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Numerous white servants were bought in Eng. land, Ireland, and other countries, sent over, and sold to the Virginia colonists as Slaves for a cer. tain period of years. In the year 1620, the first cargo of African Slaves was brought to the State of Virginia by a Dutch man-of-war, and sold. The cargo consisted of only twenty Negroes.
At first, the increase of Negroes in the State of Virginia was very slow; for, at the end of thirty years from the commencement of the trade, the colony contained fifty whites for every black. The number of Slaves, however, rapidly increas. ed afterwards ; so much so, that it was not long before they were as numerous as the whites.
In the year 1671, Negro Slavery was introduced into South-Carolina, by Sir John Yeamans, who brought over a cargo from Barbadoes. Un. like the other colonies, South-Carolina had Afri. can Slaves from the beginning: and their increase there was very rapid; for, in a short while, they exceeded the white population, in the proportion of twenty to twelve. This rapid increase, was owing to the fact, which very soon became apparent, that exposure to the sun and severe toil in a hot climate - whilst in the highest degree unfriendly to the constitution of the white manwas well adapted to the Negro. The Negro seems to have been adapted by his Creator to a southern climate ; for, in such climates alone does he enjoy health, longevity, and general hardihood of constitution. According to the census of the United States for 1840, mortality, and all diseases among the colored population, increases as you advance north. - This result may, in part, be owing to the wretched condition of the free Negrocs at the North: but this cause is not sufficient to account for the whole phenomenon; for even the free Ne. groes in southern climates — whose condition is equally wretched with that of the free Negroes at the north- are in a much better condition, phys. ically. The Creator has adapted the constitution of particular animals and men, to particular local. ities on the earth's surface. Thus the rein-deer is adapted to the arctic regions; lions, tigers, &c., to the tropical regions; these animals, if taken from their appropriate latitudes, will very soon sicken and die. The same is true of man: some flourish best in the arctic regions--others in the temperate - and others, again, in the equatorial regions. The Caucasian flourishes best in the northern portions of the temperate regions -- the Negro in the tropical, and southern portions of the temperate —the copper races of men have been commonly found occupying territories inter
mediate to the white and black. Hence it is not surprising that Negro Slavery should have so ear. ly taken root in the southern colonies of this continent- and have been so early resisted, and go soon abandoned in the northern.
The Dutch, who settled New York, engaged largely in the Slave Trade ; but the climate of this colony was found so very unfriendly to the Negro constitution, that Negro Slavery never Hourished there as it did in the more southern colonies.
Negro Slavery was, at first, prohibited in Geor. gia ; but afterwards, its necessity became so apparent, that all parties concurred in the propriety of repealing the restrictive laws, and of estab. lishing the institution.
The Slave Trade, which, from tné beginning, was encouraged by England and other European nations, was most violently resisted by the English colonies in North America. These colonies, therefore, are not at all answerable for any sin, should there be any, which may have been connected with the trade. The mother country con. tinued the traffic in utter disregard of the repeat. od remonstrances of the colonies.
The first continental Congress that assumed the power of legislation, which was in the year
1776, Resolved, “That no Slaves be imported into any of the Thirteen United Colonies ;” and there has been, from that time until the present, a continued opposition to the trade in this coun: try. Great Britain, on the contrary, did not pass laws against this trade for a great number of years afterwards. I shall, hereafter, most conclusively prove that the opposition of England to Slavery and the Slave Trade, is not based upon philan. thropic, but upon selfish motives. mistake committed by her in the abolition of Slavery in the West Indies, and the great wish that she has to promote her tropical interests, gener. ally-constitutes the leading motives, under the guise of philanthropy, in this crusade against Slavery and the Slave Trade. The letter of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun to. Mr. King, contains many interesting details on this subject, which will be freely used in a subsequent part of this work. It will be seen thàt England, being now fully aware of the great blunder committed by her in abolishing the institution of Slavery in the West Indies, is desirous of repairing the injury done, by bringing about abolition in the United States, and other countries having tropical possessions in competition with her own.
The number of Negro Slaves in the United
States has gradually increased until, in 1840, the number was near three millions. Our laws have long since declared the Slave Trade, piracy ; and to be punished as such : nevertheless, Slaves have continued to be smuggled into the Union at different points. This smuggling has been mostly carried on by foreigners, and in spite of the greatest vigilance on the part of our Government.
The Slave Trade has been most generally condemned, by even the advocates of Slavery; but, I think, without sufficient reflection. I do not wish to be understood as justifying, for a moment, the many cruelties said to have been committed by those engaged in this trade. These I condemn as heartily as the most determined opponent of Slavery could desire. But notwithstanding this, I do not hesitate for a moment in maintaining that the Slave Trade has been the source of incalcu. lable blessings to mankind. Just so far as Afri. can Slavery in the United States is superior to African Slavery as it exists in Africa — viewed in its immediate condition and ultimate consequences — just so much good has resulted from the Slave Trade.
I have before remarked that the larger proportion of the population of Africa are in a state of perpetual, and most abject Slavery. And it is a