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not labor this point. What I have already said, when speaking of the benefits of the institution of Slavery to Masters, will suffice.
3d. Slavery increased the strength of the nation in a military point of view. Whatever increases the intelligence and wealth of a nation, must in that proportion increase its capacity for military defence. Besides this, the institution of Slavery, among the Jews, enabled the Jewish Master to devote more of his time to military exercise and training than would otherwise have been possible. He became more familiar with military weapons, than individuals who are constantly engaged in hard labor.
The habit of control, likewise, created in the Jewish Master a more indomitable spirit; a spir it of higher mould; one that would be less likely to yield in case of resistance. I conclude then that the institution of Slavery greatly increased the strength of the Jewish nation in a military sense. I deem it totally unnecessary to notice the several objections which have been urged against the institution of Slavery, as it existed among the Jews. The institution certainly existed among them, and that too, under the Divine sanction. Laws were even enacted for the regulation of this institution, long before a Slave was owned by a single Israel
ifte. The Ten Commandments were given on Mount Sinai fifty days after the first Jewish Passover, and nearly forty years before the Israelites took possession of the land of Canaan. In these Ten Commandments are two distinct references to the institution of Slavery; the one designed for the benefit of the Slave, the other for the Master. I take for granted, that whatever God sanctions, or permits, is best under the circumstances, though it may be otherwise under different circumstances. The sanction of Slavery in the Jewish state, proves that it was beneficial and proper under the circumstances then and there existing; but it does not prove that it would be equally beneficial and proper under a different set of circumstances. It may be true that Slavery would be highly injurious among our Northern brethren; but this does not prove that it would be equally so at the South.
God never has, under any dispensation of religion, created, abolished, or in any material manner interfered with the relations among men. He has always respected existing relations; laying down rules for their government: that is, all lawful relations for God never has laid down rules for the government of a sinful relation.
Institutions must vary with circumstancesstate of civilization, condition of the country, &c.
Whatever promotes the highest good of society, present and future, must, and does meet the Divine approbation. This subject will be treated of more at length in the next chapter..
SLAVERY VIEWED IN THE LIGHT OF CHRISTIANITY..
WHEN JESUS CHRIST appeared in the world, he found one half of the human family in bondage to the other. The Roman Empire, which at that time encircled within its vast arms the greater portion of the civilized world, was literally filled with Slavery. This institution existed in every part of the empire; and in a form infinitely more revolting than anything known in the Southern States of this confederacy.
Prisoners of war, of the same color of their captors, and embracing men, women and children some the most elevated and refinedwere sold into perpetual Slavery. Camillus, the dictator
one of the most accomplished generals of his age -sold his Hetrusian captives to pay the Roman' ladies for the jewels which they had presented to Apollo. Fabius, the most cautious, prudent, and successful of the Roman generals, he who by his cautious policy, vanquished the all-conquering Hannibal-subdued Tarentum, and sold thirty thousand of its inhabitants to the highest bidder at public auction, into perpetual Slavery. Julius Cæsar sold at one time fifty-three thousand captives into perpetual bondage...
Slavery in Rome was not confined to captives taken in war; for, according to one of the laws of the Twelve Tables, creditors were allowed to seize their insolvent debtors, and keep them in a state of servitude, until, by their services and labor, the amount of their indebtedness was discharged. At the beginning of the commonwealth they were allowed to sell such debtors, and even to put them to death.
Some of the wealthy Romans owned an almost incredible number of Slaves. Caius Cæcilius Isadorus, who died about seven years before the Christian era, left his heir four thousand one hun. dred and sixteen slavesa
Slavery continued throughout the Roman Em-pire, embracing Judea, Greece, Asia-Minor, and
all other countries over which the Romans held sway, for a long time after Constantine made Christianity the religion of the nation. Several of the Emperors issued edicts designed to diminish the power of the Master over the Slave; but even after this, the Master's power continued exceedingly despotic.
Slaves were publicly sold in the Slave Markets of Ephesus, Athens, Rome, and other places; and the power of the Master there over the Slave was much greater than it is in the United States. For several ages fifty thousand Slaves were kept at work in the mines of Italy.
These facts were fully known to CHRIST and his Apostles, and to all the early Christians; still we do not find in the New Testament a solitary word condemnatory of the institution of Slavery. All abuses of the institution of course are condemned; but against Slavery itself, there cannot be found a single word of condemnation, from one end of the New Testament to the other. Vices of all kinds are condemned in the most unmeasured terms-vices that belonged to every rank and grade of society-the condemnation of which aroused against CHRIST and his Apostles the most bitter hatred-but not a solitary word can any where be found against Slavery. What is the