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to religious worship. They have a dim, undefined notion of some supreme intelligence, and of a future state of existence; but so'obscure are these notions, and so irrational the line of duty springing from them, that not unfrequently, under the name of religion the most horrid cruelties are perpetrated. On the death of a king, or a distinguished chief, hundreds of their courtiers, wives, and slaves are put to death, in order that they may have the benefit of their attendance in the future world. It often happens, that where the sword of the rude warrior is once drawn in such cases, it is not again readily sheathed; whole towns may be depopulated before the thirst for blood is satiated.
The Africans worship various natural objects, animate and inanimate, and have great faith and confidence in the virtue of charms.
As a means of protection, they carry about with them certain substances, with dark, unintelligible, and mysteri. ous characters, inscribed upon them. Some of the African tribes even worship the Evil Spirit.
The Moral and Social Condition of Africa, isnot in the least superior to its Religious state.. Society there has passed the bounds of the first state of social existence, where simplicity exists from the absence of all causes calculated to arouse'
the deep passions of the human heart; but it has not reached that state of refinement where the passions are curbed by the restraints of law, The consequence is, every imaginable evil which springs from the bosom of society when not under the influence of moral, religious, and political re. straints, exists in Africa. Wars — bloody, destructive, and unrelenting wars--are constantly waged by the several tribes against each other. These wars are often undertaken with the open and avowed purpose of plunder, and in order to get prisoners for the purpose of supplying the Slave market. Kings, and the most celebrated warriors engage readily in these wars for plunder, and even regard such expeditions as highly honorable.
Though dark in the extreme, the social virtues occasionally display themselves in Africa, espe. cially among the females. European travellers are often very hospitably entertained by the fe. males; but more generally, they are treated by the men in a rude, insulting, and brutal manner. It is dangerous in the extreme for foreigners to travel through that country, and but few, comparatively, are willing to undertake an enterprise so hazardous.
The larger portion of the African population are in a state of the most abject Slavery. There is a difference of opinion among writers as to the proportion of Slaves in that country; but no one estimates the number at less than two-thirds of the whole population. Some eren estimate the number as high as nine-tenths. Slavery, in Al rica, may originate from
1st. A voluntary act on the part of the people. It occasionally happeys, that the blind veneration on the part of the people, for a distinguished chief or warrior, leads them to sink voluntarily into a state of Slavery. But the number that become Şlaves from this cause are few, compared to the great number that are made Slaves by
2d. War. Wars are undertaken with the express view of getting Slaves. It frequently happens that a tribe, without the least provocation, will stealthily surround the village of a neighboring tribe at night whilst they are asleep, and all at once rush upon them, set fire to their houses and whilst they are struggling to escape, they are seized, sent off, and sold to the Europeans as Slaves, or kept as Slaves among themselves. This subject will be treated of more particularly, hereafter.
Most of the Governments throughout the African continent are absolute despotisms. Thou.
sands of bold and fearless warriors bow down and almost worship the solitary despot, and at his bidding hesitate not to commit the most horrid crimes. Some few of the smaller tribes have an aristocratic, and even a republican form of government : but these, in every instance, à re badly organized; ånd, in consequence, afford but a feeble protece tion to the rights of society. The people in these governments, are turbulent and unhappy; and in every respect, much more rude and licentious, than those living under the despotisms.
It is common on some portions of the African continent, to make human sacrifices, with a view of appeasing their offended deities. Missionaries, and others, have given us many accounts of this horrid enormity, which seems not to have declined with the advance of civilization in other parts of the world.
The foregoing picture of Africa furnishes conclusive evidence of their present inferiority. The same race in the United States has made some advance in civilization ; but under the most favorable circumstances under which they have existed here--even when free in the Northern, Middle and Western States, and enjoying every ad." vantage of education - they have ever shown their native inferiority. The same fact is true of the West Indies. All accounts agree that the emancipated Negroes are actually declining in civ. ilization: that they are now in a lower state of improvement than they were when in a state of Slavery. In the Island of St. Domingo, where they have been long free, they have gradually sunk into a state of barbarism; and that fine island is now almost uncultivated. The productions have declined in the proportion of one hundred and fifty to fifteen.
II. Past CONDITION OF THE AFRICAN.We infer the past çivilization of a fallen people, from architectural and other remains of art among them; from their religious and moral notions ; and from their written, or hieroglyphical history:
1st. Remains of Art, &c. On no part of the African continent, inhabited by the genuine Negro, can the slightest trace of ancient art of any kind be found. No remains of temples or buildings of any kind---no walls, dykes, canals, or roads —nothing, in a word, which furnishes the slightest evidence that Africa ever made the slightest advance in the arts of civilization. other country, and among no other people, is the same fact true.
When the continent of America was discovered, it was found in the possession of a numerous, but