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ask the person a question, must address it to the Speaker or chairman, who repeats the question to the person, or says to him, “You hear the question, answer it.” But if the propriety of the question be objected to, the Speaker directs the witness, counsel, and parties to withdraw; for no question can be moved, or put, or debated, while they are there. — 2 Hats. 108. Sometimes the questions are previously settled in writing before the witness enters.—2 Hats. 106, 107; 8 Grey, 64. The questions asked must be entered in the journals.- 3 Grey, 81. But the testimony given in answer before the House is never written down; but before a committee it must be for the information of the House, who are not present to hear it.—7 Grey, 52, 334.

If either House have occasion for the presence of a person in custody of the other, they ask the other their leave that he may be brought up to them in custody.-3 Hats. 52.

A member, in his place, gives information to the House of what he knows of any matter under hearing at the bar.-Jour. H. of C., Jan. 22, 1744, 5.

Either House may request, but not command, the attendance of a member of the other. They are to make the request by message to the other House, and to express clearly the purpose of attendance, that no improper subject of examination may be tendered to him. The House then gives leave to the member to attend, if he choose it; waiting first to know from the member himself whether he chooses to attend, till which they do not take the message into consideration. But when the Peers are sitting as a court of Criminal Judicature, they may order attendance; unless where it be a case of impeachment by the Commons. There it is to be a request.—3 Hats. 17; 9 Grey, 306. 406; 10 Grey, 133.

Counsel are to be heard only on private, not on public bills; and on such points of law only as the House shall direct.-19 Grey, 61.



The Speaker is not precisely bound to any rules as to what bills or other matter shall be first taken up, but is left to his own discretion, unless the House on a question decide to take up a particular subject. Hakew. 136.

A settled order of business is, however, necessary for the government of the presiding person, and to restrain individual members from calling up favourite measures, or matters under their special patronage, out of their just turn.

It is useful also for directing the discretion of the House, when they are moved to take up a particular matter, to the prejudice of others having a priority of right to their attention in the general order of business.

In Senate, the bills and other papers which are in possession of the House, and in a state to be acted upon, are arranged every morning, and brought on in the following order :

1. Bills ready for a second reading are read, that they may be re. ferred to committees, and so be put under way. But if, on their being read, no motion is made for commitment, they are then laid on the table in the general file, to be taken up in their just turn.

2. After twelve o'clock, bills ready for it are put on their passage.

3. Reports in possession of the House which offer grounds for a bill, ire to be taken up, that the bill may be ordered in.

4. Bills or other matters before the House, and unfinished on the

preceding day, whether taken up in turn, or on special order, are entitled to be resumed and passed on through their present stage.

5. These matters being despatched, for preparing and expediting business, the general file of bills and other papers is then taken up, and each article of it is brought on according to its seniority, reck. oned by the date of its first introduction to the House. Reports on bills belong to the dates of their bills.

[The arrangement of the business of the Senate is now as follows: 1. Motions previously submitted. 2. Reports of committees previously made.

3. Bills from the House of Representatives, and those introduced on leave, which have been read the first time, are read the second time; and if not referred to a committee, are considered in committee of the whole, and proceeded with as in other cases.

4. After twelve o'clock, engrossed bills of the Senate, and bills of the House of Representatives, on the third reading are put on their passage.

5. If the above are finished before one o'clock, the general file of bills, consisting of those reported from committees on the second read. ing, and those reported from committees after having been referred, are taken up in the order in which they were reported to the Senate by the respective committees.

6. At one o'clock, if no business be pending, or if no motion be made to proceed to other business, the special orders are called, at the head of which stands the unfinished business of the preceding day.7 Vide Rules H. R. 19 to 27 inclusive.

In this way we do not waste our time in debating what shall be taken up: we do one thing at a time, follow up a subject while it is fresh, and till it is done with; clear the House of business, gradatim as it is brought on, and prevent, to a certain degree, its immense accumulation towards the close of the session.

Arrangement, however, can only take hold of matters in possession of the House. New matter may be moved at any time, when no question is before the House. Such are original motions, and reports on bills. Such are, bills from the other House, which are received a

all times, and receive their first reading as soon as the question then before the House is disposed of: and bills brought in on leave, which are read first whenever presented. So, messages from the other House respecting amendments to bills, are taken up as soon as the House is clear of a question, unless they require to be printed for better consi. deration. Orders of the day may be called for, even when another question is before the Housc.



Each House may determinc the rules of its proceedings; punish its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of twothirds, expel a member.-Const. I. 5.

In Parliament, “instances make order," per Speaker Onslow, 2 Hats. 144; but what is done only by one Parliament, cannot be called custom of Parliament: by Prynne, 1 Grey, 52.



The Clerk is to let no journals, records, accounts, or papers, be taken from the table, or out of his custody.--2 Hats. 193, 194.

Mr. Prynne having, at a committee of the whole, amended a mistake in a bill, without order or knowledge of the committee, was reprimanded.—1 Chand 77.

A bill being missing, the House resolved, that a protestation should be made and subscribed by the members, “before Almighty God and this honourable Ilouse, that neither myself nor any other, to my knowledge, have taken away, or do at this present conceal a bill entitled," &c.-5 Grey, 202.

After a bill is engrossed, it is put into the Speaker's hands, and he is not to let any one have it to look into. - Town. col. 209.

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WHEN the Speaker is seated in his chair, every member is to sit in his place.-Scob. 6; 3 Grey, 403.

When any member means to speak, he is to stand up in his place, uncovered, and to address himself, not to the House, or any particular member, but to the Speaker, who calls him by his name, that the House may take notice who it is that speaks.-Scob. 6; D'Ewes, 487, col. 1; 2 Hats. 77; 4 Grey, 66; 8 Grey, 108. But members who are indisposed may be indulged to speak sitting.—3 Hats. 75, 77; 1 Grey, 195.

In Senate, every member, when he speaks, shall address the chair, standing in his place; and when he has finished, shall sit down.Rule 3.

When any member is about to speak in debate, or deliver any mat. ter to the House, he shall rise from his seat, and respectfully address himself to “ Mr. Speaker," and shall confine himself to the question under debate, and avoid personality.--Rule H. R. 28.

When a member stands up to speak, no question is to be put; but he is to be heard, unless the House overrule.—4 Grey, 390; 5 Grey, 6, 143.

If two or more rise to speak nearly together, the Speaker determines who was first up, and calls him

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