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well known fact, that the larger number of there which have been sold into foreign Slavery, were in a state of Slavery in their own country: consequently there is, in this respect, no injury done to the African. He is equally, if not more free, here, than he was in Africa. They were sold by their African owners to the Slave Traders; and by these latter, brought to this country and sold to the planters. Kidnapping, has, no doubt, been 'occasionally practised in Africa; but the number of Slaves obtained in this manner, have been very few in comparison with the great number which were obtained by purchase from their African Masters.
It has been often objected to the Slave Trade, that it has been the source of wars among the natives-gotten up, and urged on, by foreigners
with the view of getting a supply of Slaves. This may have taken place to some extent; but not with any thing like the frequency which has been imagined. I have before remarked that the several African tribes are in a state of perpetual hostility, and that one of the maxims of war among them is, Extermination or Slavery. The old, the infirm, the helpless infant, and, in many instances, the female, are put to death; and that, too, very often, in the most brutal manner. The able
bodied men and women are retained alive, and reduced to Slavery. They may, or may not sell them into foreign Slavery: that will depend greatly upon the supply at home. Most intelligent travellers agree that these wars would occur with nearly the same frequency, if the Slave Trade had never existed. But even admitting the fact that these wars have been rendered somewhat more frequent by the Slave Trade, there is an advantage resulting from this trade which will much more than counterbalance this evil. Where Slaves are very numerous in Africa, they are in a measure worthless to their owners; consequently, no regard is paid to their lives, or to their interest, in any way. On the death of a distinguished man, thousands of these worthless Slaves are put to death, in order that he may have suitable attendance in the future world. Now the foreign Slave Trade, by raising the value of the Slaves, has greatly tended to prevent the destruction of life in the cases. referred to—and has, in fact, greatly tended to ameliorate the condition of the Slave generally. The number of Slaves put to death in such cases, as might be inferred; will be in proportion to their value: if they are valu able, and can, in consequence, be sold at a high price to foreigners, but few, comparatively, will
be sacrificed; but if, on the contrary, the Slaves have but little value on account of their great numbers, the sacrifices are numerous. On some occasions, thousands of Slaves are put to death, in order to satisfy the appetite of a merciless superstition.
In drawing a parallel between Slavery in the United States, in Africa, and in other countries, this subject will be resumed. I think it will be made appear to the satisfaction of every candid and intelligent person, that the African has gain-> ed much by being transported to this countrythat his condition has been improved, physically, intellectually, morally, religiously, and politically. The Negro evidently enjoys a larger amount of freedom even, than he did in his own country.
ADVANTAGES OF SLAVERY AS IT EXISTS IN THE SOUTHERN STATES OF THIS UNION.
NUMEROUS important advantages result from the institution of Slavery in this country, to whichI will now respectfully invite the attention of the
reader. These advantages embrace the Slave, the Master, the Country, and the World, generally; or at least, that part of it holding commercial intercourse with the United States.
I. THE SLAVE.—The advantages to the Slave are very great
1st. The Negro Slave is contented and happy in his present condition. If the Negro Slave felt himself degraded in his condition of Slavery, and was, in consequence, discontented and unhappy, this alone would poison every enjoyment. But such is not the fact: he is contented and happy, and feels not the slightest degree of degradation in his condition. He knows that color, and his natural inferiority, have erected an impassable barrier between him and the white man; he, therefore, never thinks of aspiring to an equality with him.
It has been remarked by almost every one who has visited the South, and made himself acquainted with the condition of our Slaves, that there is more light-hearted joyousness among them, than among any similar number of people in the world. Having been born at the South, and reared on & plantation, I have enjoyed a fair opportunity of knowing the character and state of mind of our Slaves. I have ever found the Slaves contented,
happy, light-hearted, and full of amusement. The oldest Negroes never get old in their feelings; but they continue light-hearted, and full of sport to the last. Even when worn down by age and infirmity so as to be unable to get about, they still continue contented and happy in their feelings- -as ready as ever to tell stories, and make merry.
This state of happiness is only true of the Negro when in Slavery; for free Negroes are the most unhappy creatures upon earth. Many of them, even after having purchased their freedom, become so discontented and unhappy as to desire ardently to be again restored to a state of Slavery.
It is almost needless to contrast the contented, happy state of our blacks, with the discontented, unhappy state of the operatives in other countries. Speeches of members of Parliament in England, reports of committees of the House, reports of special committees appointed by town and county meetings to examine into the condition of the poor, and reports of commissioners of the poor, present us with a horrid picture of society in England. In many parts of the realm, nearly one half of the population are on the pauper list. In some places, the tax on land to support the poor is so heavy, that farms are voluntarily abandoned by