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55. Twenty-one standing committees shall be appointed at the commencement of each session, viz:

A Committee of Elections,
A Committee of Ways and Means,
A Committee of Claims,
A Committee of Commerce,
A Committee on the Public Lands,
A Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads,
A Committee for the District of Columbia,
A Committee on the Judiciary,
A Committee on Revolutionary Claims,

To consist of serez A Committee on Public Expenditures,

members each. A Committee on Private Land Claims, A Committee on Manufactures, A Committee on Agriculture, A Committee on Indian Affairs, A Committee on Military Affairs, A Committee on Naval Affairs, A Committee on Foreign Affairs, A Committee on the Territories, A Committee on Military Pensions, A Committee of Revisal and Unfinished Business, and

To consist of three A Committee of Accounts,

members each 56. It shall be the duty of the Committee of Elections to examine and report upon certificates of election, or other credentials, of the members returned to serve in this House, and to take into their consideration all such petitions, and other matters touching elections and returns, as shall or may be presented, or come into question, and be referred to them by the House.

57. It shall be the duty of the Committee of Ways and Means to take in. to consideration all such reports of the Treasury Department, and all such propositions relative to the revenue, as may be referred to them by the House; to inquire into the state of the public debt or the revenue, and of the expenditure; and to report, from time to time, their opinion thereon; to examine into the state of the several public Departments, and particularly into the laws making appropriations of moneys; and to report whether the moneys have been disbursed conformably with such laws; and, also, to report, from time to time, such provisions and arrangements as may be necessary to add to the economy of the Departments, and the accountability of their ofhicers.

In preparing bills of appropriation for other objects, the Committee of Ways and Means shall not include appropriations for carrying into effect treaties made by the United States; and, where an appropriation bill shall be referred to them, for their consideration, which contains appropriations for carrying a treaty into effect, and for other objects, they shall propose such amendments as shall prevent appropriations for carrying a treaty into effect being included in the same bill with appropriations for other objects.

56. It shall be the duty of the Committee of Claims to take into consideration all such petitions and matters or things touching claims and demands on the United States as shall be presented, or shall or may come in question, and be referred to them by the House; and to report their opinion thereupon, together with such propositions for relief therein as to them shall seem expedient.

59. It shall be the duty of the Committee of Commerce to take into consideration all such petitions and matters or things touching the commerce of the United States, as shall be presented, or shall or may come into question, and be referred to them by the House; and to report, from time to time, their opinion thereon.

60. It shall be the duty of the Committee on the Public Lands to take into consideration all such petitions and matters or things respecting the lands of the United States, as shall be presented, or shall or may come in question, and be referred to them by the House; and to report their opinion thereupon, together with such propositions for relief therein as to them shall seem expedient

61. It shall be the duty of the Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads to take into consideration all such petitions and matters or things touching the post office and post roads, as shall be presented, or may come in question, and be referred to them by the House; and to report their opinion thereupon, together with such propositions relative thereto as to them shall seem expedient.

62. It shall be the duty of the Committee for the District of Columbia to take into consideration all such petitions, matters, or things, touching the said District, as shall be presented, or shall come in question, and be referred to them by the House; and to report their opinion thereon, together with such propositions relative thereto as to them shall seem expedient.

63. It shall be the duty of the Comunittee on the Judiciary to take into consideration such petitions and matters or things touching judicial proceed. ings as shall be presented, or may come in question, and be referred to them by the House; and to report their opinion thereupon, together with such propositions relative thereto as to them shall seem expedient.

64. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Revolutionary Claims to take into consideration all such petitions and matters or things touching claims and demands originating in the Revolutionary war, or arising therefrom, as shall be presented, or shall or may come in question, and be referred to them by the House; and to report their opinion thereupon, together with such propositions for relief therein as to them shall seem expedient.

65. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Public Expenditures to examine into the state of the several public Departments, and particularly into laws making appropriations of moneys, and to report whether the moneys have been disbursed conformably with such laws; and, also, to report, from time to time, such provisions and arrangements as may be necessary to add to the economy of the Departments and the accountability of their officers.

66. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Private Land Claims to take into consideration all claims to land which may be referred to them, or shall or may come in question; and to report their opinion thereupon, together with such propositions for relief therein as to them shall seem expedient.

67. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Military Affairs to take into consideration all subjects relating to the military establishment and public defence, which may be referred to them by the House, and to report their opinion thereupon; and, also, to report, from time to time, such measures as may contribute to economy and accountability in the said establish. ment.

68. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Naval Affairs to take into consideration all matters which concern the naval establishment, and which shall be referred to them by the House, and to report their opinion there.

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upon; and, also, to report, from time to time, such measures as may coutribute to economy and accountability in the said establishment.

69. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Foreign Affairs to take into consideration all matters which concern the relations of the United States with foreign nations, and which shall be referred to them by the House, and to report their opinion on the same.

70. It shall be the duty of the Committee on the Territories to examine into their legislative, civil, and criminal proceedings, and to devise and report to the House such means as, in their opinion, may be necessary to secure the rights and privileges of residents and non-residents.

71. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Military Pensions to take into consideration all such matters respecting pensions for military services, and, also, all such matters respecting invalid pensions, as shall be referred to them by the House.

72. It shall be the duty of the Committee of Revisal and Unfinished Business to examine and report what laws have expired, or are near expiring, and require to be revived or further continued; also, to examine and report, from the Journal of the last session, all such matters as were then depending and undetermined.

73. It shall be the duty of the Committee of Accounts to superintend and control the expenditures of the contingent fund of the House of Representatives, and to audit and settle all accounts which may be charged thereon; and, also, to audit the accounts of the members for their travel to and from the Seat of Government, and their attendance in the House.

74. Six additional standing committees shall be appointed at the commencement of the first session in each Congress, whose duty shall continue until the first session of the ensuing Congress. 1. A committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures

as relate to the Department of State; 2. A committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures

as relate to the Treasury Department; 3. A committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Department of War;

To consist of three 4. A committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures members each.

as relate to the Department of the Navy; zidu 5. A committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures

as relate to the Post Office; and 6. A committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures ag relate to the Public Buildings.

75. It shall be the duty of the said committees to examine into the state of the accounts and expenditures respectively submitted to them, and to inquire and report particularly

Whether the expenditures of the respective Departments are justified by law:

Whether the claims from time to time satisfied and discharged by the respective Departments are supported by sufficient vouchers, establishing their justness both as to their character and amount:

Whether such claims have been discharged out of funds appropriated therefor; and whether all moneys have been disbursed in conformity with appropriation laws: and

Whether any, and what, provisions are necessary to be adopted, to provide more perfectly for the proper application of the public moneys, and to secure the Government from demands unjust in their character, or extravagant in their amount.

And it shall be, moreover, the duty of the said committees to report, from time to time, whether any, and what, retrenchment can be made in the expenditures of the several Departments, without detriment to the public service; whether any, and what, abuses at any time exist in the failure to enforce the payment of moneys which may be due to the United States from public defaulters or others; and to report, from time to time, such provisions and arrangements as may be necessary to add to the economy of the several Departments, and the accountability of their officers.

76. The several standing committees of the House shall have leave to report by bill or otherwise.

77. No committee shall sit during the sitting of the House, without special leave.

78. The Clerk of the House shall take an oath for the true and faithful discharge of the duties of his office, to the best of his knowledge and abilities, and shall be deemed to continue in office until another be appointed.

79. It shall be the duty of the Clerk to make, and cause to be printed and delivered to each member, at the commencement of every session of Congress, a list of the reports which it is the duty of any officer or Department of the Government to make to Congress; referring to the act or resolution, and page of the volume of the Laws or Journal in which it may be contained; and placing under the name of each officer the list of reports required of him to be made, and the time when the report may he expected.

80. It shall be the duty of the Clerk of the House, at the end of each session, to send a printed copy of the Journals thereof to the Executive, and to each branch of the Legislature of every State.

81. All questions of order shall be noted by the Clerk, with the decision, and put together at the end of the Journal of every session.

82. Whenever confidential communications are received from the President of the United States, the House shall be cleared of all persons, except the members, Clerk, Sergeant-at-Arms, and Doorkeeper, and so continue during the reading of such communications, and (unless otherwise directed hy the House) during all debates and proceedings to be had thereon. And when the Speaker, or any other member, shall inform the House that he has communications to make, which he conceives ought to be kept secret, the House shall, in like manner, be cleared till the communication be made; the House shall then determine whether the matter communicated requires seçrecy or not, and take order accordingly.

83. The Sergeant-at-Arms and the Doorkeeper shall be sworn to keep the secrets of the House.

84. All questions relating to the priority of business to be acted on shall be decided without debate.

Of Bills. 85. Every bill shall be introduced by motion for leave, or by an order of the House, on the report of the committee; and, in either case, a committee to prepare the same shall be appointed. In cases of a general nature, one day's notice at least shall be given of the motion to bring in a bill; and every such motion may be committed.

86. Every bill shall receive three several readings in the House previous to its passage; and all bills shall be despatched in order as they were introduced, unless where the House shall direct otherwise; but no bill shall be twice read on the same day, without special order of the House.

87. The first reading of a bill shall be for information; and, if opposition be made to it, the question shall be, “Shall this bill be rejected?" If no opposition be marle, or if the question to reject be negatived, the bill shall go to its second reading without a question.

88. Upon the second reading of a bill, the Speaker shall state it as ready for commitment or engrossment; and, if committed, then a question shall be whether to a select or standing committee, or to a Committee of the Whole House: if to a Committee of the Whole House, the House shall determine on what day. But, if the bill be ordered to be engrossed, the House shall appoint the day when it shall be read the third time.

89. Not more than three bills, originating in the House, shall be commit. ted to the same Committee of the Whole; and such bills shall be analogous in their nature, which analogy shall be determined by the Speaker.

90. After commitment and report thereof to the House, or at any time before its passage, a bill may be recommitted.

91. All bills ordered to be engrossed shall be executed in a fair round hand.

92. No amendment, by way of rider, shall be received to any bill on its third reading.

93. When a bill shall pass, it shall be certified by the Clerk, noting the day of its passage at the foot thereof.

Of Committees of the Whole House.

94. It shall be a standing order of the day, throughout the session, for the House to resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union.

95. In forming a committee of the Whole House, the Speaker shall leave his chair, and a Chairman, to preside in committee, shall be appointed by the Speaker.

96. Upon bills committed to a Committee of the Whole House, the bill shall be first read throughout by the Clerk, and then again read and debated by clauses, leaving the preamble to be last considered; the body of the bill shall not be defaced or interlined, but all amendments, noting the page and line, shall be duly entered by the Clerk on a separate paper, as the same shall be agreed to by the committee, and so reported to the House. After report, the bill shall again be subject to be debated and amended by clauses, before a question to engross it be taken.

97. All amendments made to an original motion in committee shall be incorporated with the motion, and so reported.

98. All amendments made to a report committed to a Committec of the Whole House shall be noted and reported, as in case of bills.

99. All questions, whether in committee or in the House, shall be propounded in the order in which they were moved, except that, in filling up blanks, the largest sum and longest time shall be first put.

100. No motion or proposition for a tax or charge upon the people shall be discussed the day in which it is made or offered,

and every such proposition shall receive its first discussion in a Committee of the Whole House.

101. No sum or quantum of tax or duty, voted by a Committee of the Whole House, shall be increased in the House until the motion or proposi.

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