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Pilate finding he was a Galilean, sends him to Herod; SECT... ingly; for he had a long time been very desirous saw Jesus, he was exclxxxv11. to see him, because he had heard much concern- cee

ad heard much concern ceeding glad: for he

was desirous to see him ika ing him in Galilee (compare Luke ix. 7, 9. sect. of a long season, beXXIII.8 lxxvii.) and he now hoped that he should have an cause he had heard opportunity so far to satisfy bis curiosity as to see isfire bis auriosity as to see many things of him;

and he hoped to bare some miracle done by him, and might be able seen some miracle done also to determine whether he was, as he had once by him. suspected, John the Baptist risen from the dead. 9 (Compare Mat. xiv. 2. Vol. VI. p. 404.) And 9 Then be questionhe examined him in many words, concerning a

ed with him in many iny worus, concerno8d words; but he answer. variety of particulars, both as to his pretensions ed him nothing. and the proof of his mission, as well as the tenor of his doctrine: but as Jesus knew this was not a proper time and circumstance to enter into those questions, of which Herod might long ago have been sufficiently informed, he made him no

answer. 10 And the chief priests and scribes, whose malice 10 And the chief had prompted them to attend him thither, stood priests and scribes stood,

and vehemently acin the presence of the king, eagerly accusing him cused him. of the same crimes which they had before charged

him with in their application to Pilate. 11 And Herod, with those of his soldiers who 11 And Herod with now attended him as his life-guard, looked upon hi

" him at nought, and Jesus with disdain, and treated him in a very mocked him, and array. contemptuous manner, like a poor inconsiderable ed him in a gorgeous creature, who no way answered the account robe, and sent him an

" gain to Pilate.
they had heard of him, neither saying nor doing
any thing to gratify their curiosity; and having
derided shim] for pretending to be a king (as it
was urged by his accusers he had done), in pub-
lic contempt of that claim, whatever it was,
Herod clothed him with a splendid robe b, and
sent him back to Pilate, thereby intimating, that
he left him to do what he pleased with his pri-
soner, but that for his own part he apprehended
his pretensions to royalty worthy of derision

rather than serious resentment. 12 And, whatever Pilate's real intentions were, 12 And the same

the compliment of sending Jesus to be examined
by him, was so well taken by Herod; and He-
rod's sending him back to the Roman governor

his men of war set



6 A splendid robe.] This expression with it in derision of his having pretended Ec Inla acuacay does not so properly sig- to be a king. This usage was exceeding pisy (as Le Clerc renders it) a white robe; insolent: perhaps the remorse of connor was it, as he supposes, intended as a science which Herod bad felt on account declaration of his innocence. It was rather of the murder of John the Baptist might some gorgeous garment which belonged to render him cautious how he joined in any Herod or some of his officers, aud was, per- attempt on the life of Jesus, wbich we do haps, grown old, and they clothed him not find that he did.

c They


Ye bave b


Who treats him with contempt, and sends him back again. 385 day Pilate and Hcrod was, on the other hand, such a public instance sect. were made friends together; for before they

of regard to him; that the same day Pilate and" were at enmity be. Flerod became friends, and were reconciled to Luk iween themselves. each other: for before this, they were at enmity XXIII. between themselves.

12 13 And Pilate, And Pilate, having received an account of 13 when he had called to what had passed before Herod. called together gether the chief priests, and the rulers, and the the chief priests, and the rulers, and with them the people,

rest of the people who had appeared against him 14 Said unto them, as his accusers; And said to them, You have 14

brought this brought me this man, Jesus of Nazareth, as one man unto me, as one that perverteth the that has perverted the people, and taught docpeople: and behold, I trines injurious to your religion, and also to the having examined him sivil

civil peace and the Roman government; and
before you, have found
no fauít in this man behold, I have examined [him both in your pre-
touching those things sence, and in private, and heard all that could
whereof ye accuse be alledged against bim : but I must solemnly

declare that I have found no crime in this man
as to the things that you have charged him with;
nor can I in my conscience think that you have

made good any of the accusations you have
15 No, nor yet He- brought against him: Nor yet has Herod been 15
rod: for I sent you to
him, and lo, nothing

, able to make any such discovery; for I sent you worthy of death is done to him with the prisoner, that you might do your unto him.

utmost to convict him before that prince, who
being a person of your own religion, and well
acquainted with your laws and customs, might
have known more of the matter than myself;
and yet behold, it appears to have been Herod's
judgment, that nothing worthy of death has been
done by him, for, instead of sending him back
like one who deserves a capital sentence, he has
treated him like an idiot rather than a traitor,
so as plainly to shew that he thinks him merely

the object of ridicole, or to deserve at most but
16 I will therefore some slight punishment. And therefore, when 16
chastise I have chastised him by scourging, which will be


They were at enmity between them- conciliation is much more wonderful than selves.] The cause of this enmity can only their enmity. See Saur. Serm. Vol. X. p. be conjectured: perhaps it might be the 246, 217. slaughter which Pilate had made of some of d Nothing worthy of death has been done the Galileans who had come up to sacrifice by him.] The phrase usen palpeyov avlw at Jerusalem. (See Luke xiii. 1, sect.cxvi.) must here have this signification, as the But Mons. Saurin truly observes, that, con- margin of our Bible renders it; for though sidering on the one hand the jealousy of this is something of an unusual construc. the Jews where any foreigo power was con- tion, yet as Raphelias ( Annot. er Polyb. cerned, and on the other the oppressive p. 259) has produced many instances of the measures generally taken by those who are like nature, it would be much harsher to invested with commissions like this which suppose that a capital sentence, or any treatPilate bore over conquered countries, and ment from Hcrod which should intimate especially the accounts we have of his he thought Jesus deserved it, should be callowo bad character and conduct, their rea ed . Savals, something worthy of death. I

e Usual,


and of



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Pilate proposes to scourge, and discharge him. SECT. an admonition to him for the future not to use chastise him, and reCIXXXVll. those wild enthusiastical espressions which have lease him.

Luke given so much umbrage and suspicion, I will let XXIII. (him) go: and I believe you may depend upon .16 it that he will give us no farther trouble ; nor

would he have interest enough to do it if he

were inclined to the attempt. Mark Now it was usual at the feast of the passover, MARK XV. 6. Now v. 6 (and) even was grown by custom in a manuer at that feast (the gover

nor was wont] (LUKE, necessary, for the Roman governor, when such an multitudes were assembled from all parts, to re- must] [release unto the lease to the people any one prisoner, whom they de- people one prisoner,

whomsoever they de. sired to be set at liberty, whatever crime it was sin 7 that he was charged with. And there was then 15. LURE XXII. 17.) in Pilate's custody a very infamous and noted . And there was prisoner, whose name was Barabbas, that lay soperl named Barab

(then a notable pribound with some other ruffians who had made bas, which lay bound an insurrection in the city in conjunction with with them that had

"made insurrection with him, and who had also committed murder in the 1

bim [Luke, in the insurrection; and, besides the part he had acted city), who had comin this seditious riot, he was a fellow of a most mitted murder in the abandoned character, and known to be a robber,

insurrection (Jorn,and who had infested the highways with his villainy; XXVII. 16. 'LUKE so that it was generally concluded he would re- XXIII. 19. Joux ceive sentence of death, and would be executed

and would be executed XVIII.–40.) 8 that day. And, as the power of reversing or

e power of reversing or 8 And the multiexecuting such sentences then lay in the Romans, they were gathered to

tude (therefore when the people therefore, when they were gathered to- gether,] crying aloud, gether about the tribunal, began with a great began to desire him to noise and clamour to demand of Pilate (that he unto them. Matt.

do as he had ever done would do] at this passover as he had always done XXVII, 17.-) to them upon the like occasions, and would dis

charge a prisoner.
9 And Pilate hoping that he might preserve the 9 But Pilate answer-

life of Jesus, whose innocence he so clearly saw, Ye have a custom, that
determined to attempt it by this method; and I should release upto
accordingly, that he might induce them to choose you one at the pass-
him, he proposed no other alternative than that one
ronased na horolternative than thot over:] [Whom will

ye (John, therefore] scandalous and outrageous criminal whom we that I release unto you? have just now mentioned, and answered them, (Barabbas? or Jesus,

which saying, You have indeed a custom, that I should release to you one at the passover, and I am ready now to oblige you in this affair: whom will you therefore choose that I release unto you? Barab


was a robber. MAT.

e Usual,- and in a manner necessary.) established. I find no substantial reason There was no law to obligc him to this : to believe there was in the original of this but as acts of grace are generally popular custom any reference to the deliverance things, this secms to have been first freely of Israel from the Egyptian bondage at this used by the Romans to please their tribu- time. taries, and now by custom was in a manner


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si was usual at the feast to release a prisoner to them. 387 which is called Christ,} bas, that seditious and murderous robber? or sect. the king of the Jews? chie Leeue wohe is called Christ who vir vu this Jesus, who is called Christ, who in I know CXXXVI. JOHN XVIII. 39.] not what strange sense is pretended to be the king Mark

of the Jews, and whom you see before you in the XV. 9.

fine robe in which Herod has thought fit to ar-
10 (For he knew ray him? For he knew that the chief priests 10
that the chief priests and rulers had not delivered him up into his hands
had delivered him for
envy. [MAT. XXVII. from a regard to justice, but merely out of envy

at his popularity; and therefore he was willing
to make the proposal to the people in such a

form as might be inost likely to secure his life.
JI But the chief
priests (and elders

But the chief priests and elders, who were ex. 11 moved (and persuadedj ceedingly solicitous to obtain their end, lest this the people, that they artifice of the governor should defeat all their should ask'] that he

that he laboured scheme, excited the most forward of the
should rather release
Barabbas unto them, people, [and] effectually persuaded the mob they
(and destroy Jesus.) had brought with them, that they should ask the
Mat. XXVII. 20.]

governor, with a continual noise and clainour,
that he would rather release Barabbas to them;
that by this means the point they had in view

might be secured, and they might be sure to deMAT. XXVII. 21. strou Leeue · 21. stroy Jesus. And therefore when the governor Mat.

And therefore u -The governor answered and said unto, answered them in this manner, and said to them XXvih them, Whether of the again, Take notice that your choice lies only be-21 twain will ye that I tween these, and therefore now determine for release unto you?

yourselves, which of the two do you desire I should LUXE XXIII. 18. release unto you? Then, as their principles had Luke And (John, then they (John, all] cried prompted them, they al

i prompted them, they all cried out again with XXII. out john, again) all one consent, in the same noisy and tumultuous 18 at once, saying, (John, way as before, saying, We will not have this Not this man, but Ba- manl. but Barabbas ; away with this [man, ] rabbas :] Away with mar, OU Daruvuus ; away with thi this man, and release and release unto us Barabbas. And thus, when unto us Barabbas. Pilate would have let him go, they denied the (MAT. XXVII.-21. bola John XVIII. 40.-)

'. holy One and the Just, and desired a murderer


to be granted unto them. (Acts iii. 14.) MARK XV. 12. And And Pilate, to divert them from the purpose Mark Pilate answered, and the said again unto them,

" they were so unreasonably set upon, again an. XV. 12. Wat will ye then that swered and said to them, What therefore would I shall do (with Jesus, you have me do with this Jesus who is called which is called Christ] whom ye call the king

Christ, and whom, if I may believe your own of the Jews : [Mat. rulers, so many of you are ready to call and own XXVII. 22.) was the king of the Jews f? And they all pre-13 13 And they [all]


sently renewed their clamour, and cried out
again, as before, [and] with one voice said to


? Whom you call the king of the Jews.] tempt on the scheme of a Messiah ; and Pilate often repeats this title : and it may partly to procure from the Jews, in their seem strange that he should use it so fre. zeal against Jesus, the strongest and most quently. Probably he might do it partly public profcssions of their subjection to to ridicule those pretences, and bring con


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388 The Jews moved by the priests prefer Barabbas to Christ. sect. him, Crucify him ; let him immediately be cru- cried out again, (and vncified ; for he is fit to be treated as the vilest say

cify him: (Let him Mark slave, rather than to be called our king &.. XXV.13 Pilate therefore, being still desirous to release XXVII.-22. . Juke Jesus, spake to them yet again ; urging them pilte Therefore *4'1' seriously to consider what they did, in thus ling to release Jesus.

preferring such an abandoned miscreant as Ba- spake again to them. 21 rabbas to so innocent a person. But they, with- 31. But they cried,

saying, Crucify him, out so much as offering any farther reason, per- crucify him. sisted in their importunity, and cried out as

before saying, Crucify (him,] crucify him. 22 And Pilate, was so intent on delivering him, 22 And [MARE, that he said to them a third time, Why will you :

Zbu will von Pilate] said unto them

" the third time, Why? be so cruel as to insist upon it? what evil has he what evil hath he done " ? I declare to you all, as I told you but done? I have found now, (ver. 14, p. 385.) that I have found no no cause of death in

him: I will therefore capital crime in him : I will therefore, as I said chastise him, and let (ver. 16.) chastise him by scourging, and then I him. go. [M A T.

dou will XXVII. 23. - MARK hope your rage will be moderated, and you will

XV. 14.-)
be prevailed upon to agree that I should let -
[him} go without any farther punishment.

b 23 And they were 23 But they, without pretending to answer the ins

instant with loud argument he had alledged, overbore it by a voices, (Mark, and wild fury, and were urgent in pressing him with cried out the more ex. loud and importunate woices ; and the more he i

more he ceedingly,] requiring

that he might be cruciopposed them, they cried out the more abun- fied : and the voices of dantly and violently, demanding that, what- them, and of the ctief ever was the consequence of it, he might be pro the consequence of it he might be priestsprevailed.(MAT,

. XXVII.-23. MARK crucified: and, on the whole, notwithstanding xv. 14.] the farther remonstrance of Pilate on the admonition of his wife (which will be mentioned in the next section,) their voices, and (those] of the chief priests, (who, to encourage the cry, bad so little sense of common decency as themselves to join in it,)prevailed with the governor, though contrary to the convictions of his own conscience, to comply with their request.


ç Let him be crucified.) By this cry they Roman governor. And indeed it turned declared the greatest degree of rage that dreadfully on themselves, when such rast can be imagined; for it was as if they numbers of them were crucified for their bad said, “ Let him whom you call our opposition to the Romans, during the time king be treated like one of the vilest of of their last war. See noie o in the next your slaves, who has committed the most section, on Mat. xxvii. 25. enormous crime.” To have inflictedh Why? what evil has he done? Ti yap such a punishment as this on any free Jew Many TOMMTrY; Raphelus, ( Annot. er would probably have been sufficient to Xenoph. p. 64. has well proved, that yap have thrown the wbole city and nation is often used by the correctest Greek into an uproar ; but now they were deaf writers, and particularly Xenophon, as an to every thing but the clamour of passion, elegant expletive, especially to introduce a and in their madness forgot with how dan- question. gerous a precedent they might furnish the

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