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have of late years occurred be the accomplishment of them, the last of these writers must have been mistaken in supposing the slaying of the witnesses to be something future: for the fall of the city is placed after the slaying and rising again of the witnesses. If therefore the one be now past, so is the other.

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The second woe is past; and behold, the third woe conteth quickly. 15 And the seventh angel sounded : and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingo doms of our Lord, and of his Christ ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.

16 And the four and twenty elders which sat before God on their seats, fell upon their faces, and worshipped God, 17 Saying, We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come ; because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned. 18 And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servints the prophets ; und to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great, and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth. 19 And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his tem. ple the ark of his testament : and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail. After the great earthquake, we hear, as it were, the


of the watchmen, telling us the hour of the night--" The second woe is

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past, and behold the third woe cometh quickly!” When the first woe was past, the second and third woes were to come hereafter ; but between the last two there would be but a short space. As things should approach to a crisis, events would occur in more rapid succession.

The second woe, as it introduced the Turkish horsemen, (Chap. is. 13-19.) must have commenced about 1281, and, (if the falling of a tentis part of the city has been rightly interpreted,) ended about 1791. Its having commenced with the introduction of the Turks does not prove that it comprehended them only, nor that it must needs end with the passing away of their empire. On the contrary, the accomplishment of their overthrow seems to be reserved for the sixth rial of the third woe-trumpet, which will be poured upon the Euphrates, near the times of the Millennium.

But it may be asked, How is it that the sounding of the trumpets should be introduced in this place ? If this and the three following chapters contain general descriptions of the papal apostasy, including the times of various trumpets, but not divided by them, how is it that in the midst of one of these descriptions mention should be made of the second woe ending, and of the third woe coming quickly! I answer, Though these general descriptions are not divided by trumpets, yet as they comprehend the times of the trumpets, each of them might have been so, and for our information one of them actually is so. And as the termination of the sixth, and the sounding of the seventh trumpets forms an era in the church of Christ, it is here marked with peculiar emphasis. It is from this era, as we shall find, that after these three general descriptions are given, the series of the prophecy is resumed, and the vials are introduced.

But if the sounding of the seventh angel form an era in the Christian church, it requires that we pause, and pay particular attention to it.

Tbe events of this trumpet were anticipated by the angel, at the distance probably of more than a thousand years, wben he forbad the seven thunders to be written" The days of the voice of the

seventh angel, when he should begin to sound,” are marked as the period when the great designs of heaven, foretold in prophecy, should be accomplished. Chap. x.

The contents of this trumpet are of deeper interest than any that have preceded it, both to the enemies of the church and to the church itself. It wears a two-fold aspect. Towards the enemies of the church it is a woe-trumpet, and a signal of mighty vengeance : towards the church itself it is a harbinger of joy, a kind of jubilee-trumpet, announcing the year of enlargement ; for when the “ seventh angel sounded, there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdóms of our Lord' and of his Christ': and he shall reign for ever and ever!” Under the first of these aspects it includes the last seven plagues, which are but so many subdivisions of it, and which are, I conceive, the execution of the seven thunders in Chap. x. These thunders, it is observable, are not only referred to “ the days of the voice of the seventh angel,” but to those in which he should begin to sound," that is, to the early part of them. Under the last aspect, it comprehends all the success of the gospel previous to, and during the Millennium, with all the glorious results of it as described in the remaiuder of the prophecy. We are not to consider it, however, under either of these aspects as being more than a signal of things which are to follow. As the vengeance will not all be poured forth at once, so neither will the kingdoms of this world at once become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ : but from the sounding of this trumpet both shall have a commencement, and both be singularly progressive under it.

With respect to the time, if the application of the “ earthquake and the falling of a tenth part of the city” to events which have occured within the last twenty years, be just, there can be little if any doubt of the seventh angel's baving sounded his trumpet within that period, and of the whole of these verses containing a general view of the state of things from our times to the commencement of the Millennium.

On this occasion the heavenly chorus strikes up. The four and twenty elders who sit before God on their seats, fall upon their

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