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They speak with tongues to the amazement of the multitude. 509 as of fire, and it sat bright flames in a pyramidical form, which were sect. upon each of them.

so parted as to terminate in several points, and ".
thereby to afford a proper emblem of the mar-
vellous effect attending the appearance, by which II. 3.
they were endowed with a miraculous diversity
of languages: and it was ordered so, that one

of these tongues rested upon each of them“, who
4 And they were all were then present in the room. And as soon
filled with the Holy as ever these lambent fames appeared to touch 4
Ghost, and began to hom

them, they were all in a most sensible and extongues, as the Spirit traordinary manner filled with the Holy Spirit, gave them utterance. and began to speak with other tongues than they

had ever used or understood before, with light
and fervour, and a most ready flow of language,
according as the Spirit gave them a power and

facility of expressing themselves.
5 And there were Now as this happened at one of the three 5
dwelling at Jerusalem, grand vearly feasts, and at that in which the days
Jews, devout men, out
of every nation under were longest, there were sojourning in Jerusalem

at that time a great number of pious men, (that
were] by their descent or by profession Jews ;
who were come thither out of all parts of the
known world, from every nation under heavene
where any of that people dwelt, or any that were

proselytes to the Jewish religion.
6 Now when this And when this strange report came to be noised 6
was noised abroad, the
multitude came toge-

abroad', as it presently did, the multitude soon ther


stroy the veil which had been spreadover all na- every nation under the whole heaven. (Deut. tions. (Isa. xxv. 7.) See Lights. Hor, ii. 25.) See also Gen. xi. 4 ; Judg. xx. 16; Hebr. and Grot. in loc.

and Psal. cvii. 26.— But not to insist upd Upon each of them.] I agree with the on it, that the Jews were then so numelearned Dr. Benson, (Plant. of Christianity, rous, as to have spread through every country, page 28, 29.) who thinks, (as Jerom and so that, as Agrippa in Josephus says, Chrysostom did,) that it is probable, each “ There was not a people upon earth, who of the hundred and twenty shared in this bad not Jews inhabiting among them;" miraculous donation. See also Miscell. (Bell. Jud. lib. ii, cap. 16. § 4. p. 191. Sacra. Essay 1. p. 101, 102.) The hundred Havercamp.) the expression here can sigand twenty, mentioned chap. i. 15, are nify no more, than that there were some plainly referred to, ver. 1, as the persons at Jerusalem at that time from all the here assembled: And as this would best several nations among whom the Jews were illustrate the pouring forth of the Spirit on the dispersed. See Lightfoot, and Whitby, handmaids, as well as on the servants of God, in loc.) It would be very absurd to argue (ver. 18,) so it is certain, that the manu- from hence, that there must be natives of scripts, wbich would confine this effusion Britain and America at Jerusalem, when to the upostles, are of very small authority. this great event happened. And many Nor do Beza's arguments on the other side arguments, drawn from such universal phraof the question appear to me by any means ses elsewhere, seem as weak as this would conclusive. Compare Acts x. 44-46 and be. xi. 15–17.

When this report came abroad.] De Dieu e From every nation under heaven.] concludes, this must signify thunder, which, Should this be taken for an hyperbole, we he too confidently says, is always the imhave other instances in Scripture of the like part of 5 and owym in the Hellenistic lanway of speaking; as where we read of cities walled up to heaven, (Deut. i. 28, ix. 1,)

guage, and argues from hence, that the and of the dread of the Jews falling upon

rushing wind (ver. 2,) was attended with

thunder. But the following clause, which 3 S 2


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k Galileans?

510 People of all nations hear them in their own language. sect. gathered together, and were quite confounded and ther, and were con" amazed : For every one of this various assembly ou

mhly founded, because that

every man heard them heard one or another of them, as they addressed speak in his own lan11. 6. themselves by turns to people of a different lan- guage.

guage, speaking to each of them in his own 7 proper dialect. And they were all astonished at it And they were bevond measure, and wondered at this marvelwondered at the moral all amazed, and mar

velled, saying one to lous event, saying one to another, Behold, how another, Behold, are

unaccountable is this! Are not all these that speak not all these which 8 by birth and country Galileans? And how then spe

8 And how hear do we wery one of us hear them, as they direct we every man in our their speech to so many different people, who own tongue, whereare here come together out of so many nations,

speaking to each of us in his own native language? 9 For while there are among us Parthians, and 9 Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites or Persians, and those that N od Nomes Percians and those that Medes, and Elamites,

and the dwellers in inhabit Mesopotamia , and those that dwell 100 Mesopotamia, and in in Judea, where the dialect is so different from Judea, and Cappadothat of Galilee ; and likewise the natives of cia, in Pontus, and

Cappadocia and Pontus, and of the country more****
io properly called the proconsular Asia; As well 10 Phrygia, and

as the inbabitants of the neighbouring provinces Pamph
of Phrygią and Pamphylia, of Egypt and the bya about Cyrene, and

and in the parts of Liparts of Africa which are about Cyrene, and the strangers of Roue, many sojourners in this city (who are] Romans, Jews and prosedyres,

some of us native Jews, and others of us proseIl lytes to the Mosaic religion h; Together with 11 Cretes, and Ara

those of both these sorts who use the language bians, ile do hear them of Crete, and those who are Arabians; we do ic wonderful works of

speak in our tongues every one of us hear them speaking in our own God, native tonguesi the wonderful works of God, in the surprising testimonies he has given to the mission of Jesus who was lately crucified, not only by the miracles he wrought, but by his re.


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refers the assembly to the different lan. dwelt at Rome about this time, and made
guages spoken by those on whom the Holy many proselytes to their religion. See Mr.
Spiril fell, plainly shews, that it was not Biscoe, at Boyle's Lecture, p. 85.
thunder which brought them together; i We hear them speaking in our Ora
which indeed conld hardly occasion their tongues.] Cyprian, and Erasmus, and some
assembly in one place.

later critics have thought, (particularly & Elamites, and those that inhabit Mesopo- from ver. 8.) that the miracle was not in the tamia.] Bishop Cumberland takes these to speakers but the hearers; so that, while the be the remainder of the Jeus, who had apostle spake his oon native Syriac, it would been carried captive into Assyria, first by appear Lalın to one, and Greek to another, Tiglath-pileser, (2 Kings xv. 29) and after- &c. But this must be a mistake; for we wards by Shalmaneser, and placed in the read of their speuking with tongues, ver. 4. cities of the Medes. (2 Kings xvii. 6.) See before any foreigners came in upon them. Cumb. Qrig. Gent, page 225.

(Compare chap. X. 46. and i Cor. xiv. 2.) h Romnns, Jews, and proselytes.] It ap- Nor could what they said, on'this supposipears from Josephus, Suetonius, Tacitus, tion, have appeared a jargon to any; which the Roman satirists, and other writers of this yet we find to have been the case, ver. 13. age, in a variety of passages well known to See Castalio, on ver. 4. the learned, that great numbers of Jews

k Filled

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They are derided by somne, as if they were drunk. 511

surrection and ascension : And while they are sect.
discoursing of these marvellous events, they runi
through such a great variety of languages, which
no one can suspect they have ever been taught, 11. 11.
with so inuch readiness and propriety, as among
the most learned of mankind is perfectly un-

equalled. 19 And they were . And they were all in a mixture of amazement 12 all amazed, and were in doubt, saving one to and perplexity, and said one to another, What can another, What mean- this unaccountable appearance possibly mean? eth this?

Or what can it be designed to effect? But 13 IS Others mocking said, These men are owners of men, and particularly those

others of them, and particularly those who were full of new wine, native Jews, and understood none of these foreign

languages, hearing the sound of their words as
a kind of barbarous jargon, derided them, and
in a mocking and contemptuous manner said,
Surely these men have begin the festival be-
times, and are undoubtedly filled with sweet in-
toxicating winek, and therefore make this unin-

telligible voise.
14 But Peter, stand. But Peter standing up with the eleven, who 14
ing up with the eleven,
lift up his voice, and

and were then in company with him, and who had said unto them, Ye each of them before been speaking in different men of Judea, and all languages, raised his voice so loud that those who ve that dwell at Jeru- 1

is known had been reproaching them might hear it, and unto you, and hearken said to them, in the tongue that was commonly to my words :

used among them, Oye men of Judea, and espe-
cially all you that inhabit Jerusalem, whom I
would be solicitous in the first place to inform
and convince, let this be known unto you as to
the cause of this extraordinary appearance, and
listen to my words with an attention becoming

the importance of the occasion on which I speak.
15 For these are For these men are not drunk, as you, who do not 15
not drunken, as ye understand them, rashly suppose; and it is indeed
suppose, seeing it is
but the third hour of very uncharitable for you to imagine it, consi-
the day.

dering that it is now but the third hour of the
day', that is, about nine o'clock in the morn-
ing, the hour of morning sacrifice; before
which, you know, none, who have any regard
for their character, will allow themselves so
much as to taste wine, and much less to drink


k Filled with sweet wine.] There was no The third hour of the day.) Josephus new wine, or must, at the seast of Pentecost, tells us, that on feust-days the Jews seldom as Beza and many others observe; but cat or drank till noon; (de vita sua, 54, gaux properly significs sweet wine. We p. 26, Haverc.) which if it were fact, are informed by Plutarch, that the ancients would (as Grotius observes) render this had ways of prescrving their wine sweet a calumny the more incredible.--As to the great while; and such wines were known computation of the Jewish hours, see sect. to be very intoxicating,

6, note b, on Acts iii. 1.

m By


512 Peter defends them, and shews it was foretold by Joel.
SECT. any large quantity of it, whereby they would
ill be rendered incapable of attending the service

of the temple on such a solemn festival as this. I. 16. But this which has occasioned so much admira. 16 But this is that tion, and which you know not how to account

which was spoken by

n the prophet Joel. for, is that great event which was spoken of by **

the prophet Joelm, chap. ii. 28–32. where it is 17 written, " And it shall come to pass in the 17 And it shall come last daysn, or in the times of the Messiah, saith to pass in the last days,

SUUR (saith God) I will pour the ever blessed God, I will pour out an extra- out of my Spirit upon ordinary effusion of my Spirit upon all flesh, all flesh : and your sons that is, upon some of all ranks and orders, of all an mon some no ranks and orders of wi and your daughters

shall prophesy, and ages and nations of men : And as the wonderful your young meo shall effect of it, your sons and your daughters shall see visions, and your prophesyo, and your young men shall see pro. old men shall dream

oung men shall see pro- dreams : phetic visions, and your old men shall dream 18 significant and divinely inspired dreams. Yea 18 And on my ser

yapts, and on my handin these days I will, in a most extraordinary maidens, I will pour manner, pour out the gifts of my Spirit upon my out in those days of servants, and even upon my handmaids : and my Spirit, and they they shall also prophesy, and shall not only pub-"

ish shall prophesy:
lish and proclaim the riches of my grace, but
shall foretell the judgments that are coming

upon those who shall continue hardened in their
19 sins. And this effusion of my Spirit shall be 19 And I will shew
followed with a most awful revolution ; for

in wonders in bearen

" above, and signs in the I will give you to see prodigies in heaven above, earth beneath; blood, and signs upon the earth beneath P; And such



m By the prophet Joel.] Some have ex- employed for their conviction, would fully plained this prophecy, as referring, in its justify God in the severest vengeance original sense, to the pouring forth the Spirit he should execute upon tbat hardened on the Jews at their last general conversion; people. and think Peter's argument is, as if he had Your suns and your daughters shall prosaid, “ You need not wonder at such an phesy.) Compare Acts xxi, 9. If this mi. event as this, since so muchore is at racle had not been foretold, the argument length to be expected.(See Jeffery's for the truth of Christianity from it would, True Grounds, p. 120.) But from attending no doubt, have been conclusive; but, as to the context lam led to conclude, for rea- it was referred to in the Old Testament, it sons too long to be here stated, that the might dispose the minds of the Jews still prophecy is here applied in its most direct more readily to regard it, as it was indeed sense, and that the event of this great day, the more remarkable. and the destruction of the Jews for reject. p Prodigies in heaven above, and signs wping a gospel so confirmed, were originally on the earth beneath.] This doubtless refers referred to in it.

to the prodigies and signs which preceded n In the last days.] Every one knows, the destruction of Jerusalem; (such as, the that the last days was a phrase commonly flaming sword hanging over the city, and used to denote the times of the Messiah, the fiery comet pointiog down upon it for when the gospel should be published, wbich a year; the light that shone upon the is the last despensation of divine grace: but temple and the altar in the night, as if it here it seems to have a more particular had been noon day; the opening of the view to the days immediately preceding great and beavy gate of the temple withthe destruction of the Jewish nation, or out hands; the voice heard from the most the last days of that people, when the holy place, Let us depart from hence ; the extraordinary means which were in vain admonition of Jesus the son of Abanus,

Reflections on the descent of the Spirit, and the gift of tongues. 513 and fire, and vapour of destructive wars shall arise, as a punishment SECT. smoke.

for the wickedness of those who reject the
mercy I offer, that there shall be blood shed in Acts
abundance, and fire scattered abroad to con- II. 19.
sume your cities and villages, so that a cloud of

smoke shall ascend from the ruins of them. 20 The sun shall be Yea, there shall be such confusion and misery, 20 turned into darkness, and all regular government both in church and the moon into blood, before that great a

and state shall be so entirely dissolved, that and notable day of the the sun shall as it were be turned into darkness, Lord come.

and the moon into blood, before that great and
illustrious day of the Lord shall fully come, in

which he will take ample vengeance on every 21 And it shall come unbeliever. And it shall come to pass that 21

whosoever shall, with humble submission to my
shall call on the name
of the Lord, shall be method of saving grace in my Son, invoke

the name of the Lord, shall be saved 9 from this
terrible destruction, and brought into a state of
security and happiness.”

These premises the apostle Peter afterwards
applied, to the conviction of those who had
rejected and slain our Lord; and the argument
wrought most powerfully upon them. But the
prosecution and success of this address must be
referred to the following sections.

to pas

hat whosoever


With how much attention and delight should we read the history of this glorious event, so frequently referred to in the predictions of our Lord, and of so great importance to the Christian cause ; the miraculous descent of the Holy Spirit ! He Ver. came down as a mighty rushing wind, to signify the powerful 2 energy of his operations, whereby the whole world was to be


crying for seven years together, Woe, ed, though most of bis account of the siege Woe, Woe! the vision of contending ar- and destruction of Jerusalem be lost. mies in the air, and of intrenchments Whosoever shali invoke the name of the thrown up against a city there represented; Lord, &c.] This context being quoted thus the terrible thunderings and lightnings, was a strong intimation, that nothing but and the dreadful earthquakes, wbich every their acceptance of the gospel could secure one considered as portending some ap- them from impending ruin. Brennius has proaching evil: (All which by the singular proved by an ainple collection of texts, (in providence of God are recorded by Jose- his note on this place,) that calling on the phus,) Bell. Jud. lib. vi. cap. 5 [al. vii. 12] name of the Lord is often put for the rohole

S; & lib. iv. cap. 4 sal. 7 $ 5,) iu that of religion: And if it do not here directly history of his, the truth of which the em- signify invoking Christ, which is sometimes peror Titus attested under his own hand: used to express the whole Christian character, (See Joseph. Vit. $ 65, p. 33, Haverc.) (Compare Acts ix, 14, 21. xxii. 16. Rom. And accordingly the greatest part of these x, 12, 13. and 1 Cor. i. 2,) it must imply, circumstances are inserted in Tacitus, that it is impossible for any who reject him (Hist. lib. v.; ap. 13,) and happily presery- to pray in an acceptable manner. How

awful a reflection!

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