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constitute a general fund the interest of which shall be applied annually by the council of the nation to such purposes as they may deem best for the general interest of their people. The sum of fifty thousand dollars to constitute an orphans' fund the annual income of which shall be expended towards the support and education of such orphan children as are destitute of the means of subsistence. The sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars in addition to the present school fund of the nation shall constitute a permanent school fund, the interest of which shall be applied annually by the council of the nation for the support of common schools and such a literary institution of a higher order as may be established in the Indian country. And in order to secure as far as possible the true and beneficial application of the orphans' and school fund the council of the Cherokee nation when required by the President of the United States shall make a report of the application of those funds and he shall at all times have the right if the funds have been misapplied to correct any abuses of them and direct the manner of their application for the purposes for which they were intended. The council of the nation may by giving two years' notice of their intention withdraw their funds by and with the consent of the President and Senate of the United States, and invest them in such manner as they may deem most proper for their interest. The United States also agree and stipulate to pay the just debts and claims against the Cherokee nation held by the citizens of the same and also the just claims of citizens of the United States for services rendered to the nation and the sum of sixty thousand dollars is appropriated for this purpose but no claims against individual persons of the nation shall be allowed and paid by the nation The sum of three hundred thousand dollars is hereby set apart to pay and liquidate the just claims of the Cherokees upon the United States for spoliations of every kind, that have not been already satisfied under former treaties.

Article 11. The Cherokee nation of Indians believing it will be for Commutation the interest of their people to have all their funds and annuities under of sch their own direction and future disposition hereby agree to commute their permanent annuity of ten thousand dollars for the sum of two hundred and fourteen thousand dollars, the same to be invested by the President of the United States as a part of the general fund of the nation; and their present school fund amounting to about fifty thousand dollars shall constitute a part of the permanent school fund of the nation.

ARTICLE 12. Those individuals and families of the Cherokee nation Provision rethat are averse to a removal to the Cherokee country west of the Mis- specting Cherosissippi and are desirous to become citizens of the States where they kees averse to

removal, reside and such as are qualified to take care of themselves and their property shall be entitled to receive their due portion of all the personal benefits accruing under this treaty for their claims, improvements and per capita; as soon as an appropriation is made for this treaty.

Such heads of Cherokee families as are desirous to reside within the States of No. Carolina Tennessee and Alabama subject to the laws of the same; and who are qualified or calculated to become useful citizens shall be entitled, on the certificate of the commissioners to a pre-emption right to one hundred and sixty acres of land or one quarter section at the minimum Congress price; so as to include the present buildings or improvements of those who now reside there and such as do not live there at present shall be permitted to locate within two years any lands not already occupied by persons entitled to pre-emption privilege under this treaty and if two or more families live on the same quarter section and they desire to continue their residence in these States and are qualified as above specified they shall, on receiving their pre-emption

school fund.

claims for for mer reservations.

certificate be entitled to the right of pre-emption to such lands as they may select not already taken by any person entitled to them under this treaty.

It is stipulated and agreed between the United States and the Cherokee people that John Ross James Starr George Hicks John Gunter George Chambers John Ridge Elias Boudinot George Sanders John Martin William Rogers Roman Nose Situwake and John Timpson shall be a committee on the part of the Cherokees to recommend such persons for the privilege of pre-einption rights as may be deemed entitled to the same under the above articles and to select the missionaries who shall be removed with the nation; and that they be hereby fully empowered and authorized to transact all business on the part of the Indians which may arise in carrying into effect the provisions of this treaty and settling the same with the United States. If any of the persons above mentioned should decline acting or be removed by death; the vacancies shall be filled by the committee themselves.

It is also understood and agreed that the sum of one hundred thousand dollars shall be expended by the commissioners in such manner as the committee deem best for the benefit of the poorer class of Cherokees as shall remove west or have removed west and are entitled to the benefits of this treaty. The same to be delivered at the Cherokee agency west as soon after the removal of the nation as possible.

Article 13. In order to make a final settlement of all the claims of the Cherokees for reservations granted under former treaties to any individuals belonging to the nation by the United States it is therefore hereby stipulated and agreed and expressly understood by the parties to this treaty—that all the Cherokees and their heirs and descendants to whom any reservations have been made under any former treaties with the United States, and who have not sold or conveyed the same by deed or otherwise and who in the opinion of the commissioners have complied with the terms on which the reservations were granted as far as practicable in the several cases; and which reservations have since been sold by the United States shall constitute a just claim against the United States and the original reservee or their heirs or descendants shall be entitled to receive the present value thereof from the United States as unimproved lands. And all such reservations as have not been sold by the United States and where the terms on which the reservations were made in the opinion of the commissioners have been complied with as far as practicable, they or their heirs or descendants shall be entitled to the same. They are hereby granted and confirmed to them and also all persons who were entitled to reservations under the treaty of 1817 and who as far as practicable in the opinion of the commissioners, have complied with the stipulations of said treaty, although by the treaty of 1819 such reservations were included in the unceded lands belonging to the Cherokee nation are hereby confirmed to them and they shall be entitled to receive a grant for the same. And all such reservees as were obliged by the laws of the States in which their reservations were situated, to abandon the same or purchase them from the States shall be deemed to have a just claim against the United States for the amount by them paid to the States with interest thereon for such reservations and if obliged to abandon the same, to the present value of such reserva. tions as unimproved lands but in all cases where the reservees have sold their reservations or any part thereof and conveyed the same by deed or otherwise and have been paid for the same, they their heirs or descendants or their assigns shall not be considered as having any claims upon the United States under this article of the treaty nor be entitled to receive any compensation for the lands thus disposed of. It is expressly understood by the parties to this treaty that the amount to be allowed for

Ante, p. 156.

Ante, p. 195.

years.

reservations under this article shall not be deducted out of the consideration money allowed to the Cherokees for their claims for spolia. tions and the cession of their lands; but the same is to be paid for independently by the United States as it is only a just fulfilment of former treaty stipulations.

Article 14. It is also agreed on the part of the United States that Pensions to such warriors of the Cherokee nation as were engaged on the side of certain war.

riors. the United States in the late war with Great Britain and the southern tribes of Indians, and who were wounded in such service shall be enti. tled to such pensions as shall be allowed them by the Congress of the United States to commence from the period of their disability.

ARTICLE 15. It is expressly understood and agreed between the par. Funds to be ties to this treaty that after deducting the amount which shall be actu. divided among

the Indians. ally expended for the payment for improvements, ferries, claims, for spoliations, removal subsistence and debts and claims upon the Cherokee nation and for the additional quantity of lands and goods for the poorer class of Cherokees and the several sums to be invested for the general national funds; provided for in the several articles of this treaty the balance whatever the same inay be shall be equally divided between all the people belonging to the Cherokee nation east according to the census just completed; and such Cherokees as have removed west since June 1833 who are entitled by the terms of their enrolment and removal to all the benefits resulting from the final treaty between the United States and the Cherokees east they shall also be paid for their improvements according to their approved value before their removal where fraud has not already been shown in their valuation.

Article 16. It is hereby stipulated and agreed by the Cherokees Indians to rethat they shall remove to their new homes within two years from the move in two ratification of this treaty and that during such time the United States shall protect and defend them in their possessions and property and free use and occupation of the same and such persons as have been dispossessed of their improvements and houses; and for which no grant has actually issued previously to the enactment of the law of the State of Georgia, of December 1835 to regulate Indian occupancy shall be again put in possession and placed in the same situation and condition, in reference to the laws of the State of Georgia, as the Indians that have not been dispossessed ; and if this is not done, and the people are left unprotected, then the United States shall pay the several Cherokees for their losses and damages sustained by them in consequence thereof. And it is also stipulated and agreed that the public buildings and improvements on which they are situated at New Echota for which no grant has been actually made previous to the passage of the above recited act if not occupied by the Cherokee people shall be reserved for the public and free use of the United States and the Cherokee Indians for the purpose of settling and closing all the Indian business arising under this treaty between the commissioners of claims and the Indians.

The United States, and the several States interested in the Cherokee lands, shall immediately proceed to survey the lands ceded by this treaty; but it is expressly agreed and understood between the parties that the agency buildings and that tract of land surveyed and laid off for the use of Colonel R. J. Meigs Indian agent or heretofore enjoyed and occupied by his successors in office shall continue subject to the use and occupancy of the United States, or such agent as may be engaged specially superintending the removal of the tribe.

Article 17. All the claims arising under or provided for in the Commissioners several articles of this treaty, shall be examined and adjudicated by Gen to settle claims U. S. to make advances for provisions, clothing, &c.

W'm Carroll and John F. Schermerhorn or by such commissioners as shall be appointed by the President of the United States for that pur. pose and their decision shall be final and on their certificate of the amount due tbe several claimants they shall be paid by the United States. All stipulations in former treaties which have not been superseded or annulled by this shall continue in full force and virtue.

ARTICLE 18. Whereas in consequence of the unsettled affairs of the Cherokee people and the early frosts, their crops are insufficient to support their families and great distress is likely to ensue and whereas the nation will not, until after their removal be able advantageously to expend the income of the permanent funds of the nation it is therefore agreed that the annuities of the nation which may accrue under this treaty for two years, the time fixed for their removal shall be expended in provision and clothing for the benefit of the poorer class of the nation; and the United States hereby agree to advance the same for that purpose as soon after the ratification of this treaty as an appropriation for the same shall be made. It is however not intended in this article to interfere with that part of the annuities due the Cherokees west by the treaty of 1819.

Article 19. This treaty after the same shall be ratified by the President and Senate of the United States shall be obligatory on the contracting parties.

Ante, p. 195. Treaty binding when rarified.

In testimony whereof the commissioners and the chiefs head men

and people whose names are hereunto annexed being duly authorized by the people in general council assembled have affixed their hands and seals for themselves and in behalf of the Cherokee nation.

I have examined the foregoing treaty and although not present when

it was made, I approve its provisions generally, and therefore
sign it.

WM. CARROLL.
J. F. SCHERMERHORN.

Major Ridge,

Te-gah-e-ske,
James Foster,

Robert Rogers,
Tesa-ta-esky,

John Gunter,
Charles Moore,

John A. Bell,
George Chambers,

Charles F. Foreman,
Tah-yeske,

William Rogers,
Archilla Smith,

George W. Adair,
Andrew Ross,

Elias Boudinot,
William Lassley,

James Starr,
Cae-te-hee,

Jesse Half-breed.
Signed and sealed in presence of Western B. Thomas, Secry. Ben. F. Currey,
Special Agent. M. Wolfe Baternan, 1st Lt. 6th U. S. A. inf., Disbg. Agent. Jno.
L. Hooper, Lt. 4th inf. C. M. Hitchcock, M. D. Assist. Surg. U. S. A. G. W. Cur.
rey. Wm. H. Underwood. Cornelius D. Terhune. John W. H. Underwood.

To tho Indian names are subjoined a mark and seal.

In compliance with instructions of the council at New Echota we sign this treaty.

STAND WATIE,

JOHN RIDGE.
March 1, 1836.

WITNESSES.-Elbert Herring. Alexander H. Everett. John Robb. D. Kurtz. Wm. Y. Hansell. Samuel J. Potts. Jno. Litle. S. Rockwell.

The following article was adopted as a supplemental article to the treaty by a unanimous vote of the committee and ordered to be attached to and considered as part of this treaty.

United States.

Article 20. The United States do also hereby guaranty the payment Payment of of all unpaid just claims upon the Indians, without expense to them, out just claims gua.

rantied by the of the proper funds of the United States, for the settlement of which a cession or cessions of land has or have been heretofore made by the Indians, in Georgia. Provided the United States or the State of Geor. gia has derived benefit from the said cession or cessions of land without having made payment to the Indians therefor. It is hereby however further agreed and understood that if the Senate of the United States dissapprove of this article it inay be rejected without impairing any other provision of this treaty, or affecting the Indians in any manner whatever.

A. MCCOY, Clerk Committee.
W. B. THOMAS, Secry.

In compliance with the unanimous request of the Committee of the Cherokee nation in general council assembled, it is consented and agreed by the commissioner on the part of the United States that the foregoing shall be added as a supplemental article is the treaty under the express condition and stipulation that if the President or Senate of the United States disapprove of this article it may be rejected without impairing any other provision of this treaty, or affecting the Indians in any manner whatever.

J. F. SCHERMERHORN.

Whereas the western Cherokees have appointed a delegation to visit Dec. 31, 1835. the eastern Cherokees to assure them of the friendly disposition of their people and their desire that the nation should again be united as one people and to urge upon them the expediency of accepting the overtures of the Government; and that, on their removal they may be assured of a hearty welcome and an equal participation with them in all the benefits and privileges of the Cherokee country west and the undersigned two of said delegation being the only delegates in the eastern nation from the west at the signing and sealing of the treaty lately concluded at New Echota between their eastern brethren and the United States; and having fully understood the provisions of the same they agree to it in behalf of the western Cherokees But it is expressly understood that nothing in this treaty shall affect any claims of the western Cherokees on the United States.

In testimony whereof, we have, this 31st day of December, 1835, hereunto set our hands and seals.

JAMES ROGERS,

JOHN SMITH,
Delegates from the western Cherokees.

Test : Ben. F. Currey, Special Agent. M. W. Bateman, First Lieut. 6th Infantry Jno. L. Hooper, Lieut. 4th Infy. Elias Boudinot.

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