us. chair, the flour, and bread, &c., &c. Oh, 6. Pure, and undefiled religion, is the sheetwhen shall we be wise, and understand the anchor of happiness, the perfection and glory things that so nearly concern our temporal of human nature; its essence—is a conscience welfare? Having eyes, we see not aright ; void of offence toward God, and man. 7. having ears, we hear wrong: our feelings, There is a providence in every pulsation, and taste, and smell-betray us, because they are in all the particulars that concern it: as the perverted. The enemy comes in upon us like sun-never ceases to shine, so the Lord a flood, and who will lift up a standard against never ceases to bless. him?

There is a voice-I shall hear no more

There are tones, whose music, for me,
Like leaves on trees-the race of man is found, Sweet as the odors of spring were they,-
Now, green in youth, now, withering on the ground. Precious and rich—but, they died away;
Another race the following spring supplies; They carne like peace to my heart and ear-
They fall successive, and successive rise:

Never again will they murmur here;
So-generations—in their course decay,

They have gone-like the blush of a summer morn, So-fourish these, when those

are passed away. Like a crimson cloud-through the sunset borne.

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281. EMPHASIS. Words are emphatic, Proverbs. 1. We must submit to authority, when opposition is expressed, or understood; till we can discover, or see-reasons. 2. Be not satthat is, when our words are contrasted, and isfied with the results and applications of knowwhen we wish to enforce our ideas, so as to ledge; but search for its fountains. 3. Youth—is produce their desired effects. As, Oratory- not a time to cast away stones, but to gather them. involves feelings, thoughts and words ; so, 4. Instead of naturalizing nature, we should natdoes it also involve ends, or purposes, causes, uralize art. 5. The understanding—is a refining and effects ; beyond which, human minds yessel, in which knowledge is purified. 6. En

deavor to acquire such knowledge, as will enable cannot travel. We may illustrate emphasis,

you to judge correctly yourself. 7. Time-deby what is called lever-power; the resistance

stroys the speculations of man, but confirms the to be overcome, or the effect to be produced ; judgments of Nature. 8. No evil propensity is so the lever as a medium, and the weight :thus, powerful, but that it may be subdued, by proper I will, or desire, to accomplish a certain ob- means. 9. No one is so great, or so small, but ject : here, is the region of ends, or pur- that he is capable of giving, or receivingbenefits. poses ; then, I devise ways and means, and 10. Be civil—to the great,—but intimate-with the determine how it is to be done; here, is the good. 11. No religion—is better than an unnaturegion of causes : and, finally, I put the pur-ral one. 12. Immoderate sorrow—is a species of pose in operation, through the means, and suicide. 13. Pay what you owe. 14. Great thieves thus accomplish my object; which, of course, punish little ones. 15. The absent party is alis the region of effects. Here is the philoso- ways faulty. phy of oratory.

Anecdote. If a private gentleman, in 282. EXAMPLES OF EMPHASIS BY STRESS. Cheshire England, about the year 1730, had 1. It is not so easy to hide our faults, as to con- not been overturned in his carriage ; it is fessand avoid them. 2. Never attempt to possible, that the United States, instead of raise yourself, by depreciating the merits of being a free Republic, might have remained others. 3. As foolsmake a mock at sin, so a dependent colony: that gentleman-was do the ignorantoften make a mock at Augustus Washington, who was thus thrown knowledge. 4. They are generally most ri- out of his carriage, into the company of a diculous themselves, who see most to ridicule lady, who afterwards became his wife, emiin others. 5. Wherever education is neg- grated with him to Virginia, and, in 1732, belected, -depravity, and every kind of action, came the mother--of General Washington. that degrades mankind, are most frequent. Laconics. When we see birds, at the 6. The first three volumes ; not, the three first approach of rain, anointing their plumage volumes; there is only one-first. 7. The with oilto shield off the drops, should it first three, and the last two verses; not, the not remind us, when the storms of contenthree first, and two last. 8. To be trulytion threaten us, to apply the oil of for happy, man must be good, and renounce such bearance, and thus — prevent the chilling enjoyments as are grounded in the love of drops from entering our hearts? evil. 9. There is a natural body, and there

Varieties. 1. Did mankind fall suddenis a spiritual body. 10. Flesh—and blood ly, or by degrees? 2. While freedom—is true cannot inherit the kingdom of God.

to itself, every one becomes subject to it; and 283. RULE. Emphasize the important even its adversaries are instruments in its word, or words, with such a degree and kind hands. 3. The preservation of health--deof stress, or expulsive prolongation of sound, pends, principally, on proper diet, early reas to convey the entire sense and feeling, in tiring, and early rising, temperance in eatthe best manner, and give each idea its rela- ing, and drinking, proper exercise, and pertive importance. Example and definition. fect cleanliness. 4. By a vicious action, we “ Emphasis—is the index of my meaning, injure our mind, as we should our body, by and shows more exactly, what I wish the drinking poison, or inflicting a wound upon hearers to attend to-particularly.Indeed, it. 5. What is liberty? Willing, thinking, it is to the mind what the finger is to the eye: speaking, and doing-what we understand ; when we wish a person to see any thing, we provided, we violate no law, or principle. naturally point to it: thus, are the manifesta- 6. Mental pleasures--never cloy; unlike tions of the mind made by the emphasis, or those of the body, they are increased by repepointing of the voice.

tition, approved by reason, and strengthened They are sleeping! Who are sleeping ? by enjoyment. 7. Evil action, contrivance

Mortals, compassed round with woe,- and speech, is but the manifestation of the Eyelids, wearied out with weeping, nature of evil; and that it should be made Close for very weakness now:

manifest, is consistent with divine inten. And that short relief from sorrow,

tions. Harassed nature-shall sustain,

Freedom-is Till they wake again—10-morrow,

The brilliant gift of heaven; 'tis reason's self, Strengthened to contend with pain!

The kin-to Deity.


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284. EMPHASIS. There are only two ways Proverbs. 1. It is a fraud-to conceal fraud. of making emphasis, but as many ways of 2. Never attempt to do two things-at once. 3. exhibiting it, as there are pitches, qualities, He, labors in vain, who endeavors to please every and modifications of voice--in Speech and body. 4. To the resolute and persevering—nothSong : all of which are very simple, and a ing is difficult. 5. Thieves-are game for the knowledge of them easily acquired, by the penitentiary, and often, for the gallows. 6. Kindpersevering student. In every sentence, there ness-begets kindness, and love-begets love. 7. is a word, or words, on which the sense de The drop-hollows the stone, not by its force, but pends, as the body—on the heart; the voice and by falling often on the same spot. 8. A inan who gestures, only, can exhibit it. Emphasis, not well as by day. 9. There is no sauce equal to a

aspires to be an orator, must study by night, as only illustrates, but often amplifies the sense good appetite. 10. To wicked persons--the virof the author; and that is the best emphasis, tue of others—is always a subject of envy. 11. A which does this the most effectively; indeed, man would not be alone, even in paradise. 12. there are times when, through the emphasis, Weigh right, if you sell dear. one may make words meanmore than they Anecdote. Dr. Johnson-observed to were designed to mean by the author. Macklin, in a sneering manner, that literary

285. EMPHASIS by expulsive stress. 1. He men-should converse in the learned lanwho cannot bear a joke-should never give guages; and immediately addressed the dra

2. Avoid a slanderer, as you would a matist in Latin; after which, Macklin-utscorpion. 3. A wager--is a fool's argument. tered a long sentence in Irish. The Doctor 4. He that is past shame, is past hope. 5. again returned to the English tongue, saying, What is worth doing at all, is worth doing “You may speak very good Greek ; but I am well. 6. Men of principle, ought to be prin- not sufficiently versed in that dialect—to concipal men. 7. Aim at nothing higher, till verse with you can read and speak, deliberately, clearly, Of Dress, &c. A creature, who spends and distinctly, and with proper emphasis: all its time in dressing, gaming, prating, and other graces will follow. 8. The head, with gadding, is a being originally, indeed, of the out the heart, is like a steam engine, without rational make; but who has sunk itself bea boiler. 9. As love--thinks no evil, so envy neath its rank, and is to be considered, at

-speaks no good. 10. Variety, delights; present, as nearly on a level with the monand perfection, delights in variety.

key-species. 286. Music. The cultivation, and frequent Varieties. 1. What was the design of practice of music, in schools of every grade, will God, in making man.? 2. How absurd, to have a strong, and decidedly beneficial influ- have half a dozen children, with different disence on the habits of the pupils. By using positions, and capabilities, and yet, give them the same words, and singing the same pieces all—the same education! 3. Are not bigotin concert, their thoughts will be directed in (ry, and intolerance--as destructive to men the same channel, and their affections eleva- rality, as they are to common sex' ? 4. ted together; and they will naturally be led Observations, made in the cloister, or in the into closer association and sympathy with desert, will generally be as obscure--as the each other. Well chosen music may be made one, and barren--as the other; to become an efficient auxiliary, guiding and controlling orators, or painters, we must study originals. the feelings and actions in the school-room, 5. Which side of a pitcher has the handle? and contribute essentially, to the proper man- The outside, of course. 6. If a book really agement of its concerns. It was in accord-needs the patronage of a great man; it is a ance with this principle, that a certain poet bad book; and if it be a good book, it does wisely said, “Let me make the songs of the not need it. 7. To sow the seeds of order-nation, and I care not who makes its laus.we must be just; and so, also, to water them;

287. GEOGRAPHY-comprises a general de- but beware that self--enter not into the acscription of the earth; and, especially of the tion. nations, by which it is inhabited, in reference

Before the gate there sat, to their position and extent ; their produc-On either side, a formidable shape. tions and resources; their institutions and The one seemed woman--to the waist, and fair ; improvements ; their manners and customs;

But ended foul, in many a scaly fold,

Voluminous and vast ;-a serpent arm'd including the subject of statistics, voyages,

With mortal stings. and travels. It is a term, that admits of al

The other shape, most indefinite extension; for in describing if shape it might be calld, that shape had none, a nation, allusion must be made to its lan- Or substance might be call’d, that shadow seemed, guage, laws, religion, arts, and literature; For each seem'd each, black it stood as night, and in treating of the earth, and its produc- Fierce as ten furies,-terrible as hell, tions, we may include the whole range of the And shook a dreadful dart. physical sciences.

You think this cruel ; take it for a rule,
True love-is never idle.

No creature--smarts so little-as a fool.

I 2

288. Remember, that Emphasis—is to Proverbs. 1. Wisdom - excelleth folly, as words, in a sentence, what accent is to letters much as light excels darkness. 2. Opinion -is or syllables, in a word; and, as proper ac- free; and conduct alone-amenable to the law. cent-on a right vowel, will impart an impe- 3. Some affect to despise—what they do not untus to the voice, in going through the word; derstand. 4. In trying to avoid one danger, we so, true emphasis on the same, will give an sometimes fall into another. 5. Decency—is the impetus in delivering the sentence, so as to natural characteristic of virtue, and the decepultimate the end you have in view. Again, tive coloring of vice. 6. Never despair ; speak the length of long vowel sounds, in emphatic the commanding word, “I WILL,” and it is done.

7. Never chase a lie ; for if you keep quiet, truth words, is, to the same vowels, in accented

-will eventually overtake it. 8. A punctual words, what accented long ones are, to unac

man, cented long ones: similar observations might doubtful credit. 9. Persons of fashion, starve

is rarely a poor man; and never--a man of be made in reference to force--on emphatic their happiness, to feed their vanity; and their short vowels, and accented and unaccented love, to feed their pride. 10. There is a great short ones.

difference--between repeating a maxim, or pro289. The various effects, produced by verb, and a practical observance of it. 11. Dischanging the seat of Emphasis, from one eases—are the interest of sensual pleasures. 12. word to another, may be seen in the follow- The half is often better than the whole. 13. Jusing sentence, of emphatic memory; provided tice-should rule over ull. it be read according to the notation. Will

Bigots. Bigots, who are violent, positive, you ride to town to-day?” That is: will and intolerant, in their religious tenets, ought you ride, or will you not? “Will you ride to feel very much humbled, when they reflect, to town to-day?” That is: will you ride, or that they would have been equally so for any will you send some one. “Will you ride to other religion, had it been the religion of their town to-day?" That is: will you ride, or parents, or of the country in which they had walk? “Will you ride to town to-day?”

been born and educated. That is: will you ride to town, or will you

Varieties. 1. Why is a tale-bearer-like a ride somewhere else? “Will you ride to brick-layer? Because he raises stories. 2. town to-day?That is: will you ride to When you have nothing to say, say nothing; town to-day, or to-morrow; or, next week ? for a weak defence—strengthens your oppoBy using other modifications of voice, as many nent: and silence-is better than a bad reshades of meaning may be given, even to this ply. 3. We might enjoy much peace, and short sentence, as there are letters in it.

happiness, if we would not busy ourselves, 290. APPLICATION. It is incredible, how with what others say and do. 4. Never think much may be accomplished by diligence, and

of yourself, when reading, speaking, or industry. The present state of the world, en- singing ; but of your subject ; and avoid an lightened by the arts and sciences, is a living artificial, and grandiloquent style of delivery. proof, that difficulties, seemingly insuperable, 5. It is not enough—to be left to the tuition may finally be overcome. This considera- of Nature, unless we know what lessons she tion ought to stimulate us to industry and teaches. 6. Morals--too often come from application. We do not know our

the pulpit, in the cold abstract ; but men strength, till we try it; nor to what extent smart under them when good lawyers are our abilities will carry us, till we put them to the preachers. 7. When we become perfectthe test. Those who want resolution, often ly rational, and act wholly from ourselves desist from useful enterprises, when they in consequence of it, we are accountable for have more than half effected their purposes: all our actions, and they are then imputed to they are discouraged by difficulties and dis

if evil,—but not before, appointments, which ought rather to excite

Where the gentle streamlets flow, their ardor, and cause them to redouble their

Where the morning dew-drops glow, efforts to succeed.

Where the zephyrs—wing their flight, Anecdote. While Athens—was governed

In the cool and welcome night, by the thirty tyrants, Socrates, the philoso

Whispering through the fragrant grove pher, was ordered to assist in seizing one

To the heart, that “ God is love," Leon, a man of rank and fortune, whom

Where the light cloud skims the sky, they determined to put out of the way, that Worship! God is passing by!" they might enjoy his estate ; but Socrates

Hoary forest, rugged rock, positively refused : saying, “I will not wil

Roaring torrents, earthquake's shock, lingly assist-in an unjust act.“Dost

Mighty tempests, lightning's glare, thou think," (said one of them,)“ to talk in Ocean, raging in despair, this high tone, and not to suffer ?

And the desert-lone and drear, from it,” replied he; “I expect to suffer a Wake the soul of man to fear; thousand ills; but none so great—as to do And when thunder rends the sky, unjustly."

Tremble! God is passing !"






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291. EMPHASIS. If your articulation, Proverbs. 1. Temperance--and intemperance and pronunciation, be clear and correct, and reward, and punish themselves. 2. Riches-are you are free from all unnatural tones, and servants to the wise,--but tyrants to fools. 3. None other bad habits, nothing can prevent your can be great, who have ceased to he virtuous. 4. succeeding in this important art, if you per- Moneydoes no good, till it is distributed. 5. If fect yourself in Emphasis : hence, the reason you have one true friend, think yourself happy. 6.

7. of dwelling on the subject so long, and of Silks, and satins, often put out the kitchen fire giving such a variety of examples. But re- Hunger--looks into the working-man's house ; but member, that books, rules, teachers, or all dare not enter, 8. When the well is dry, people combined, cannot make orators of you, with know the worth of water. 9. Business-makes a

man, as well as tires him. 10. For the evidence of out you throw your whole heart and soul truth, look at the truth itself. 11. Better go away into the exercises, and let your zeal be ac-longing, than loathing. 12. Of saving-cometh cording to knowledge. Become independent having. 13. God-never made a hypocrite. of your book, and speak from memory, as

Reading, Writing, and Speaking. soon as possible; then, you will be left to the Habits of literary conversation, and still more, promptings and guidance of your own mind, habits of extempore discussion in a popular and become free.

assembly, are peculiarly useful in giving us 292. 1. Men live, and prosper, but in mu

a ready and practical command of our knoritual trust, and confidence of one another's edge. There is much good se in the foltruth. 2. Those, who are teaching our youth lowing aphorism of Bacon : "Reading makes -to read with science and effect, are doing a full man, writing a correct man, and speakmuch to increase the power, and extend the ing a ready man.” influence—of standard authors.

Varieties. 1. Through an affected conPeace—is the happy, natural state of man; temptfor what some call little things, many War-his corruption, and disgrace.

remain ignorant-of what they might easily To native genius-would you prove a friend ! know. 2. A harmless hilarity, and buoyant Point out his faults—and teach him how to mend. cheerfulness — are not unfrequent concomi

tants of genius; and we are never more deAct with prudence, and with manly temper,

ceived, than when we mistake gravity-for As well as manly firmness ;

greatness, solemnity--for science, and pom'Tis God-like magnanimityto keep, When most provoked, our reason-calm, and clear. posity for erudition. 3. It is better to have

recourse to a quack, who can cure our disNotes. The ancients very properly called man a micro

ease, tho' he cannot explain it, than to one cosm, or little world. But what were this world--without a sun, to impart to it light and heat? Of what use the body-without who can explain, but cannot cure it. 4. Earthe soul? Of what use the house, without the inhabitant ? and ly rising-not only gives us more life, in the of what use words, without thought and feeling? And of what

same number of years, but adds to the numose are all these, if they cannot be made manifest? The bodyis the mind's

servant, and depends on its care, as the mind itself ber; and not only enables us to enjoy more does on the Father of mind. Body, and soulare best taken care of existence, in the same measure of time, but of, when both are minded together.

increases also their measure. 5. For his 293. ARCHITECTURE—teaches the art of honesty, there was no winter in't; an aubuilding; and is one of the most useful, as tumn 'twas, that grew the more, by reaping. well as ancient, of all the arts: it demands 6. Let us admire the results of truth, while much more attention, than it has ever re- we ascend to the source of truth. 7. Look ceived ; especially, in this country: and many first inwardly, for the coming of the Lord,

- would save time, labor and moncy, and and of his kingdom ; and when certainly have better houses, as to comfort and appear found there, then look in outward nature, for ance, if they would make themselves ac- a harmony agreeing with it; but not before. quainted with this important art. Most

Tell me not, in mournful numbers, persons will find it much to their benefit, to

Life-is but an empty dream! call upon an architect, when about to erect a

For the soul is dead, that slumbers, building of importance.

And things are not what they seem. Anecdote. King James I., of England,

Life is real! Life is earnest! went out of his way one day, to hear a noted

And the grave—is not its goal ; preacher. The clergyman, seeing the king Dust thou art, to dust returnest, enter, left his textto declaim against swear- Was not spoken-of the soul. ing; for which vile practice—the king was Not enjoyment, and not sorrow, notorious. After service, the king thanked Is our destined end or way; him for his sermon; and asked him, what But to act, that each to-morrow connection swearing had with his text. The Finds us farther-than to-day. minister replied, “Since your majesty came Let us, then, be up and doing, out of your way, thro' curiosity, I could not, With a heart for any fate; in compliance, do less than go out of mine Still achieving, still pursuing, to meet you."

Learn to labor, and to wait.

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