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Wypes; but they never efface them. There is a limit beyond which they cease to operate. In other words, I do not believe these agents ever converted a white man into a Negro, or a Negro into a white man. The amalgamation of races, as every one knows, produces every grade or v&riety between the two extremes.

"I do not think the Negroes are descendants of Ham. The ancient Egyptians were a Hamític people, and their position in the scale of races is intermediate between the Japetic and Semitie stocks. Whence then, you will inquire, came the Negroes? On this point, I confess, I cannot enlighten you. Ethnography is a new science, and I am but a learner. I am glad you are giving your attention to this pleasing and instructive study, and will have pleasure in communicating any thing I know of it. I send a pamphlet or two, and remain yours very respectfully,

“ S. G. MORTON. “ DR. M. Estes."

I have already mentioned those physical characteristics which adapt the Negro to exposure in Southern latitudes. I will now mention a few other peculiarities which fit him admirably for the condition of Slavery; and which show, in fact, that nature intended him for that position.

The inferior brain of the Negro disposes him to submit to the authority of the white man. The superior governs the inferior, throughout nature : we see this daily displayed in the commanding inHuence gained by some men over the enlightened population of the United States. A strong man is instantly recognized in society; and all with whom he comes in contact, feel and acknowledge his authority. This is one of the reasons why the black race of men submit so readily and cheerfully to the authority of the white race. They feel and acknowledge their inferiority; and in consequence, Slavery is not in the least regard. ed as a degradation, but as their proper

and natu. ral position. That cheerful submission to author-ity displayed by the Negro Slave, is entirely unknown among the other varieties of men, when reduced to Slavery. They are always restless,, turbulent, and disobedient to their superiors.

On several occasions, in this country, the loyalty of the Negro to his Master, was put to the severest test. During the two wars that we had with England, repeated attempts were made to stir insurrection among the Negroes, or to indace them to run away and leave their Masters;: but almost universally without success.

In the year 1775, Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, issued his proclamation, calling on the Negroes to join His Majesty's forces, and at the same time declaring them absolved from all furether obligation to serve their Masters. His lord-


effort was

ship was high in authority -- had the British and Pories to back him—and though every made to acquaint the Negroes with the purport of the proclamation, still but few Slaves could be induced to abandon their homes: the great body remained true to their Masters..

During both wars, the South was found the very bulwark of the Republic. The ready submission of the Negro to his Master, under the most trying circumstances, enabled the Southern States to send into the field the larger portion of the white population able to bear arms. The Negroes remained at home and cultivated the farms, and thus raised provisions necessary for the support of the army. In some of the coun-ties of Virginia —those containing the largest black population—it often happened during the late war, that almost the entire male adult white population was in the field. Notwithstanding this, however, no serious disturbances ever occur. red, though the counties lay within a few miles of the British fleet, and though the Negroes were aware that an offer of liberty had been madethem, if they would abandon their Masters, and join the British forces.

Dr. CARTWRIGHT mentions one slight disturb. ance, on one of the plantations in Virginia. The

Negroes, it seems, from some cause, became sonnewhat unruly; but a lame man in the neighborhood, entirely unarmed, except with a whip, went over and flogged the whole of them. They all submitted to the flogging without the least ofter of resistance; though a British fleet was lying within ten miles at the time. During the war, Mrs. Madison, from an apprehension that the English were desirous of making her a prisoner, retired to the strongest Slave counties in the State of Virginia, for protection.

No other people ever exhibited the same fidelity, whren in a state of Slavery. The white, or copper man, when enslaved, will leave no means untried to effect their emancipation; but the Negro, similarly situated, will not only neglect the use of means to effect his liberation, but will absolutely refuse the boon of freedom when offer. ed to him. I do not believe, conscientiously, that one Slave in ten, in the United States, could be induced to accept the offer of freedom, if ac.companied with the condition that they were to leave the United States. This has been tested again and again. I recollect a family of Negroes that were liberated and sent to Liberia. When freedom was first offered with the condition, they obstinately refused to accept the terms; but when they saw that resistance was useless, they sub. mitted — with tears and heartfelt agony. Ever since their settlement in Liberia, they have re. peatedly expressed a wish to return to the Uni. ited States, and again become Slaves for life.

Since the first introduction of Slavery into the United States to the present time, there has never occurred any very serious disturbance among the Negroes. On two or three occasions we have had temporary outbreaks, in which a few whites lost their lives; but these amount to nothing, compared to the outbreaks and disturbances among the peasantry in countries where Negro Slavery does not prevail. In England, France, Ireland, and in fact in all other countries, outbreak after outbreak has occurred among the people, and hundreds

hundreds of lives have been lost. These disturbances have occurred, notwithstanding the existence of standing armies-- maintained at great public expense — to keep the people in subjection. No standing army is necessary to preserve due subordination among our Negroes : we do not, in fact, keep up in most parts of the country, even an efficient patrol. The planter sleeps as securely among his Slaves, without the least precaution, as if he were surrounded by a whole brigade of grenadiers. Though born and


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