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Nevins' (W.) Theodore, his Brother and Sister, or a Summer at Seymour
Charles the Second to the present time.
of the Church of Rome, both in religion and policy ·
Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis, in company with the
late Rep. E. T. Daniell. By Lieutenant T. A. B. SPRATT, R.N., F.R.S., of the Mediterranean Hydrographical Survey ; and Professor Edward Forbes, F.R.S., of King's College, London; and the Geological Survey; late Naturalist to H. M.
Surveying Ship, Beacon. . London: Van Voorst; 2 vols. octavo. That “travellers see strange things,” has been a true proverb from the days of Ulysses and Sindbad to our own, and we have no reason to apprehend that its veracity will ever fail. Though the romantic and the preternatural have been beaten away, step by step, from the habitations of men, and after taking refuge successively among the Hesperides and Hyperboreans, the realms of Prester John and the witch-haunted regions of New England, have been finally frozen to death amid the cold realities of the modern world, still travellers continue to see strange things, marvels of the visible world, wonders of the distant and of the past, which tend to prove to our perfect satisfaction that truth is oftentimes more strange than fiction. The growth of knowledge augments the interest felt in travellers and their discoveries, and the increased facilities of communication minister to both alike. Meanwhile, like the princess in the fairy tale that rode at an even and gentle pace, and yet could not be overtaken by the swiftest horse, mystery, though still pursued, still flies from us, and recedes from us faster, the more perseveringly we approach it.
The volumes whose title stands at the head of our article, relate Vol. III.—JANUARY, 1847.
in a plain, unvarnished manner the history of a tour undertaken during the spring of 1842, in a country the complete investigation of which has been reserved for our own times, and has contributed most valuable additions to the stores of history and science. There are, perhaps, few countries, if we may except the actual sites of the mighty dominions of the ancient world, so interesting to the student of history as the maritime districts of Asia Minor. Nation after nation, empire after empire, has swept over them, and influenced them in various ways, by commerce and by conquest; and we can scarcely be surprised to find monuments of a heterogeneous character corresponding to the various races that have successively held dominion there. Neither should we forget, in endeavouring to estimate the historical interest attaching to the country under consideration, that it was often the battle-field of contending powers, and thereby acquired an importance of which it still preserves most remarkable memorials. The particular district, however, to which the volumes of Messrs. Spratt and Forbes relate, possesses perhaps less of historical association than some of the neighbouring provinces; but the remarkable discoveries of monumental antiquities, originated by Captain Beaufort in the earlier part of the present century, and successfully carried out by Sir C. Fellows in 1838 and 1840, have opened a vast field of knowledge with regard to the social condition of the country at various periods of history, have made no trifling contribution to the sciences of philology and ethnology, and have brought to light several most valuable specimens of ancient art.
The province of Lycia, which is admirably delineated by Lieutenant Hoskyn in a map, given at the close of the second volume, consists chiefly of an oblong promontory abutting from the southern coast of Asia Minor, and measuring about ninety miles from East to West; the extent in the other direction being somewhat less. The portions of Lycia which, so to speak, overlap the continent, are distinguished by the names of Milyas and the Cibyratis. To the East and North East lie Pamphylia and Pisidia, to the North-west Caria, and in the intermediate space a corner of Phrygia straggles down in the direction of the Cibyratic region. The whole country is intersected by mountain ranges, a few of the summits rising. to an elevation of eight or nine thousand feet from the level of the sea, and the majority having the precipitous outlines with acute or tabular summits (in this case often crowned with cities,) which characterize most of the early calcareous formations. Among them are interspersed two or three plains of alluvial origin, and here and there a few volcanic rocks stand as outposts of the great Kataxexauuévn region of southern Phrygia. Among these we must notice a remarkable pseudo-volcano near the south-eastern angle of the country, which our tourists have with the greatest show of probability identified with Chimæra. At Cape Phineka, rather to the westward of this point, commences one of the great mountain chains of which we have spoken. A little inland it diverges, its right branch running off through the country of the Solymi in the direction of the Cilician Taurus, while its western arm reaches to the Xanthus, on the other side of which it re-appears under the classical name of Cragus. These two great arms again throw off branches to the southward, that from the right arm terminates in the Chimæra, and from M. Massicytus at the western extremity a chain extends to the sea, ending abruptly in the picturesque forest of Enium. Between the latter and M. Cragus, runs the river Xanthus, which is, according to our travellers, Hótapos où sudúvumos, and the other name of which, Sirbe, is said to bear a similar meaning in Persian. Not far from its mouth are the remains of the famous city which bears its name, interesting for the twice-wrought act of heroism by which its inhabitants were delivered at the price of life from subjugation by Harpagus and Brutus respectively. This was the head-quarters both of Sir C. Fellows and of the subsequent tourists, and from hence it is that the most valuable remains have been transported. But the energy and perseverance of these travellers was sufficient to carry them through the whole district of Lycia, and thereby enabled them to add considerably to the stores of information amassed by their distinguished predecessor, to confirm his discoveries, to supply his deficiencies, and in some few instances to correct his errors. The occasion of their expedition we will give in their own words :
“H. M. Surveying Ship Beacon' visited the coast of Lycia in the beginning of January, 1842, for the purpose of conveying away the remarkable remains of antiquity discovered at Xanthus by Sir Charles Fellows. Her commander, Captain Graves, had charge of this expedi. tion. During the months of January and February her crew were employed excavating among the ruins of Xanthus, and making preparations for removing the marbles; for which task the ship proved unfitted. The authors were at that time attached to the Beacon'; Lieutenant Spratt as assistant-surveyor, and Mr. Forbes as naturalist. The Rev. Mr. Daniell, attracted by the great interest attached to Lycian scenery and antiquities, joined the expedition as an amateur, when the · Beacon' was at Smyrna on her way to Xanthus. When the ship left Lycia in March, it was supposed her absence would be temporary ;—the interval of her absence presented a favourable opportunity for the completion of an examination of a most interesting country, as yet but partially explored; and Captain Graves, fully entering into the advantages and value of such a research, kindly allowed the authors to remain behind, and unite with the Rev. Mr. Daniell in the undertaking. The travellers proposed to divide their labours according to lines of inquiry with which they were severally best acquainted; Mr. Daniell taking charge of the antiquities, Lieutenant Spratt of the geography and the construction of a detailed map, and Mr. Forbes of the natural history. All three, and pre-eminently Mr. Daniell, were draughtsmen. Thus they hoped to gather the materials for a detailed monograph on the history, civil and