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of the Allies 40,000, and on that of the French 45,000.” There is an evident mistake here in the computation ; for one half of 25,000 is but 12,500, so that the total waste on the part of the Allies could only be 37,500 instead of 40,000, which is 7,500 less than the French. The latter, however, are said to have made 30,000 prisoners, whereas those of the former did not exceed 25,000.
At the opening of the campaign in Italy, the forces of the French and other associates in arms in that country, amounted to 130,000 men, and that of the Austrians to no more than 60,000. These latter, indeed, afterwards received a reinforcement of 20,000 Ruflians, but before these had arrived, the Austrian General Kray, whose skill, activity, and talents, we have fo often had occafion to praise, defeated the enemy in several successive actions, and paved the way for that continued series of victories which crowned with glory the memorable efforts of the Allies. The author, contemplating with delight, the happy effects of the determined conduct of England, in this eventful war, concludes one of his chapters with the following juft and Aattering remark:
* Situated at one extremity of Europe she was re-eftablishing at the other extremity the King of Naples on his throne-was preserving at the same time the Ottoman Empire, and accomplished more with some ships and fome hundreds of men, than that immense Colossus could effect for its own sake--She was sustaining by her councils, her fleets, and her treasures, the energy, the confidence, and the efforts of her continental Allies-- She was preparing to effect in Holland a powerful diversion in their favour the was Thewing herself on the feas fuperior to the united maritime powers of France and Spain.
In a remote part of the globe, she was successful in rendering the whole of India one of her colonies. In the midft of this prodigious and incomparable exhibition of her power, and of this divergence of her force, the was successfully employed in encreasing and concentrating it by the union of Ireland with Great Britain. Such was to this fortunate Illand, flourishing at home, and powerful abroad, the happy result of the wisdom of the constitution, the virtues of the Sovereign, the genius of minifters, and the public fpirit of the nation.'
The most important events are detailed with a degree of acCuracy, and even in a scientific, though perfpicuous, manner, that must afford equal pleasure to the professional and to the common reader.
The author closes this volume, as he closed the former, with an account of the respective losses of the Belligerent Powers. ** « Why cannot the historian Thut his eyes against this afflicting
picture? But condemned as he is to open those of the public, after having examined with attention all the calculations of the daily lofles worthy of notice, after having compared and weighed all the estimates that have been made on this subject, he will find himself not far from the truth in stating the loss experienced by the Allies in killed and wounded at 30,000 men; in prisoners at 10,000; and that of the French in the first respect at 45,000; and in the second at 35.000. From this it results that it cost the Republicans twice as many as it did the Allies, a natural consequence of fix great defeats, of a great number of fortresses being loft, and of a campaign entirely of disasters. It is also seen that it caused a sacrifice of 75,000 foldiers, the victims of the filly and barbarous ambition of five men, who replunged the world into the horrors of war. So much blood happily was not entirely lost in the cause of justice. of reason, and of focial order; and one of the most beautiful parts of Europe, though not immediately restored to its legitimate poffeffors, was at least freed, for a time, from revolutionary despotism, rapacity, irreligion, and immorality.”
This volume is interspersed with some biographical anecdotes and military characters, which are curious, and probably new to most of our readers, and which we shall, therefore, extract.
GENERAL KRAY. -- General Kray was born in Hungary, and has served fince his infancy in the Imperial army. He has obtained the rank he now holds by long and useful services. He has always shewn himself possessed in an eminent degree of that qualification, which distinguishes the Hungarian officers, viz. a perfect knowledge of the kind of war to be carried on with light troops and on the advanced posts. manded with distinction those of the great Imperial army in 1794, and, it
may be remembered, that he was also at the head of the advancof the army of Gen. Werneck at Neuwied in
Gen. Kray is now about 60 years of agel; but he is robust, active, and likely to be long able to exert his talents for the defence of his country and of his Sovereign."
GENERAL SERRU IER. “ It is known that preferving under the Republican standard that sense of honour which had railed him to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel under the old government, he kept himself so pure in the midft of the extortions committed by other Generals, that he was called the Virgin of the Army."
The MARQUIS de CHASTELLER. “ General the Marquis de Chafteller is a man of rank and fortune in the low countries. "He has, from his youth, served in the engi. neers, and possesses all the knowledge necessary for that Gruation.
He served with distinction in the war' against the Turks, and in the two against France. It was he who, in 1795, placed Mentz in that formidable state in which it now is, and with respect to which it may be truly faid : Non nos quæfitum munus in ufus.His example may encourage military men who are short-fighted not to despair of being useful, and of advancing in their military career. Few people la. bour under this disadvantage to a greater degree than himself; but making use of glasses and spectacles which he always wears in battle, he has ever found himself capable of seeing every thing, as well as of doing every thing; and during the campaign he has filled the most active situation, the most important one, and to which the coup d'eil seemned particularly neceffary, that ot Quarter-mafter General. It is to be presumed that the fingularity of wearing spectacles, a very uncommon thing in the German armies, might have contributed, but nevertheless not so much as his extraordinary bravery, in drawing wpon him fome of the numerous wounds with which he is covered. He received glorious ones at the battle of Maubeuge, which recalls an incident that will not be misplaced in this biographical note.-.
“ The Marquis de Chafteller, then employed in the staff, put himself at the head of a body of horse to charge the French infantry; after having given the order he executed it himself with all the ardor of his courage, and all speed of his horfe; but those of the troop who followed him not being so swift as his own, he came alone on the bayonets of the enemy, had his horse killed, received himself several wounds, and was thrown on the ground. In a few minutes his body of cavalry had charged, dispersed, and pursued the enemy, and had disappeared. The Marquis de Chanteller found himself on the fie!d of battle covered with his blond, and without the means of Tegaining the army. He was perceived and recognized by an Austrian horseman, who came to him and said, “Sir, I have a broken thigh but my horse is found : make use of it to get away from hence; your life is valuable; mine can no longer be of any service. The soldier at the same time got off his horse, and compelled, by his entreaties, the Marquis de Chafteller to mount it. The latter rejoined the body of the army, and before he thought of having his wounds dressed, he thought of lending for this heroic foldier, had the pleasure to see him as well as himself recovered from his wounds, and the generosity, it
may përhaps be said, the justice, 10 grant him a pension."
GENERAL MACDONALD. “ This General is of Irish extraction, and after having firit ferved in Holland; he entered the Itish brigade in the service of France before the revolution. While his comrades were emigrating, he feemed disposed to imitate their example: but having married the daughter of a violent denocrat, he was ihreatened by him with being disinherired if he quicted France. This confideration kept him there; but be did porche continu d in the service of the Republic. He was
Aid.de. Camp to Dumourier, and afterwards to Pichegru, who promoted him rapidly. He did not follow the fortunes of the latter General in 1797 ; and was the next year sent to the army of Naples. To him has been attributed the success of the battle of Civita Caflellana. which decided the fate of the war, undertaken by the King of the two Sicilies.
It is said on this occasion, he treated Championet very roughly on the field of battle, although the latter was Commander in Chief.' It has been seen that he succeeded to him in this rank a short time afterwards. He ,is, at present, one of the Lieutenants of the Pirtt Conful."
MARSHAL SUWOROW. « Suworow was born, in 1730, of noble parents ; in
1742 entered the service as a common soldier, and it was not till the year 1759 that he was made a Lieutenant. In 1754, he made his first campaign in Pomerania: in that of 1761, he is found already a Lieutenant-colonel in the light troops ; and it was then, that in serving at the outposts against the Pruffians, he became completely master of his profession, and obtained at the head of the Coffacks, a reputation fim'. lar to that which the famous Loudon, and in the same rank, and the fame war, acquired at the head of the Croats. Suworow during this campaign was in a number of actions, and was wounded by a shot at that of Gola
At the end of the year, which was the æra of peace, he was sent by Count Panin to the Empress, who him Colonel's com. miffion in her own hand writing. In 1768, he was brigadier, and was sent into Poland against the Confederates, whom he defeated, in many rencontres. In 1770, he was raised to the rank of Major. General. He escaped death in a miraculous manner, having fallen into the Vistula and being almost at his last gasp when he was drawn put. He made rapid advances in the career of honors, received the same year the order of St. Anne, a little after that of St. George, and afterwards that of St. Alexander. In 1771, he was opposed to Dumouriez, who commanded a body of Confederates. The same year he gained the battle of Stalowitz, and besieged the castle of Cracow, and took it. The partition of Poland taking place in 1772, Suworow having passed four years in that country, returned to Peterf. burg, and was employed in Finland. He was, in 1773, in Moldavia, where he made war against the Turks under Marshall Romanzow. He covered himself with glory the following year, by defeating, with 12,000 men, the grand Turkish army, consisting of 50,000 men, of whom 3,000 were lain ; 40 pieces of cannon were taken. Peace having been made the same year, he was dispatched into Muscovv to pursue and take the rebel Pugatschew : he was, as a reward for this service, appointed commander of all the troops of this vait country. In 1778, he was employed in the same capacity in the Crimea, where he had been sent two years before, and where fre establithed Schaim Gheray as Khan. He then returned to Petersburgh, where he was loaded with new favours by the Empress. Destined to serve in all the parts of the immense empire of this Saytreign, he was sent into NO, XXX, VOL, VII, Еe
Persia in 1980, the following year into the Province of Casán, and in 1782 into the Cuban. In the next year he made Schaim Gheray abdicate his throne, difarmed the Nogais Tartars, and obliged them to take an oath of fidelity to the Empress. Upon their breaking it, and making an insurrection, Suworow chastised them by killing 4,000 men upon the borders of the Cuban. He received the order of St. Wolodimir, returned to Moscow in 1784, and in 1785 to Petersburgh. In 1786, he accompanied the Empress in her journey into the Crimea, and commanded the troops assembled on this occasion near Cherson. The following year war breaking out between the Rulliáns and the Turks, he was entrusted in the same country with the command of 30,000 men. He was wounded in the attack of Kinburn by the Turks, and again afterwards before Ocksakow. He was adorned with a new order, that of St. Andrew, the first in the Empire. He went, in 1789, with 7,000 men, to the relief of Prince Cobourg, in Wallachia, in 36 hours marched 70 miles, and assisted in defeating the Turks at Forhani. Having come back upon the Pruth with as much rapidity, he afterwards with no less celerity returned to rejoin - Prince Cobourg. They together gained the battle of Rymnik: in consequence of this, the Empress conferred on him the title of Court Rympisky, and the Emperor of Germany made him Count of the Empire. In 1790 he was commissioned to attack with 23,000 men, Ismailow, defended by 43,000. He took tlris place by assault; -4,300 Russians perished there ; but 33,000 Turks were killed or wounded. After this terrible exploit, he returned to Petersburgh in 1791, from whence he was sent into Finland to command the fleet, and the army. The following year he went into the Crimea, to re-unite in his own perfon the thrce commandments of this country. Two years after he was sent into Red Russia with 13,000 men. He marched into Poland, went, in three weeks, about 500 miles, and
Matschewitz, he joined Generals Fersen and Derfelden, under the walls of Pragua, (the suburb of Warsaw, on the other side of the Viftula); with 20,000 men he carried by assault that suburb, where 30,000 Poles were intrenched, and where a great part of them were put to the sword. He entered Warsaw, was made Field. Marshal, received from his Sovereign an estate of 7,000 peasants, and from the King of Prussia the order of the Black Eagle. He remained one year in Warsaw, went to Petersburgh at the end of the year 1795, from thence to Finland, and afterwards upon the Niester to command 80,000 men. Here the historian leaves his hero. It is known that from the close of 1798, he was destined to the command, which, in the course of this narration, he has been seen to exercise with such fuccess. By this succinct account, into which the details of the private life of Marshal Suworow being omitted, his public life so long, so active, and so varied, has been compreffed, it has been seen that at the moment in which, by the peculiarity of his destiny and by one of the fingular effects of the French revolution, he came to make war in the plains of Italy and on the summits of the Alps, he was 69 years