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their owners, on account of their inability to pay the tax.
Besides the paupers in England, there is a very large class
-probably more than half the popu. lation-on the very verge of pauperism; the least reduction of their wages, or any depression in bu„siness, has the effect of reducing them to a state of want. On account of this state of things, there is almost a universal state of discontent among the people: this leads them frequently to acts of · violence -- such as tearing up bridges, burning houses, and other acts of violence of a similar character. To keep the people in a state of obedience, a standing army is always necessary. How different the state of things in this country! Here, no standing army is necessary to keep any portion of our population, white or black, in a state of obedience to the laws. We do not, in most parts of the Union, especially South, keep up even an efficient patrol; and yet there are no outbreaks, or insubordination of any kind, among any portion of our people. But
2d. Slavery is beneficial to the Negro in a Religious point of view. Our Slave population can. not, at this time, be less than three millions of souls; and of this number, at the lowest possible ostimate, we have six hundred thousand Church
communicants. Four times this number regular. ly attend Divine service : thus we have at least two millions of Slaves, who 'regularly attend preaching. Nearly one half of some of our most popular religious denominations, are colored per
In proportion to numbers, our Negroes are not in the least behind the whites in religious zeal and activity. Our blacks, in fact, have very strong religious sentiments
-possess great ear. estness and zeal in their religious devotions, and in the discharge of the practical duties growing out of their religious profession. Infidelity among them is almost entirely unknown, even where they are well-informed in Christianity. I need hardly repeat that this sin is exceedingly common among the whites, especially at the North, and more es. pecially still, in the good abolition city of Boston.
Our Negroes have religious advantages alto. gether superior to the laboring popalation of any country in Europe, and equal to the common class of operatives in our Northern States. The large majority of our black population have the advan. tage of listening to white preachers, as often as most people desire to hear preaching at all; and besides, they have meetings of their own as of ten as they please, at which they have' prayers
and exhortations by preachers of their own color: and many of their preachers being able to read, are enabled to expound the Scriptures, so as very much to enlighten their less informed brethren. The great body of our colored population living in the vicinity of towns, have the advantage of hearing preaching as often as they wish : in some. parts of the country they have not this advantage.. but in this particular they are not in the least behind the whites, for all are exactly in the same situation. But every one able to go about, can hear preaching once in two weeks, or once in a month at farthest. In most cases where the Ne. groes, from any cause, are deprived of regular preaching, they have meetings of their own, and regular services by persons of their own color.
Missionaries are now regularly sent among the blacks in alt cases where they live remote from places of regular worship. In many cases, Masters owning a large number of Slaves, will build meeting-houses, and employ preachers them. selves to preach to their Negroes. In some parts of the country, Sabbath Schools are opened on every Sabbath day for the benefit of the Negroes, and this would have been almost universal but for the interference of abolitionists : so thèse friends: of the Negro may thank themselves for this res striction of the privileges of the Negro. Many of our Negroes can read the New Testament as well as the great mass of uneducated whites ; and even where they cannot read, they acquire an extent of Scripture knowledge which is truly surprising. Having nothing but memory to de. pend upon, they retain with more tenacity than even the educated among the whites.
We have, in this town, six different Churches: belonging to as many different denominations of Christians. In all of these Churches we have Divine service from two to four times every week, and in all of them provision is made for the ac-. commodation of the colored people : and what is: more, they are not only permitted, but urged to: attend, by their Masters; for all at the South are aware of the difference between religious and irreligious Negroes. The most devout of our Slaves are the most faithful and honest in the diseharge of their duties to their Masters. The Ne.. groes generally avail themselves of the opportu. nity of attending preaching, especially on Lords day afternoon, when, in this and most other towns, special preaching is held for their benefit. In two of the largest denominations of this. place, special preaching to the Negroes, on Sunday, is never negle; and the result is, that the num.. ber of black communicants is very numerous : in one Church they number several hundred, and in another nearly an equal - number. From this statement of facts, the conclusion follows that our Slave population possess very high religious advantages, and that their actual religious condition is equal to that of the great body of the labor. ing population of most European countries, and not much inferior to the laboring population of the Northern States of this Union.
One fact on this subject. I wish to impress : it is this that all the missionary operations since 1534, when Loyola, in the subterranean chape! of the monastery of Montmartre, bound several disciples by vows of poverty and chastity, to devote their lives to the conversion of the Heathen, cannot produce three millions of human beings reclaimed from Heathenism. They cannot, in fact, produce one-half, nor even ene-third of that number, embracing the original converts and their descendants.
There never has occurred any considerable num. ber of conversions from Heathenism to Christian. ity, since the few first ages after its establishment. The larger number of Christians in the world, are the offspring of the regular and natural increase of population. The same is true of the