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Jesus cries out of God's forsaking him. SECT. hours, or till three o'clock in the afternoon ; unto the ninth hour. <ACI. during which time it was as dark as if there [MARK XV.33. LUKE

at had been a total eclipse of the sun, though in a XXVII.natural way it was impossible, as it was now full 46 moon. And this darkness, with which the 46 And about the

nintb hour Jesus cried face of nature seemed overspread, was a lively

verspread, was amery with a loud voice, sayemblem of the darkness and distress of spirit ing (Eloi, Eloi), lama with which the Lord of nature was then over- sabachthani ? that is whelmed, and with which he struggled in the top

preted], My God, my solemn silence, and unutterable bitterness of God, why hast thou his soul. But about the ninth hour, Jesus cried forsaken me! (MARK with a loud voice, saying in the Hebrew, or rather in the Syriac language, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthanie ? that is, being interpreted into other words, My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me? which was as if he had said, O my heavenly Father, wherefore dost thou add to all my other sufferings those which arise from the want of a comfortable sense of thy presence? Wherefore dost thou thus leave me alone in the combat, destitute of those sacred consoJations, which thou couldest easily shed abroad

upon

XV. 34.

e There was darkness over the wchole his excellent Connection of the Sacred and land ] There are so many places in which Profane History of the World, has adranced ym signifies a particular country, and not some important considerations to prove, the whole earth, that I have chosen here to that it is at least very uncertain whether follow our translation ; and the rather, be the Jewish months, according to tbe Mosaic cause the farther we suppose this darkness institution, began with a new moon, and to extend, the more unaccountable it is, consequently whether their passover, which that no Heathen writers should have men- was fixed to the fourteenth day of the first tioned it except Phlegon; if he is indeel month, must always happen at full moon. to be excepted. A darkness over the whole But be allows that, towards the decline of earth at once must have been preternatural their state, it did. And indeed Josephus, at any time ; and it is morally impossible, who, being a Jewish priest, is an unex. that a multitude of accounts of it should ceptionable witness in this case, seems to not, even by a tradition of many hundred put it beyond all possibility of doubt; ex. years, have been transmitted to posterity. pressly asserting, that the day of expiation, What is said of the Chinese chronicles men, and consequently their other feasts, were tioning it, must be very uncertain ; and as reckoned by the age of the moon. (Joseph. of Josephus, his omission of it, I think Antiq. lib. iii. cap. 10, § 3. Arxain y Dr. More with reason accounts for it, by un xala gihnynu.) his unwillingness to mention a fact which & Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?] It is had so favourable an aspecton Christianity: evident these are Syro-Chaldaic, and not and the Jews would, no doubt, disguise it properly Hebrew words; for in the original as much as they could, and perhaps might of Psal. xxii, 1, it is not, as here, 128 persuade him, and others, who heard the report of it at some distance of time or place, that it was only a dark cloud, or a 95858. Dr. Edwards thinks our Lord thick misl, which the followers of Jesus had in his agony repeated the words twice with exaggerated, because it happened when some little variation, saying at one time, their Master died. Such representations Eloi, and at the other Eli. This is possible ; are exceeding natural to bearts corrupted and it it were otherwise, I doubt not but by infidelity.

Mark has given us the word exactly, and As it was now full moon.) Mr. Shuck. Matthew a kind of contraction of it. See ford, in his preface to the third volume of Edwards's Exercit. p. 193—196.

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Mat.

them

to

35.)

The Jews pretend that he was calling for Elijah.
upon my soul, and which thou knowest I have sect.

сxсі. done nothing to forfeith? 47 (And) some of Jesus by the use of these words, borrowed

that stood by from the beginning of the twenty-second psalm, XXVII. there, when they beard that, said, [Behold] gave the spectators a useful bint that the whole 47 this man calleth for of it referred to him; and it might well have led Elias. (Makk XV. them to observe how many passages of it had

then a literal accomplishment in him : but if
this was any part of the design, it was not ap-
prehended by them; for the Jews took them in
a different sense, and some of them that stood by
there, hearing [that] sound of Eli, said in a
scornful and insulting manner, Behold, this
[man), who has been used to talk as if he had
earth and heaven at command, resolves to keep
up the air of the Messiah to the last, and there-
fore calls for Elijah bis forerunner, as if he had
any authority to bring that great prophet down

from paradise to his assistance'. John XIX. 28. Af- Immediately after this doleful cry, Jesus John

know. knowing that all the grievous and terrible things XIX. 28 ing that all things were

lished that he had to suffer in the way to death, were now
. the upon the point of being perfectly accomplished,

and finding himself parched with a violent
drought, as the consequence of what he had so
long endured both in mind and body, that the
scripture might be fulfilled (Psal. xxii. 15, and

lxix.

ter

Jesus know

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h Why hast thou forsaken me?] The pious prehension of his constant favour, and high and judicious Lord Chief Justice Hale approbation of what he was now doing), bas a strange reflection on these words; was as necessary as it was that Christ should “ We may (says he with reverence con- suffer at all. For had God communicated ceive, that at the time of this bitter cup, to his Son on the cross those strong consola. the soul of our blessed Redeemer was for tions which he has given to some of the the present overshadowed with so much martyrs in their tortures, all sense of pain, astonishment and sorrow, as to overpower and consequently all real pain, would have and cover the distinct sense of the reason been swaliowed up; and the violence done of his sufferings, at least in some measure to his body, not affecting the soul, could not and degree." (Hale's Contemplations, Vol. properly have been called suffering. I. p. 72) But the sense given in the i And some of them that stood by, &c.] paraphrase is much more natural. Thus Whether this was, as Dr. Edwards (Exercit. in a most humble and affectionate man- p. 196_203), and Mr. Cradock (Harm. ner he reminds his heavenly Father, that be part ii. p. 256), suppose the mistake of was only by imputation a sinner, and had some Hellenist Jews, why did not underhimself done nothing to incur his displea- stand the Syro-Chaldaic language; or whesure.--I choose not, with Dr. More in ther it proceeded from his being raised so his Thevlogical Works, p. 992), to render high, that, amidst the rude noise around it How far, or to what degree, hast thou for- bim, they did not distinctly hear; I do not saken me! because though this would be a pretend to say. Perhaps the malice of those just version of to, the Greek word svali, who did hear what he said, might misrewhich answers to it in Mattbew. is not present his words, to prevent any serious liable to such ambiguity. I conclude with reflections on the psalm from which they adding, that this interruption of a joyful were taken, and to expose him to farther sense of his Father's presence (though there contempt. was, and could not but be, a rational ap

out lirst ble endured al, I thirs

a 10 a Contemptuous Wam

sure

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(MAT.

416

In his thirst, they give him vinegar to drink. SECT. Ixix. 21), where the Messiah is described as cry- the scripture might be exci.

"_ing out, “My tongue cleaveth to my jaws, and falta Tohn in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink,” xix. 28. to shew that he endured all that had been fore

told concerning him, said, I thirst. 29 Now there was set, as usual on such occasions, 29 Now there was a vessel full of vinegar near the crossk; and imJl of unecar nenr the crossk. andim set a vessel full of vi

- negar: [and straightmediately upon his mentioning his thirst, one of way one of them ran, them ran, and took a spunge, and filled [it] with and took a spunge, this vinegar; and putting it round sa stalk of]

dle nfl and filled it with vine.

and put it one hyssop, wbich they had fastened on the top of a hyssop [on a reed], kind of cane, or large reed, they put it up to his and put it to his

mouth, and in a contemptuous manner gave it month, and gave him Mat. him to drink. But the rest of them that stood XXVII. 48. MARK XXVl. bv, said, Let Thim] alone, and let us see whether XV. 36.-)... ° Elijah, whom he has just been calling upon, .

MAT. XXVII. 49. will come and save him from the cross ; (and] in- lone,] let us see whedeed he must take him down quickly, if at all. ther Elias will come So little were their hearts affected with this pre. to save him, [and take

bim down.] (MARK ternatural darkness, which had continued now xv.-36.*** three hours; and thus cruelly did they insult him, even in his expiring moments, which had been most inbuman, though he had really been

the vilest malefactor. John When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, JOHN XIX. 50.XIX. 30 and thus had perfectly ful6lled the prophecies »

fuelled the proberec When Jesus therefore

had received the vinerelating to his sufferings, he said, It is finished; gar, he said, It is finishthe important work, for which I came into the ed. world,' is now completed, the demands of the

law are satisfied, the justice of God is atoned, Luke and my sufferings are now at an end. And LUXB XXII. 46, AA": crying out again with a great and strong voice, cried again with a loud

* And (when he had "which plainly shewed that much of the strength voice,] he said, Father, of nature was yet in him; he said, with a lively into thy hands I com:

1 mend my Spirit: and faith and holy joy, Father, for so I will still call has

call having said thus, he thee, though that claim is thus derided by mine (John,bowed his head, enemies, I am now coming to thee, and into and gave up the ghost.]

(MAT. XXVII. 50. thy hands I commit my departing Spirit, deposit- MARK XV. 37. Tous ing it with thee as a sacred trust, which I am XIX.-30.] confident thou wilt receive and keep. And when he had said thus, declining his head, he voluntarily dismissed or delivered up his Spirit, and expired'.

And

k A vessel full of vinegar.] It is well torture would naturally make them known that vinegar and water (which mix thirsty, ture was called poscn) was the common Ře dismissed or delivered up his Spirit, drink of the Roman soldiers : perhaps there, and expired.] The evangelists use different fore this vinegar was set here for their use, words in expressing our Lord's death, which or for that of the crucified persons, whose I a little wonder that our translators render

And behold

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Jesus dismisses his spirit, and the earth trembles. 411 Mat. XXVII. 51. And behold, God by a very awful and mira. sect.

Ki, culous interposition, avowed the relation which_cxc while the sun was darkened ], the rail of his Son claimed, and evidently appeared to Mar the temple was rent in take the charge of that dear and excellent Spirit XXVII. twain LLUKE, in the which Jesus so solemnly recommended to him:51 midst, from the top to the bottom; and the for immediately upon his death, [whiie] the sun earth did quake, and was still darkened, as was observed before (ver. the rocks rent; MARKA:1 the wel of the tem

a n 45), the veil of the temple, which separated be45.]

tween the holy and the most holy place, though
made of the richest and strongest tapestry, was
miraculously rent in two in the midst, from the
top to the very bottom; so that while the priest
was ministering at the golden altar, it being the
time of evening sacrifice, the sacred oracle was
laid open to full viewm: God thereby declaring,
as it were, the abolition of the whole Mosaic
ritual, which depended on a distinction between
those two parts of the teinple; and intimating
that a passage was opened into the most holy
place by the blood of Jesus, which was now
poured out on mount Calvary, And at the same
time, to increase the terror, the earth trembled
even to the very spot of ground on which the

temple stood, and several of the rocks in the 52 And the graves neighbouring parts were torn asundern; And 52

some

were

in the same manner, he yielled, or gave up with a majesty and dignity never known,
thọ ghost. Mark and Luke say TERVETTE or to be known, in any other death; dy-
ke erpired; John, WODECONXE TO OYEUue, he ing, if I may so express it, like the Prince
yielded up his Spirit; but Matthew's lan- of life.
guage is yet more singular, aprue To TVRSNOW, m While the priest was ministering at
he dismissed his Spirit (as the same word the golden altar, c.) This being so high
abimur is used, Mat. xiii. 36. Mark iv. a day, it is probable that Caiaphas himself
S6. xi. 6, and elsewhere). Now this es- might now be performing the solemn act of
pression seems admirabiy to suit our Lord's burning incense just before the ceil; which
words, John x, 18. No man taketh my life if he did, it is inexpressibly astonishing
from me, but I lay it doon of myself, &c. that his obdurate heart should not be im-
(see the paraphrase and note therc, p. 86), pressed with so awful and significant a
shewing, as the strong cry which so much phenomenon. There is no room to doubt,
impressed the centurion did, that he died by but many of the other priests, who had a
the voluntary act of his own mind, accord- hand in Christ's death, saw the pieces of
ing to the power received from the Father, the veil; which, considering its texture,
and in a way peculiar to himself, by which and the other circumstances, must as fully
he alone, of all men that ever existed, could convince them of the reality of this ex-
have continued alive even in the greatest traordinary fact as if they had actually been
tortures, as long as he pleased, or have re- present when it was rent.
tired from the body whenever he thoughtn The rocks were torn asunder.) Mr.
fit. Which view of the case, by the way, Fleming tells us (in his Christology, Vol. II.
suggests an illustration of the love of Christ p. 97, 98), that a deist latcly travelling
manifested in his death, beyond what is through Palestine was converted, by view-
commonly observed ; inasmuch as he did ing one of these rocks, which still remains
not ase this power to quit his body, as soon torn asunder, not in the weakest place, but
as ever it was fastened to the cross, leay- cross the veins; a plain proof that it was
ing only an insensible corpse to the cruelty done in a supernatural manner.-Sandys,
of his murderers, but continued his abode in his excellent Travels, p. 164, has given
in it, with a steady resolution, as long as an accurate description and delineation of
it was proper; and then retired from it this fissure; and Mr. Maundrel in his

Journey

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The graves open, and many bodies of saints arise. SECT. some of the tombs there were opened by the earth. were opened, and ma

stonishino ny bodies of the saints quake: and, which was much more astonishing, ny, Mat. a little wbile after, while the monuments conXXVII. tinued unclosed, many bodies of those holy men

52 who were sleeping there were raised from the 53 dust of deatho, And came out of the tombs 53 And came out of after the resurrection of [Jesus), and entered the graves after his re.

surrection, and went into Jerusalem, the holy city, and appeared unto into the holy city, and manyp; attesting the truth of that important appeared unto many. fact, and declaring their own rescue from the grave, as a kind of first fruits of his power over death, which should at length accomplish a ge

neral resurrection. Mark And when the Roman centurion, who stood Mark XV. 39. And XV.39 over.against him, and guarded the execution, which

when the centurion

stood orer. saw that he so cried out with such strength of against him, saw that voice, and such firm confidence in God, even at he so cried out, and the moment when he expired ; [and] also saw

gave up the gbost

uw (Luke, and saw what what was [then] done in so miraculous a man- was done, he glorified ner, in those amazing prodigies that attended God, saying, Certainly

in this was a righteous his death; he glorified God by a free confession

man), truly this man of his persuasion of the innocence of Jesus, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man ; [yea], notwithstanding all the vile reproaches which

have

was

Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 73, surviving disciples. It was to be sure a most
74, tells us, that it is about a span wide at surprising event, and Dr. Whitby sop-
the upper part, and two spans deep; after poses, John v. 25, was a prophecy relating
which it closes, but opens again below (as to it.]
may be seen in another chapel below con. P And came out of the tombs after the re.
tiguous to the side of Calvary), and runs surrection of Jesus, &c.] Consequently it
down to an unknown depth in the earth. seems that the tombs stood open all the sabe
He adds, that every man's sense and rea- bath, when the law would not allow any
son must convince him that this is a natural attempt to close them. What an astonish-
and genuine breach.

ing spectacle ! especially if their resurrec.
Many bodies of holy men were raised.] tion was not instantaneously accomplished,
That ingenious writer Mr. Fleming, who but by such slow degrees, as that represent-
abounds with a vast number of peculiar ed in Ezekiel's vision : (Ezek. xxxvi.)
conjectures, thinks that these were some Yet I do not take upon me to say that it
of the most eminent saints mentioned in was so; for it is unprofitable too parti-
the Old Testament; and that they appear. cularly to conjecture on such circumstances
ed in some extraordinary splendour, and which are not recorded. For this reason
were known by revelation, as Eve's ori. also I pretend not to say what became of
ginal and relation was to Adam, or Moses these persons; though, as one can hardly
and Elijah to the disciples at the transfigato imagine they either immediately returned
Tation. He ventures particularly to con- to their graves, or that they continued to
jecture who they were; but does not men- live on earth (because it is only said, they
tion David among themi (Fleming of the appeared to many), it seems most natural
First Resurrection, p. 29–38.) But Mr. to imagine they ascended into heaven with,
Pierce (on Colos. p. 68) maintains, that it or after, our Lord: perhaps from some so-
is very improbable that, bad other sain's of litude, to which they might be directed to
former ages risen, David should have been retire during the intermediate days, and to
excluded; and since Acts ii. 34, prores wait in devout exercises for their change,
that he did not now rise, he concludes, for surely, had they ascended in the view
that the saints who rose were some who died of others, the memory of such a fact could
but a little before, perhaps such as had be. not bave been lost.
lieved in Christ, and were well known to

4 Corleinly

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