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and whipped, then turned loose, for stealing considerable amount of money. I could, were it necessary, give any number of such cases.

The young man above alluded to, who was sent to the penitentiary for stealing three dollars, will never recover his lost character, but will ever feel the scorn, contempt, and neglect of society. The Negro alluded to, is still in our community, and has not sustained the slightest loss of character that I am aware of. He looks as cheerful, sleek, and lively as ever: no sense of self-degra dation haunts him as in the other case. Slavery, then, has its advantages, as well as every other condition of society, and these advantages are of great importance to the Slave...

6th. Physical benefits of Slavery.-The world: cannot produce a more vigorous, healthy race of men than our Negroes-a race freer from all constitutional or hereditary taints of every kind. The continued health and vigor of the Negro in Slavery in the West Indies, led Las Casas, the devoted Spanish missionary, to recommend a continuance of the institution, though opposed to it in the abstract.

Though aware of the benefits of Slavery physically to the Negro, we were not aware of the extent of these benefits, until our census was ta

ken in 1840. The results astonished every body:. no one before was aware of the vast advantage that the Negro enjoyed in a state of Slavery. The free Negro, North and South, exists almost universally in a state of hopeless poverty; and he is liable to all the diseases that flow from abject poverty. I take the following extract from the letter of the Hon. J. C. CALHOUN to the Right Hon. RICHARD PAKENHAM dated, Washington, April 18th, 1844:

"The number of deaf and dumb, blind, idiots, and insane, of the Negroes in the States that have changed the ancient relations between the races, is one out of every ninety-six; while in the States adhering to it is one out of every six hundred and seventy-two: that is, seven to one in favor of the latter, as compared with the former.

"The number of whites, deaf and dumb, blind, idiots, and insane, in the States that have changed the relation, is one in every five hundred and sixty-one; being nearly six to one against the free blacks in the same States.

"The number of Negroes deaf and dumb, blind, idiots, and insane, paupers, and in prison, in the States that have changed, is one out of every six; and in the States that have not, one out of every one hundred and fifty-four-or twenty-two to one against the former, as compared with the latter.

"Taking the two extremes of North and South -in the State of Maine, the number of Negroes

returned as deaf and dumb, blind, insane, and idiots, by the census of 1840, is one out of every twelve; and in Florida, by the same returns, is one out of every eleven hundred and five; or seventy-two to one in favor of the Slaves of Florida, as compared with the free blacks of Maine.

“In addition, it deserves to be remarked, that in Massachusetts, where the change in the ancient relation of the two races was first made, (now more than sixty years ago) where the greatest zeal has been exhibited in their behalf, and where their number is comparatively few, (but little more than eight thousand, in a population of seven hundred and thirty thousand) the condition of the African is among the most wretched. By the latest authentic accounts, there was one out of eve. ry twenty-one of the black population, in jails or houses of correction; and one out of every thir teen was either deaf and dumb, blind, idiots, insane, or in prison.

"On the other hand, the census, and other authentic sources of information, establish the fact, that the condition of the African race throughout all the States, where the ancient relation between the two races has been retained, enjoys a degree of health and comfort which may well compare with that of the laboring population of any country in Christendom; and it may be added, that in no other condition, or in any other age or country, has the Negro race ever attained so high an elevation in morals, intelligence, or civilization."

Here are facts drawn from undoubted sources

of information, which very clearly prove that the Negro at the South has been an immense gainer by Slavery. It seems to be a fixed law of nature that two races of men widely differing from each other physically, morally, intellectually, and inthe actual state of civilization, cannot flourish to--gether on the same continent, or in immediate juxtaposition, unless the inferior is in a state of Slavery. The greater intelligence, energy, industry, and economy of the superior race will lead to a monopoly of all the wealth and influence of the country; and hence the inferior race will be reduced to a state of poverty and dependence which will lead to all the crimes, pauperism, and physical ills above enumerated, and consequently to a decline, and an ultimate extinction of the race. The rapid decline of the Indians in this country shows the power of this law-and the wretched and starving condition of the Hindoo, when in contact with the English, is proof of the same truth..

Another remark in this connexion, before dosing this chapter: A strong, healthy, physical condition, is essential to civilization; and to enjoy this, physical industry and execution is indispensable. The savage man is necessarily inclimed to indolence and inaction, except when enga

ged in the chase or in war: hence he never acquires that degree of physical vigor which is pos sessed by those engaged in regular industry.

To give to the savage, then, that degree of physical vigor, which is essential to civilization, you must make him a Slave, and continue him in this state, through a succession of ages. No savage tribe has ever yet voluntarily betaken itself to habits of industry, nor have we any reason to believe that they ever will; consequently, all that reach civilization, must pass through the ordeal of Slavery.



II. THE MASTER. -The Master derives important benefits from Slavery, as well as the Slave. This subject has been greatly misunderstood: it has been supposed by many, that Slavery was a source of numberless evils to the white race. The advantages of Slavery to the white race at the South, are—

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