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ed, to the scene of danger. But little training is necessary to prepare them for efficient action. An inferior number of Southern men defeated, at New-Orleans during the late war, a far superior number of well-trained and disciplined English troops, under the command of the most experienced and distinguished Generals. During all our wars, whether with whites or with the Indians, Southern men have displayed high-toned chivalry and undaunted courage. This can be ascribed only to the spirit which is fostered by Slavery.

4th. Slavery will tend to preserve the purity of our Republican Institutions. I agree with Mr. MCDUFFIE, that "Slavery is the corner stone of our republican edifice." In a republican government like ours, the right of suffrage must extend to all freemen who have reached the age of twenty-one years; at least, such is the case in most of the State of this Union. Such being the fact, the non-slaveholding States must have a larger proportionate number of unenlightened voters than the Slaveholding States. The reason of this is very obvious: it is this: the great body of those who perform the drudgery of society at the South, are Slaves; and in consequence, are excluded from the ballot-box-whilst at the North, the whole mass, though but little superior to our

blacks, many of them, enjoy the right of suffrage. I do not wish to be understood as intimating that all labor is incompatible with mental culturefar otherwise-for some of the most intelligent men in our land are laborers. In point of literary attainments, BURRITT, the blacksmith, has but few equals in this, or any other country. I do, however, maintain, that there is, in the present state of the world, a certain kind of drudgery, that is wholly incompatible with high mental culture. A man engaged in incessant toil during the day and part of the night, exposed to the sun, the rain, and every change of weather, has but little leisure, and less disposition, to improve his mental faculties. The small portion of time allowed him is much more likely to be employed in rest, which is necessary to repair his exhausted energies; or if not, in something more amusing than solitary study to such a mind. Some resort to the bottle, and spend their leisure hours in reveland mirth. I need not be reminded that occasionally, men engaged in the severest toil, excel in mental improvement: there are exceptions to all rules, but exceptions constitute no objection to the rule itself. I should be pleased to see a lar. ger number of those engaged in severe toil, en. gaged in the laudable effort to improve their


minds; but this cannot be expected to the fullest extent, until we have made still further advancé in labor-saving machinery.

The time may, and no doubt will arrive, when every man can perform the labor necessary for the support of himself and family, and at the same time cultivate his mental powers to the highest point of improvement.

I wish not to be understood as maintaining that all labor, even now, is incompatible with a very high state of mental improvement: this is known to be otherwise. Indeed, a certain degree of labor is essential to the highest mental culture; it imparts to the body the degree of health and vigor which is essential to high mental effort. A sound mind, and a sound body, are much more closely connected than philosophers belonging to the old school have ever dreamed of: and to get this sound body, we must attend to the laws of health, one of the most important of which is exercise. Labor, then, of a certain kind-mechanical and professional labor, for instance, and ag. ricultural labor, when not too severe-are not enly compatible with high mental culture, but promotive of it.

But intense agricultural toil in a southern climate, and in new settlements in all climates-the

rougher portion of mechanical toil, rough labor on public works, and a thousand menial offices in society, are totally incompatible with any high degree of mental culture..

In governments, therefore, where this class or these classes of persons have the important privilege of selecting the public rulers, we may expect injudicious selections: a stream never rises above its fountain, and a people never act higher than their degree of intelligence, and the motives that govern them. At the South, the whole of that class of persons, embracing our Slaves, are excluded from the polls: hence the mass of voters. are more intellectual than they are in the nonslaveholding States. This is one reason why the South has commonly taken the lead in public affairs-why so many intelligent men from the South find their way to the seat of government.

In making these remarks, I do not wish to be understood as participating in the apprehensions of those who fear the corruption and downfall of our government. Such an event may take place, but certainly not until a very distant future: not until our whole continent is settled-literally crowded with population: until every physical obstacle is removed that is calculated to stimulate the energies of our people.

The history of the world presents us with one important fact, viz: that no improving nation has ever declined so long as it had territory to settle, and powerful physical obstacles to overcome. Read the histories of ancient nations-Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome-and it will be found that they retained their virtue, their patriotism, their strength of empire, until their utmost limits were filled, and until all formidable physical obstacles were overcome.

I therefore have no apprehensions for the safe. ty of our government: it will continue to flourish until it has performed its mission; and then like nations which have gone before it, may exist only in the histories of the world.



BEFORE proceeding further, it may be necessa ry to notice those circumstances in the condition of the globe that render the condition of Slavery

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