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35 In this King's reign, Malcolm, King of Scotland, laid siege to Alnwick Castle; the Governor of which, handed bim the keys on the point of a spear, with which he pierced him through the eye, and killed him: for this exploit, he obtained the name Pierce-eye, hence originated Percy.
HENRY I. surnamed Beauclerk, seized the royal treasure at Winchester, and was crowned at Westminster. He abolished the Curfew, and confirmed the Laws of Edward the Confessor. Robert, Duke of Normandy, þeing returned from the Holy
lands at Portsmouth, and claims the crown. The brothers come to an agreement. King Henry makes war upon his brother Robert; subdues Normandy, takes Robert prisoner, and orders his eyes to be put out, 106.
Henry marries his daughter Matịļdą to Henry IV. the Emperor of the East, 1109.
Plants colonies of Flemings in Wales. The Thames dry for three days, 1114.
Prince William, the King's eldest son, shipwrecked, after which the King was never seen to laugh. The orders 1122.
The nobles swear allegiance to Matilda, the king's only daughter, now a widow.
The barons' renew their oaths to Matilda. She is married again to Geoffrey Plantagenet, Earl of Anjou.
Henry I. was born at Winchester, died in France and was buried at Reading.
A conspiracy formed against the King, by the Queen and three of the Princes, on account of Fair Rosamond, the King's concubine. Queen Eleanor is made a state prisoner, 1173.
Glass windows began to be used in private houses, 1177.
Henry, deserted by his French subjects, dies of grief. He was born at Angiers, 1131, and þuried at Fontevrault.
RICHARD releases his mother Eleanor; finds his father's treasures, at Winchester, to amount to £900,000. Embarks for the Holy War; șails from Marseilles to Sicily. Conquers Cyprus, and there marries Berrengarią, daughter to the King of Navarre. Arriving at Judea, he obtains several victories over Saladin's troops. The Kings of Eng-, Jand and France take Açon. The two Kings fall out. The French King returns home. Richard, making a truce with Saladin, embarks for England, but is shipwrecked ; taking the road to Vienna, he is seized by the Duke of Austria, and sent prisoner to the Emperor, 1192,
190,000 marks raised in England for his ransom. Being released, he returns to England, reduces his brother John's party, who in his absence, attempted to make himself King, 1194.
Richard obtains a great victory over the French. About this time lived Robin Hood and Little John, 1197,
Richard died of a wound that he received in besieging the castle of Widomar. Corporation com panies first established in London. Richard was born in 1157, and buried at Fontevrault.
John, seized the crown, thongh Arthur, Duke pf. Brittanny, son to his eldest brother Geoffry, was alive. Arthur seizes part of .Normandy, and
is såpported by the French King. John goes over 16 France, obtains a great victory, and takes his nephew Arthur prisoner; who dies in prison, generally supposed to be murdered by the King. John Josés. Normandy, Maine, Touraine, Anjou, &c. The first writ of summons to parliament was this year directed to the Bishop of Salisbury. John quarrels with the pope, who excommunicates him; but is pardoned on resigning to him his: doninions and submitting to hold his Kingdom as tributary to him, 1213
John quariels with his Barons, who'oblige him to give them the famous Magna Charta, in Runimede, between Staines and Wiødsor, A.D. 1215.
The Barons, finding John violate his fasth, call over Lewis, Dauphin of France. John died; Oct. 1971, 1916, atid was buried in Worcester
HENRY IIH. succeeds his father, at nine years of age William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, is miade his guardian, and the Dauphin is defeated at Lincoln, and besieged in Londoni, upon which he agrees to quit the Kingdom. King Henry déclares hitiyself of age, and cancels Magna Charta, 1227.
Aldermen first'elected in London, 1242;
Tiles first brought into use. Wales' is wholly subdued, and receives the English Laws: Fine Jinet first made in England, The King's partiality to foreigners, produces an insurrection, headed by Montford, Earl of Leicester, who defeats the King, and takes biüt prisonery with his son, Prince Edvåtd! The Earl of Leicester calls a Parlianrent, at Winchester in the King's narie; the first wherein two Knights for each county, and twb burgesses for each borbugh, were summorvèd: Prince Edward joins the Earl of"Gloucester, and the King's friends.
Leicester is killed at the battle of Evesham, and the King released. Henry III. was born at Winchester, 1207, reigned fifty-six years, died Nov. 16th, 1272, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
EDWARD I. is proclaimed King, though absent in the Holy Land. A war with the Welch, ia which Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, is killed, and the country finally reduced, 1289.
The King's son , Edware, born at Caernarvon, is styled Prince of Wales, the first English Prince that ever liad that title, 1284.
The Jews banished the Kingdom, to the number of 15,000, A. D. 1289.
Disputes arising in Scotland between Bruce and Baliol about the succession to the crown, Edward is chosen umpire, and declares Baliol King, 1292; who, being ill used by Edward, revolts. Edward defeats him, takes him prisoner, and sends him to London. He is released. Spectacles first invented by a monk of Pisa, 1299
The magnetic needle first brought into use, 1302.
King Edward's fourth expedition against the Scotch, Sir William Wallace, the principal promoter of the Scotch insurrections, is taken prisoner, sent to London, and hanged, A. D. 1305.
Coals first in use. The Scots revolt again under Bruce, whom they make King. Edward marches against them, but dies on the way; he was buried at Westminster.
EDWARD II. ascended the throne, A. D. 1307.
The King renews the war against the Scots, and is defeated by them at Bannockburn, 1313.
The University of Dublin founded, 1319.
The Barons force the King to banish the two Spensers, his favourites. The Queen joins Mortimer
and the Barons, against the King and the Spensers.
The elder Spenser taken at Bristol, and hanged. ? The King and the younger Spenser taken in Wales, .1326.
Spenser is hanged and quartered. The King is forced to resign the crown, 1327.
Edward II. reigned nineteen years and a half, was murdered September 22d, 1327, and buried at Gloucester.
EDWARD III. though not fourteen years of age, crowned, his father being still alive. Mortimer, the Queen's favourite, rules the Kingdom. The old King is murdered. The Queen imprisoned, and Mortimer, her favourite, banged. The art of weaving brought from Flanders to England, 133).
Edward claims the crown of France. Copper money first used in Scotland and Ireland. Blankets first woven, so called from Thomas Blanket, of Bristol, 13.10.
Gold first coined in England, 1814.
King Edward defeats the French, at Cressy: In this battle, cannon was first used. Edward, the Black Prince, though only fifteen years of age, displays great valour. The Queen defeats the Scots, and takes King David prisoner, 1346.
The largest silver coin in England was groats, 1352.
Edward, the Black Prince chefeats the French, at Poictiers, takes John, the Freneh King, and his son, Philip, prisoners, 1356.
An act is made that commsel at the bar plead in English (French being used before;) but the pleadings to be entered in Latin. The staple of wool is fixed at Calais, 1362.
Four King's entertained by the city, at the Lord Mayor's house. The Black Prince dies, 1376.