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nature. From such data we draw general conclusions in natural science, and establish general principles, or laws of nature: this mode of reasoning constitutes the distinctive feature of the Baconian, or inductive method of reasoning; the establishment of which, is esteemed as the greatest achievement of the greatest mind of modern times.

The inferiority of the Negro is proven further from anatomy and physiology, as I shall now procced very briefly to show:

There is less beauty in the general form and outline of the Negro than in that of the white man. He has a flat, ugly foot; evidently designed, like the foot of the camel, to tread upon the sands of the great tropical deserts. There is, in all the works of GoD, a harmony and adaptation of the parts to each other, which evince the high- ¡ est possible degree of wisdom and goodness. The Negro has a black, thick skin, which emits a disagreeable odor; thick, woolly hair; a large mouth; ugly features; thick lips; a small calf to his leg, situated near the knee; a projecting shim bone. In a word, there is in the whole outline of the Negro, much less of symmetry and beauty than in that of the white man.

From these external characteristics, I infer that

the Negro was designed by his Creator to live in southern climates; and, in fact, we always find him, when left alone, living in hot countries. He is much more healthy, happy, and lives to a much more advanced age, in such climates, than in more northern regions. Tropical regions, which are destructive to the constitution of the white man when much exposed, are in the highest degree friendly to the constitution of the Negro : there, and there alone, is external nature in perfect harmony with his physical nature.

It may be said that nothing can be inferred as to the inferiority of the Negro, from the absence of physical beauty; but persons making this objection, have made but slight advances in the philosophy of nature. Perfection, excellency, and beauty, are united throughout nature. Take, for instance, a particular plant or animal: the fineblooded horse--how infinitely more beautiful than the coarse, scrub animal, of the same species! The former is clean in limb, beautiful in all his proportions, and graceful in every movement. The hair, the eye, hoof-in a word, every part and feature indicates his superiority; whilst every part of the scrub indicates his inferiority. The same differences prevail throughout the animal, as well as vegetable kingdom. We might then

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have inferred a priori that such was also the case in reference to the human family; and this, as I have stated, we find actually to be the case.

But the Negro has other physical peculiarities which fit him for the situation that he occupies on this continent, and which I shall now proceed to mention.

Every one has observed at the inner corner of the eye of fowls, a semi-lunar membrane, which moves with great rapidity over the eye, when exposed to the solar rays. This has been called by naturalists, the nictillating membrane. It is designed to direct the course of the tears, and to protect the eye from the intense rays of the sun. In the eye of the white man, this membrane is very small, and seems only to direct the tears into a sac situated behind and below a small prominence at the inner canthus of the eye. In the Negro, this membrane is greatly expanded; and serves, in addition to the purpose of directing the tears, as in the white man, to protect the eye, as in the case of fowls, from the effects of the solar rays.

This membrane serves as a protection to the Negro against the effects of the hardships, neces} sarily incident to the condition of Slavery.

"The Master," says Dr. CARTWRIGHT, of Nathez, "may forget or neglect to provide his Slaves

with a covering for the head, to shield the eyes from the brilliancy of the sun, while laboring in the fields. Such neglect would greatly increase the irksomeness of labor, ander a tropical sun, if GOD, in his goodness, had not provided the race of Canaan, whom he has doomed to Slavery, with the above-mentioned anatomical contrivance, or membranous wing, to protect the eyes against the brightness of the solar rays.

The difference between the Negro and the white man extends even to the intimate structure of their organs, The brain proper-that is, the cerebrum in the Negro, is about ten per cent. smaller than it is in the white man: and in texture it is coarser, more watery and flabby. When put into a dish it sinks loosely down, instead of standing firm and erect, as in the case of the higher orders of white men. The head of Lord Byron was small; and was, in consequence, said to contradict one of the fundamental principles of phrenology, viz: "that size, ceteris paribus, is a measure of power;" but after the death of his lordship, his brain was taken out and weighedand to the astonishment of all, was found heavier than most brains of the largest size. The brain of the Baron Cuvier, though in appearance onethird larger, was only one or two drachms heavier.

Southern Quarterly Review, Oct. 1842-p. 332.

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This great weight of the brain of his lordship, was owing to its extreme density. Its whole texture was firm and solid, the fibres compact, and the whole organ exceedingly free from water. When put into a dish, the parts firmly adhered together: so much so that it would have answered for dissection, without the usual process of hardening. Now the same difference that exists between the brain of Lord Byron, and those of ordinary individuals, exists between the white and black races of men. The power of Byron lay in the density of his brain; and the mental superiority of the white over the black race, is owing to the superior size and density of the brain.

Whatever may be said of phrenology in all its details, one position I consider established beyond controversy, viz: "that the brain is the seat of mind." This principle being true, it follows that the efficiency and power of the mind must depend on the efficiency and power of the brain. The inferiority of the Negro is thus clearly manifest.

But the difference between the white and black races does not end here; there is a considerable difference even in the bones. This extends not only to the general outline, but to their intimate structure. In general outline, the bones of the white man are much more elegant, smooth and

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