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pewas. Sept. 29, 1817 . . . . . . .

Creeks. Jan. 22, 1818 . . . . . . . .

Grand Pawnees. June 18, 1818. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pitavirate Noisy Pawnees. June 19, 1818

Pawnee Republic. June 20, 1818.......

Pawnee Marhars. June 22, 1818 . . . .

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Quapaws. Aug. 24, 1818. . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Wyandots, Senecas, Shawnees, and Ottawas.

Wyandots. Sept. 20, 1818......

Peorias, Kaskaskias, Mitchigamias, Cahokias, and Tamarois.

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Great and Little Osages. Sept. 25, 1818. . . . . . . . .

Pottawatimies. Oct. 2, 1818...

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Sept. 17, 1818. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sept. 25, 1818.

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Weas. Oct. 2, 1818 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Delawares. Oct. 3, 1818 . . . . . . . .

Miamies. Oct. 6, 1818..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Chickasaws. Oct. 19, 1818 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cherokees. Feb. 27, 1819 . . . . .

Kickapoos. July 30, 1819.....

Kickapoos. Aug. 30, 1819 . . . .

Chippewas. Sept. 24, 1819......

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Chippewas. June 16, 1820...... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Ottawas and Chippewas. July 6, 1820.....

Kickapoos. July 19, 1820 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Weas. Aug. 11, 1820.........

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Convention with the Kickapoos. Sept. 5, 1820 ....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Treaty with the Choctaws. Oct. 18, 1820....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Creeks. Jan. 8, 1821 .........

Articles of agreement with the Creeks. Jan. 8, 1821. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Treaty with the Ottawas, Chippewas, and Pottawatimies. Aug. 29, 1821 ....... - - - - - - - - - - - -

Great and Little Osages. Aug. 31, 1822. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - -

Sacs and Foxes. Sept. 3, 1822 ........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Indians in Florida. Sept. 18, 1823. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Cherokees. Oct. 24, 1804. . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Sacs and Foxes. Aug. 4, 1824 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - -

Iowas. Aug. 4, 1824. . . . . . . . . . . .

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Treaty with the Quapaws. Now. 15, 1824.............. -------------- ---------- -------- 3.
Convention with the Choctaws. Jan. 20, 1825................ -------------------------- 234
Creeks. Feb. 12, 1825---------------------------------............ 237
Treaty with the Great and Little Osages. June 2, 1825...... ---------------------------- 240
Kansas. June 3, 1825................................................. 244
Poncars June 9, 1825................................................ 247
Teetons, Yanctons, and Yanctonies bands of the Sioux. June 22, 1825....... 250
Siounes and Ogallalas. July 5, 1825.................................... 252
Chayennes. July 6, 1825 ---------------------------------------------. 255
Minnetarees. July 30, 1825..... --------------------------------....... 261
Hunkpapas band of the Sioux. July 16, 1825............................. 257
Ricaras. July 18, 1825................................................ 259
Mandans. July 30, 1825.............................................. 264
Crows. Aug. 4, 1825................................................. 266
Great and Little Osages. Aug. 10, 1825................................. 268
Kansas. Aug. 16, 1825 ............................................... 270
Sioux and Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, Menomonies, Iowas, Sioux, Winnebagoes,
and a portion of the Ottawas, Chippewas, and Pottawatimies. Aug. 19,
1525 ---------------------------------------------------------. 272
Ottoes and Missourias. Sept. 26, 1825...... ------------ ----------------- 277
Pawnees. Sept. 30, 1825........... --------------------- --------------- 279
Mahas. Oct. 6, 1825. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 232
Convention with the Shawnees. Nov. 7, 1825................. -------------------------- 2S4
Treaty with the Creeks. Jan. 24, 1826 ................................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2S6
Supplementary article to the treaty with the Creeks of Jan. 24, 1826. March 31, 1826....... 289
Treaty with the Chippewas. Aug. 5, 1826 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - 290
Pottawatimies. Oct 16, 1826............................... . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Miamies. Oct. 23, 1826 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .------------- 300
Chippewas, Menomonies, and Winnebagoes. Aug. 11, 1827 .......... . . . . . . 303
Pottawatinies. Sept. 19, 1827..................................-------- 305
Articles of agreement with the Creeks. Nov. 15, 1827 .......... --------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 307
Treaty with the Eel-River Miamies. Feb. 11, 1828..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 309
Convention with the Cherokees. May 6, 1828. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Articles of agreement with the Winnebagoes, Pottawatimies, Chippewas, and Ottawas. Aug.
25, 1828. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 315
Treaty with the Pottawatimies. Sept. 20, 1828 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawatimies. July 29, 1829. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Winnebagoes. Aug. 1, 1829 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Articles of agreement with the Delawares. Aug. 3, 1829................................. 326
Supplementary article to the treaty with the Delawares of Oct. 3, 1818. Sept. 24, 1829....... 327
Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, the Medawah-Kanton, Wahpacoota, Wahpeton, and Sissetong
bands of Sioux, Omahas, Iowas, Ottoes, and Missourias. July 15, 1830 328
Choctaws. Sept. 27, 1830 ......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 333
Articles of agreement with the Menomonies. Feb. 8, 1831 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Convention with the Senecas. Feb. 28, 1831. ................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Senecas and Shawnees. July 20, 1831 ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Shawnees. Aug. 8, 1831 .............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 355

Ottawas. Aug. 30, 1831............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 359

Page Convention with the Wyandots. Jan. 19, 1832 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ 364

Treaty with the Creeks. March 24, 1832 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ 366
Seminoles. May 9, 1833. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. 368
Winnebagoes. Sept. 15, 1833. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. . . . . . . . . . 370
Sacs and Foxes. Sept. 21, 1833 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................... 374
Appalachicolas, Oct. 11, 1832 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... . . . . . . 377
Pottawatimies. Oct. 20, 1839 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................ 378
Chickasaws. Oct. 20, 1833. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. . 381
Articles supplementary to, and explanatory of the treaty with the Chickasaws of Oct. 20, 1832.
Oct. 22, 1832 -----------. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... 388
Treaty with the Kickapoos. Oct. 24, 1833. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....................... - - - - - - - - 391
Supplemental article to the treaty with the Kickapoos of Oct. 24, 1832. Nov. 26, 1832 ....... 393
Treaty with the Pottawatimies. Oct. 26, 1833. ......................................... 394
Shawnees and Delawares. Oct. 26, 1832.......................... ....... 397
Pottawatimies. Oct. 27, 1832 ...... • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
Kaskaskias and Peorias. Oct. 27, 1832............... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 403
Menomonies. Oct. 27, 1832. . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Piankeshaws and Weas. Oct. 29, 1832 ... . . . . . . . ............. - - - - - - - . . . . 410
Articles of agreement with the Senecas and Shawnees. Dec. 29, 1832 ..................... 411
Cherokees. Feb. 14, 1833 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................ 414
Creeks. Feb. 14, 1833 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Treaty with the Ottawas. Feb.18, 1833 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Seminoles. March 28, 1833 ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Articles of agreement with the Quapaws. May 13, 1833. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Treaty with the Appalachicolas. June 18, 1833. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Convention with the Ottoes and Missourias. Sept. 21, 1833. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Treaty with the Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawatimies. Sept. 26, 1833. .................. 431
Convention with the Pawnees. Oct. 9, 1833. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

Supplementary articles to the treaty with the Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawatimies of Sept. 26, 1833. Sept. 27, 1833 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 442

Convention with the Chickasaws. May 24, 1834 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Treaty with the Miamies. Oct. 23, 1834...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 Pottawatimies. Dec. 4, 1834. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Pottawatimies. Dec. 10, 1834. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Pottawatimies. Dec. 16, 1834 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. . . 468 Pottawatimies. Dec. 17, 1834 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 Caddoes. July 1, 1835.......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . 470

Camanches and Witchetaws. Aug. 24, 1835.............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 474
Cherokees. Dec. 29, 1835............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ..... 478

Supplementary articles to the treaty with the Cherokees of Dec. 29, 1835. March 1, 1836..... 488 Treaty with the Pottawatimies. March 26, 1836. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 Ottawas and Chippewas. March 28, 1836 ......... - - - - - - • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 Pottawatimies. March 29, 1836. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............... 498 Pottawatimies. April 11, 1836. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................ 499 Pottawatimies. April 22, 1836. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. . 500 Pottawatimies. April 22, 1836......................................... 501 Wyandots. April 23, 1836................ ........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 502

Treaty with the Saganaw tribe of Chippewas. Jan. 14, 1837....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - * * * * 528

Pottawatimies. Feb. 11, 1837.................... - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532

Kioways, Ka-ta-kas, and Ta-wa-ka-ros. May 26, 1837..................... 533

Chippewas. July 29, 1837. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536

Sioux. Sept. 29, 1837 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538

Sacs and Foxes. Oct. 21, 1837...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540

Yancton tribe of Sioux. Oct. 21, 1837 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542

Sacs and Foxes. Oct. 21, 1837......................................... 543

Winnebagoes. Nov. 1, 1837 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544

Iowas. Nov. 23, 1837 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547

Saganaw tribe of Chippewas. Dec. 20, 1837.............................. 547

New York Indians. Jan. 15, 1838 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550

Supplemental article to the treaty with the New York Indians of Jan. 15, 1838. Feb. 13, 1838. 561

Treaty with the Chippewas of Saganaw. Jan. 23, 1838.......................... . . . . . . . . 565

First Christian and Orchard parties of Oneidas. Feb. 3, 1838 ....... . . . . . . . 566

Iowas. Oct. 19, 1838 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568

Miamies. Nov. 6, 1838................................................ 569

Creeks. Nov. 23, 1838 ............ ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574

Great and Little Osages. Jan. 11, 1839........................... . . . . . . . 576

Supplementary articles to certain treaties with the Saganaw tribe of Chippewas. Feb. 7, 1839 . 578

Treaty with the Stockbridges and Munsees. Sept. 3, 1839 ................................ 580

Miamies. Nov. 28, 1840.................................... . . . . . . . . . . . 582

Senecas. May 20, 1842................................................ 586

Chippewas. Oct. 4, 1842............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591

Sacs and Foxes. Oct. 11, 1842......................................... 596

INDIAN TREATIES.

The editor of this work has considered it obligatory upon him to exhibit, as preliminary matter to the treaties between the United States and the Indian tribes, the general principles which have been recognised by the Supreme Court of the United States in relation to the Indian tribes, the Indian title to the lands occupied by them, and the effect of treaties with them upon their claims to these lands, or the claims of others under Indian

tS. so the case of Johnson and Graham's Lessee v. William M'Intosh, 8 Wheaton's Reports, 543; 5 Condensed Reports, 515, Mr. Chief Justice Marshall, who delivered the opinion of the Court, said: The plaintiffs in this cause claim the land, in their declaration mentioned, under two grants, purporting to be made, the first in 1773, and the last in 1775, by the chiefs of certain Indian tribes, constituting the Illinois and the Piankeshaw nations; and the question is, whether this title can be recognised in the courts of the United States? The facts, as stated in the case agreed, show the authority of the chiefs who executed this conveyance, so far as it could be given by their own people; and likewise show, that the particular tribes for whom these chiefs acted were in rightful possession of the land they sold. The inquiry, therefore, is, in a great measure, confined to the power of Indians to give, and of private individuals to receive, a title which can be sustained in the courts of this country. As the right of society, to prescribe those rules by which property may be acquired and preserved, is not and cannot be drawn into question; as the . to lands, especially, is and must be admitted to depend entirely on the law of the nation in which they lie; it will be necessary, in pursuing this inquiry, to examine, not singly, those principles of abstract justice, which the Creator of all things has impressed on the mind of his creature man, and which are admitted to regulate, in a great degree, the rights of civilized nations, whose perfect independence is acknowledged; but those principles also which our own government has adopted in the particular case, and given us as the rule for our decision. On the discovery of this immense continent, the great nations of Europe were eager to appropriate to themselves so .. it as they could respectively acquire. Its vast extent offered an ample field to the ambition and enterprise of all; and the character and religion of its inhabitants afforded an apology for considering them as a people over whom the superior genius of Europe might claim an ascendency. The potentates of the old world found no difficulty in convincing themselves that they made ample compensation to the inhabitants of the new, by bestowing on them civilization and Christianity, in exchange for unlimited independence. But, as they were all in pursuit of nearly the same object, it was neces. in order to avoid conflicting settlements, and consequent war with each other, to establish a principle, which all should acknowledge as the law by which the right of acquisition, which they all asserted, should be regulated as between themselves. This principle was, that discover gave title to the government by whose subjects, or by whose authority, it was made, against all other European governments, which title might be consummated by possession. l

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