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were a translation of Tacitus, which is in a diffuse style, country and his own ambitious views had been strongly inand is a somewhat loose and inaccurate performance; the sisted on. Mary howerer adopted her brother's suggestions, Lives of Fielding (whose works he edited), Johnson, and and agreed to return to Scotland without that armed force Garrick; and upwards of twenty dramatic pieces. The which the Roman Catholic envoy had represented as wholly most esteemed of his dramatic pieces are the comedies of indispensable. The lord James immediately communicated *The Way to keep him,' 'All in the wrong,' Know your the result of the conference to Throckmorton, the English own Mind,' and . Three Weeks after Marriage.' His plays, ambassador, but in a secret manner; and, contrary to Mary's poems, and miscellanies, in 7 vols. 8vo., edited by himself, express wishes, in returning home he waited on Elizabeth, were published in 1786.

to strengthen, no doubt, the friendship which subsisted beMURRAY RIVER. [AUSTRALIA.]

tween her and the reformers in Scotland, and no doubt also MURRAY, W. (MANSFIELD, Lord.]

to acquaint her with the determination which Mary had MURRAY, JAMES STUART, EARL OF, known | been induced to form. It is observable that the letters from in Scottish history by the name of the 'Good Regent,' was Throckmorton at this period strongly urge upon Elizabeth the eldest of three illegitimate brothers, children of King to secure the lord James's regard; and from one of them it James V. His mother was the Lady Margaret, daughter of may even be inferred that Elizabeth had done him some John lord Erskine of Mar, a nobleman of rank and in- good turn,' as Throckmorton expresses it, for this very iluence at court, and one of those to whom the custody of end. the king, when an infant, had been committed.

The lord James returned to Edinburgh in the beginning He is supposed to have been born about the year 15.33, of June, 1561, having been absent on his mission about two but the precise time of his birth is not known, nor any par- months. In ten weeks after, Mary embarked from Calais, ticulars of his early life, except only this, that when but a and after a voyage of five days arrived in the port of Leith. few years old, his father made him prior of St. Andrew's, On her arrival she found the prior among the first men in with all the revenues of that rich benefice. He after the kingdom; and he then naturally became her prime wards acquired also the priory of Pitten weem, and, after minister, confidant, and adviser. In this situation he acted obtaining a dispensation from the holy see to hold three be- with great tact and judgment, and at the same time with nelices together, that of Mascon in France in commendam; much tenderness to the queen. He protected her in the and in 1514 he took the oath of fealty to Pope Paul III. In exercise of her own religion, and in return obtained from her 1548 however he gave proof of that intrepidity and military a proclamation highly favourable to the reformers: he regenius for which he was afterwards so distinguished. This strained the turbulence of the borders, moderated the zeal was on occasion of the descent into Scotland by the lords of the people against popery, and at once kept down the Grey de Wilton and Clinton. When the fleet of the latter enemies of Mary's dynasty and strengthened the attachment landed at St. Monan on the coast of Fife, the lord James of her friends. "Mary rewarded his services by conferring (as he was then called) collected a little band as determined on him the title of Earl of Mar, and honoured his marriage as himself, and, placing himself at their head, attacked with the lady Agnes Keith, eldest daughter of the earl mathe invadlers and drove them back to their ships. Shortly rischal, which took place about the same time, with a series before this he had been in France, having gone thither in of splendid entertainments

. The greatness of the balıquetthe retinue of his youthful sister Queen Mary, when it was ing indeed, and the vanity thereof, offended the more strict resolved she should be sent over to the Continent for her of the reformers, and Knox took occasion to read the lord education; and at different times afterwards we find him James a solemn admonition ; ‘for (said the preacher) unto again abroad. He was also present at Mary's marriage with this day the kirk of God hath received comfort by you and the dauphin of France; and was soon afterwards deputed by your labours, in the which if hereafter ye be found fainter to carry to the latter the crown and other ensigns of royalty. than before, it will be said your wife hath changed your naCircumstances occurred however in Scotland which pre- ture.' vented the execution of this appointment: the Reformation The earldom of Mar, which the prior had just obtained was now rapidly diffusing itself' among all classes of the com- from Mary, having been claimed by Lord Erskine as his munity, and dissolving in its mighty progress the nearest peculiar right, was soon after resigned with the property and tenderest ties. In these struggles the prior of St. An- belonging to it; but in its place the prior received ihe earldrew's joined the reformers, or, as they were called, the con- dom of Murray, which had been long the favourite object of gregation, among whom, by his courage and military skill, his ambition. This grant was scarcely a less matter of the success of his undertakings, the sanctity or rather au- jealousy to the prior's great rival, the Roman Catholic earl sterity of his character, and the bluntness of his manner, of Huntly, than the grant of Mar was to the lord Erskine. aided by the advantages of birth, countenance, and person But all dispute on that head was soon ended; for Huntly which he possessed, he gradually acquired a very high de- was shortly after proclaimed a traitor for various overt gree of consideration. The queen regent (to whom he was acts of insubordination and rebellion, originating in disapopposed) of course endeavoured to destroy his influence, pointed ambition ; and not long after that he suddenly exrepresenting him in particular as an aspiring ambitious pired. Murray was now left in undisputed possession of the man who, under pretence of a reformation in religion, sought chief authority in the kingdom next to the queen, wlio to overturn the existing government. That argument how- reposed in him almost unlimited confidence. An incident erer had little weight, or rather it worked a contrary way: occurred about this period which showed the influence he his intiuence continued to increase; and when, in the end possessed in the government, and at the same time how he of the year 1559, the congregation resolved on taking the was thought occasionally to use it. His services in the government into their own hands, he was one of the coun- cause of the Reformation were manifest and important, yet cil appointed for civil affairs. On the death of the queen the lord James was not all that the reformers wished; regent he was made one of the lords of the articles; and on religious zeal was not hot enough; and they lamented the the dauphin's death he was directed by the convention of protection he afforded to the queen in her use of the mass. estates io proceed to France and invite Mary to return to But they were not prepared to find him now extending his her native country. Such an appointment suited the views protection to her and her ladies in what Knox calls the of the prior well: for previous to the death of Francis the superfluities of their clothes,' which he said would bring down lord James had entered into a correspondence with the the vengeance of God. not only on the foolish women but young queen, soliciting the renewal of his French pension, on the whole realm.' Knox imputed Murray's conduct on and in reply Mary had assured him not only of that, but of this occasion to a selfish fear of offending the queen, lest the highest favours, civil or ecclesiastical, which could be she should repent of her munificence and refuse to confirm conferred upon him, provided he would return to his duty. her grant of the new earldom; and denouncing such motives He had also at the same moment applied thorough Throck- in strong terms, accused him of sacrificing truth to convemorlon to Cecil, the English minister, requesting some pen- nience, and the service of God to the interests of his ambision or allowance in recompence for the losses he had sus- tion. Murray was so incensed at this attack, that for a year tained in the cause of the Reformation. He therefore and a half Knox and he scarcely exchanged words together. willingly undertook the proposed mission, and setting out The queen's marriage with Darnley seems to have been on the service accordingly, reached the palace and quickly among the first things to bring them together again ; as gained admittance to the queen. He then found that an it was also the first step in the subsequent estrangement envoy from the Roman Catholic party in Scotland had between Murray and the queen. To this marriage Murray, prece led him; and in the interview which the prior had Knox, and Elizabeth, and their respective followers, were with his sister, he learnt that the disturbed state of the all opposed. Knox and the reformers were opposed to it



on religious grounds, and it was opposed by Murray and their respect and love to the Scots nation, that they would Elizabeth partly on the same grounds, but partly also on see their desire performed, so far as possibly the convenience personal or political considerations. Murray was not acces- of their affairs would permit, and that he should be paid off sory however to Darnley's murder: he knew of it indeed ; his arrears.? (4 Balf. Ann.

, 17.) but, as he said, he did not wish to meddle with the business, He must have returned to Scotland soon after this; for and would neither aid nor hinder it. Accordingly he left on the 21st of May, 1651, while Charles was in command Edinburgh abruptly on the morning of Sunday, the 9th of of the army there, Murray was appointed justice-clerk, an February, 1567, the last day of Darnley's life, alleging his office which appears to have remained vacant since the wife's illness at St. Andrew's as the cause of his departure; deprivation of Sir John Hamilton, in the month of Februand we do not hear of him in Edinburgh again till about a ary, 1649. A few days after this appointment Sir Robert fortnight after all was over, when he had Bothwell (the per- was sworn a privy-counsellor; and on the 6th of June, 1651, petrator of the horrid deed) and Huntly, Argyle and he was nominated a lord of session; but the court being Lethington, all parties to it, at dinner at his house. Nor suspended by Cromwell's proceedings, he never sat on the did Murray remain in Edinburgh so as to be present at bench. At the Restoration his appointments as a lord of Bothwell's trial, for in the beginning of April he asked leave session and justice-clerk were renewed. He was then also to go away to the Continent, but on what grounds is not made one of the lords-auditors of exchequer, In speaking known; and on the 9th, which was just two days before the of the second of these appointments, Mr. Laing falls into trial, he set off, visiting London and the court of Elizabeth an error; he says, “Sir Robert Murray, whom the Royal on his way. He remained abroad till the end of July, re- Society should revere as its father, was appointed justiceturning only a few days after the coronation of the young clerk, and the people were pleased and gratified when a prince James. He was therefore absent from the parlia- judicial office so important and dangerous was conferred on ment which was held immediately after Bothwell's ac- the most upright and accomplished character which the quittal, and from the famous supper at Ainslie's, when the nation produced.' (Laing, Hist. of Scotland, iv. 51.) At principal nobility signed the bond acquitting Bothwell of that time however the oflice of justice-clerk was not the all concern in Darnley's murder, and engaging to support important situation which it now is; nor was it for a dozen him in obtaining Mary's hand in marriage, And he was years after that the justice-clerk became vice-president of thus also absent during the important occurrences attend the justiciary court. He was however an assessor to the ant on the queen's marriage with Bothwell. He was not justiciar or justice-general; he was the first who had the ignorant of all that was going on: Cecil too was in constant style of lord-justice-clerk; and it is highly probable that his communication with him; and soon after the queen's sur character and reputation paved the way for the advancerender of herself to the prince's lords’ at Carberry Hill, he ment of his successors. It does not appear that Murray ever sent an accredited agent into Scotland to attend to his in- sat on the bench at all. He was made a judge of three

courts at one time, not perhaps that he might be a judge in He was at length proposed as regent of the kingdom. any, but that the emoluments might attach him as a parBefore agreeing however, he resolved to visit Mary in person; tisan. He was not bred to the law, and does not appear and accordingly repaired to Lochleven Castle, where she ever to have been in circumstances to acquire a knowledge was now a prisoner When Mary saw her brother, she of it. In the above passage however Laing refers to an burst into tears, and they had afterwards a private con- event in Sir Robert's life of great interest and importance: ference together, the particulars of which are not fully he was the father of the Royal Society. That body had known, but it is said that Mary was frequently bathed in existed as a debating club previous to the time of the Comtears with his upbraidings.

monwealth, when its members were dispersed. At the On the 22nd of August, 1567, he was proclaimed regent; Restoration the Society assembled again, and conducted and with his usual vigour he immediately proceeded to their proceedings on a more extensive scale. On the 28th establish himself in the government. He now held the of November, 1660, we find Sir Robert present at what was situation even against the queen herself; for when, having probably the first meeting, when it was proposed that some made her escape from Lochleven, she called on him to resign course might be thought of to improve this meeting to a the regency, he at once refused, and took the field against more regular way of debating things; and that, according her at Langside, where she sustained a complete defeat. to the manner in other countries, where there were volunNor did his determination end here; for being summoned tary associations of inen into academies for the advancement by Elizabeth to bear testimony in the trial which had been of various parts of learning, they might do something aninstituted by that queen against Mary, he immediately re- swerable here for the promoting of experimental philosophy.' paired to the appointed place, and did not hesitate in bear. (1 Kirch., Hist. Royal Soc., 3.) ing witness against the unhappy prisoner. His own fate It was Sir Robert Murray who undertook to communicate however was settled before that of his sister. For while the views of the Society to the court, and at the next meetpassing through the streets of Linlithgow, on the 23rd of ing he returned an answer indicative of encouragement January, 1570, he was shot through the body by a bullet from that quarter; and after rules for the government of fired from a window by James Hamilton of Bothwelhaugh, the Society were established, Sir Robert was chosen first nephew to the archbishop of St. Andrew's, in revenge for president. He was a member of almost all committees some personal injury committed by the regent years before. and councils, contributed several papers, and prepared and Murray survived till midnight, when he dier, in the thirty- exhibited various experiments. The authors of the · Histoeighth year of his age.

rical Account of the Senators of the College of Justice' say MURRAY, SIR ROBERT, son of Sir Robert Murray he was re-appointed justice-clerk in 1667, and sent down to of Craigie, entered in early life into the French service, Scotland, which he continued to rule with a gentleness where, by the favour of Cardinal Richelieu, he soon ob- quite unknown to the counsels of his predecessors. But tained the rank of colonel. He returned to Scotland this is scarcely correct. Sir John Home of Renton, who when the difficulties of King Charles I. were beginning was a great zealot in the cause of episcopacy, which Charles to assume their most alarming aspect; and at Newcastle he wished to introduce into Scotland, was appointed justicehad a design for the king's escape, which seems to have clerk in 1663, in the room of Sir Robert Murray; and on been frustrated only by Charles's want of resolution. “The his deatlı, in 1671, he was succeeded by Sir James Lockdesign,' says Burnei, 'proceeded so far that the king put hart of Lee. himself in disguise and went down the back stairs with Sir Sir Robert Murray died suddenly, in the month of June, Robert Murray; but his majesty, apprehending it was Burnet says, 'He was the most universally beloved scarce possible to pass through all the guards without being and esteemed, by men of all sides and sorts, of any man I discovered, and judging it highly indecent to be catched in have ever known in my whole life. He was a pious man, such a condition, changed his resolution and went back, as and in the midst of armies and courts spent many hours a Sir Robert informed the writer.' (Mem. of Duke of Hamil-day in devotion, which was in a most elevating strain. He ton, 307.)

had gone through the easy part of mathematics, and knew On the fall of the royal cause he appears to have gone the history of nature beyond any man I ever yet knew. Ile again to France; and on the 22nd of May, 1650, two letters was the first former of the Royal Society, and its first prefrom that kingdom were read to the parliament of Scot- sident; and while he lived he was the life and soul of that land, one from the young king, the other from the queen- body. He had an equality of temper in him which nothing regent, in answer to a letter from the parliament in favour could alter, and was in practice the only Stoic I ever knew. of Sir Robert Murray, in both which they promised, ‘from He had a most diffused love to all mankind, and delighted


in every occasion of doing good, which he managed with | he began to teach his son the elements of learning. It was great discretion and zeal. He had a superiority of genius however emphatically a good book, and only to be handled and comprehension to most men, and had the plainest but on Sundays or other suitable occasions; it was therefore withal the softest way of reproving people for their faults commonly locked up, and, throughout the winter, the old that I ever knew of. (1 Burnet's Own Times, 59.) man, who had been himself taught reading and writing in

MURRAY, PATRICK, fifth LORD ELIBANK, eldest his youth, drew for his son the figures of the letters in his son of Alexander, fourth lord, was born in February, 1703; written hand on the board of an old wool-card with the and on the 22nd June, 1723, he passed advocate. (Fac. black end of a burned heather-stem. In this way young Reg.) He did not prosecute the legal profession however; Murray was initiated into literature; and working continuperhaps he never meant to do so, but only, in accordance ally with his board and brand, he soon became both a reader with a feeling in behalf of learning, which prevailed and and writer. The catechism was at length presented, and in still prevails in Scotland, he acquired the name and status of a month or so he could read the easier parts of it. In the a Scottish advocate. The same year he entered the army; the summer of 1782 he got a Psalm-book, then a New Tesand in 1740, which was about five years after he had suc- tament, and at last a Bible, a book which he had heard ceeded by his father's death to the family honours, we find read every night at family worship, which he often longed his lordship a lieutenant-colonel in the expedition to Car- to get hold of, but which he was never allowed to open or thagena, of which expedition he wrote an account, which even touch. He now read constantly, and having a good meremains in manuscript, it seems, in the library of the Board mory, he remembered well and would repeat numerous of Trade. From that time he frequently committed his psalms and large portions of scripture. In 1783 his readthoughts to paper, and was known among the literati ofing and memory were become the wonder of the rustic Edinburgh, his contemporaries, for the acuteness of his circle in which lie lived; and a wish began to be generally understanding and the varied nature of his information. entertained that he should be sent to school. The idea of In 1758 he published Thoughts on Money, Circulation, and school-wages however frightened his father; and in all Paper Currency;' and soon afterwards an Inquiry into the likelihood nothing would have been done, had not William Origin and Consequence of the Public Debts.' In 1765 he Cochrane, a brother of his mother's, paid a visit to the place published 'Queries relating to the proposed Plan for alter- in the harvest of the above year. He had made a little ing Entails in Scotland;' and in 1773, a ‘Letter to Lord money as a travelling merchant, and being informed of the Hailes on his Remarks on the History of Scotland.' The genius, as it was called, of his young nephew, he generously same year, when Dr. Johnson visited Scotland, he addressed undertook to place him next spring at the New Galloway a letter to him, and had afterwards various interviews with school, which was about six miles off, and to lodge him in him. In 1774 he published some 'Considerations on the the house of the boy's grandfather by the mother's side, present State of the Peerage of Scotland. In political life who lived about a mile from New Galloway. Accordingly he was an opposition lord; and is now known to have at the Whit-Sunday term of 1784, young Murray, then in his maintainerl a correspondence with the exiled house of ninth year, was brought to the New Galloway school ; where, Stuart. His younger brother Alexander Murray was like for a month at least, his pronunciation and awkward gait wise so enthusiastic a Jacobite as to propose leading an in- were a source of perpetual merriment to the scholars. They surrection in favour of the Pretender. That brother, it may soon began however to regard him with other feelings. also be mentioned, was in 1750 confined, by order of the Being uiterly neglected by his aged grandfather, he learned House of Commons, for violent interference with a West- to curse and swear, to lie and do all sorts of bad tricks; but minster election, and as he refused to express contrition on before the vacation in August he was also repeatedly dux his knees according to the order of the house, he was de- of the Bible class. He continued at school for about a forttained in confinement upwards of a twelvemonth, and might night after the vacation had ended; but in the beginning have been confined longer had not a prorogation of par- of November he was seized with an illness which obliged liament at that time occasioned his release. The fourth and him to be taken home. Here, so soon as his health got a youngest brother of Lord Elibank likewise attracted con- little better, he was put to his old employment of a herd, siderable notice, distinguishing himself greatly as an officer with the rest of the family; and this course of life now conin high command during the Canadian war. Lord Elibank tinued for about three years. During all that time he spent died without issue, 3rd August, 1778, in the seventy-sixth every penny which he procured from friends or strangers in year of his age.

the purchase of books and ballads, carried bundles of these MURRAY, Dr. ALEXANDER, was born at Dunkit- in his pockets, and read them in the glen or on the hills terick, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, on the 22nd Octo- when tending the cattle, and was ever puzzling and surprisber, 1775. He was the eldest child of his father's second | ing his illiterate neighbours with recitals of what he had marriage. His father Robert Murray had by his former learned. In 1787 he borrowed from a countryman Salmon's marriage, which had subsisted full forty years, a numerous Geographical Grammar," which delighted him beyond family; and in the course of about four years after his wife's measure, particularly by the specimens it contained of the deathi

, himself now entering his 70th year, he married again, various languages of the world. In the winter of that year, and had two children more.

Robert was healthy and being able to read and write, he was engaged by the heads vigorous sliepherd or pastoral farm servant in one of the of two families in a neighbouring parish to teach their chilmountain districts of Galloway, and distinguished for his dren. He returned home in March, 1788, and with part of sagacity and habitual good conduct: his whole property his fees, which were 158. or 168., he bought books of history consisted of four muirland-cows and some two or three scores and arithmetic. The following year his father and the of sheep, his reward for herding the farm of Kitterick for family left Kitterick, and went by engagement to herd at a Mr. Laidlaw in Clatteringshaws. He had been a shepherd place four miles above Minnigaff, the school of which place all his days, like his father before him, and both had con Murray immediately resolved to attend. He entered him. stantly remained in the same neighbourhood. His wife was self accordingly, and during the summer monthis walked the daughter of a neighbouring shepherd: all the sons of three days every week to Minnigaff school. Here he read his first marriage became shepherds; and to the same line incessantly, not only his own books, but, by coming an hour of life he designed Alexander.

before the scliool met, the books of all the other scholars Alexander however was, in his father's opinion, a lazy use- which were left in the school. At Martinmas, 1789, he was less boy, always committing some blunder or other when sent engaged by three families in the moors of Kells and Minto herd or bring in the cattle. He was in fact a weakly child, nigaff to teach their children; and during that winter he not unhealthy, yet not stout; and he had neither the rapidity migrated about, remaining six weeks in one family at a time, wor reach of vision which are indispensable to form a good the families living at considerable distances from each other. herd: he was also of a sedentary and recluse turn; and thus He returned home a little before Whit-Sunday, 1790, and quite unfitted for the vacant, indeed, but vigilant life of a found that from that term his father was engaged as a shepshepherd. To the old man therefore, whose world was the verd on a farm within two miles of Minnigaff

. To this dark and lonely glen where his cottage lay, and the adjoin- | farm the family accordingly removed, and Murray, having ing hills which he sometimes ranged, young Murray must now easy access to the school, went thither regularly, and have been an object of no great concern. Accordingly it also determined on adding to his former acquisitions a little was not till he had reached his sixth year that he was taught French, which he found was necessary for a clerk intending the alphabet of his mother-tongue.' The old man in that to go to America or the West Indies, a situation he had year laid out a halfpenny in the purchase of a catechism, some thoughts of obtaining. He immediately borrowed a and from the letters and syllables on the face of the book French grammar, and set to learning the language so hard that in less than a fortnight, his indulgent master giving I joined with it. Great exertions were accordingly made to him whole pages of lessons at a time, he could read portions secure his election; and notwithstanding some fears of his of the 'Diable Boiteux.' He then found one of the boys in health giving way under it, his appointment took place. possession of a Latin Rudiments : le borrowed it too, and by (Scots Mag., July, 1812.) He was elected on the 8th incessant reading and a little help from the master, be- July, 1812, and on the 15th the university conferred on fore the vacation in August he beat a class of scholars who him the degree of Doctor in Divinity. On the 26th of had been a considerable time at the study. At Martinmas, August he was formally inducted to the chair, and he began he went to teacli in a family reading, writing, arithmetic, to lecture on the 31st October following. Soon after that and Latin.

he published, for the use of his students, a small work In this situation he applied to his books with his usual entitled Outlines of Oriental Philology,' which is known zeal; and having, among other works, bought an old and to have been both composed and prepared for publication bulky edition of Ainsworth’s ‘ Dictionary,' for eighteenpence, after his arrival in Edinburgh; the subject indeed was he literally read it through from A to Z, and again from Z perfectly familiar to him. He continued to teach his class to A. On Whit-Sunday, 1791, he returned to school, and with little interruption till the end of February or the befinding a schoolfellow in possession of a Greek grammar, ginning of March ; and at such times as his health would he commenced that language, after spending part of his not permit him to attend his public lecture, he taught a winter's wages in the purchase of a grammar and lexicon. small Persian class in his own room. The pulmonary comHe had also by this time mastered the Hebrew alphabet, plaint however, with which he had been struggling through at first from an old Psalm-book, where the letters were the winter, at length compelled him to suspend his prelecmarked in succession in the 119th psalm; and afterwards, tions; yet, with its characteristic deceit, it always flattered together with some Hebrew vocables, from his Ainsworth. him with hopes of resuming them; and, quite unconscious He now determined on learning that language also, and, of his real situation, he continued engaged in his favourite accordingly, sent to Edinburgh for a grammar by the man studies till within a few days of his death, which took place who rode with the post: the man brought him the first on the 15th April, 1813, in the thirty-seventh year of his edition of Robertson's ' Grammar,' which, over and above age. His body was interred in the Grey Friars' Churchthe Hebrew, contained on the last leaf the Arabic alphabet, yard, at the north-west corner of the church. to which, without delay, Murray next applied. At Martin- This great linguist was an eminent example of the mas of the above year he was again engaged to teach, but pursuit of knowledge under difficulties. His life however at the increased fee of 358. or 408., and in this situation he may be described rather as the preparation for some result devoted every spare moment to French, Latin, Greek, and than as having accomplished much; and the performance Hebrew. In summer he was again at school, and again, by which he will be known in the literary world, though in the winter, teaching in a family; but on this occa- distinguished by profound and various learning, was both sion at a somewhat lower allowance than before, Murray imperfect and posthumous. It appeared under the auspices having chosen the place from its convenience to a school of the Rev. Dr. Scot of Corstorphine, and is entitled a . Hiswhich he wished to attend in the winter evenings. In tory of the European Languages, or Researches into the Affithis school he got hold of Bailey's · English Dictionary,' nities of the Teutonic, Greek, Celtic, Sclavonic, and Indian which introduced him to the Anglo-Saxon language. Nations. An extensive acquaintance with these languages He proceeded in this way, taking advantage of every cir- convinced the author that all the European languages cumstance to increase his knowledge of languages; and were closely connected; and in the work now named, it is at length, in November, 1794, he came to Edinburgh, his object to show that they all derive from, and may be under the countenance and protection of the Rev. Dr. traced to, nine euphonic primitives, which primitives he Baird of that city. Murray was at this time in the nine- states to be ag, bag, dwag, guay, lag, mag, nag, rag, and teenth year of his age. His subsequent progress was com- suug. By the help of these nine words and their comparatively easy. In the course of two years he obtained a pounds,' says he,' all the European languages have been bursary or exhibition to the university of Edinburgh; and formed.' never relaxing in his pursuit of knowledge, he soon made MURRHINE (sometimes written Myrrhine) VASES, himself acquainted with all the European languages, and vessels used by the antients, were made of the stone or hard began to form the design of tracing up all the languages of substance, whatever it might be, termed murrha (uüppa), mankind to one source. His acquirements as a linguist They are frequently noticed by the classic writers, and naturally pointed him out to Constable, the well-known usually described as transparent, though sometimes spotted publisher, as a fit person to superintend a new edition of or clouded, like our cups of agate. Pliny speaks of them as Bruce's Travels; and in the preparation of that work he coming from the East, from Parthia and Carmania. He was employed for about three years, from September, 1802, adds that they were first brought to Rome by Pompey after Murray residing during that time chiefly at Kinnaird-house, his victory over Mithridates. “The same victory,' he obwhere he had access to the papers left by the traveller. serves, introduced Murrhine vessels into the city, and PoinHo was also at different times employed in contributing to pey was the first who dedicated to Jupiter of the Capitol the Edinburgh Review’and other periodicals. By the precious stones and cups, after his triumph on that occasion. advice of his friends, he prosecuted the studies necessary They afterwards came into common use. (Plin., Hist. Nat., for the Church, to which his attention was directed as a li. xxxvii., edit. Harduin, vol. ii., p. 767.) The abbé Le permanent source of employment; and at length, in Dec., Blond, in the 43rd volume of the · Mémoires de l'Acad. des 1806, he was appointed assistant and successor to Dr. Inscriptions,' supposes that these vessels were made of the Muirhead, minister of Urr, in the stewartry of Kirkcud-oriental sardonyx. Others have supposed the material to bright, a charge to which he in 1808 succeeded as full have been a kind of Chinese stone. The best alabaster in stipendiary. Within six months after, he married the antient times was furnished from the quarries of Carmania, daughter of a farmer in the neighbourhood. He still con- which may possibly have supplied the materials for the tinued his philological pursuits. In 181) an incident oc- murrhine vessels. curred which brought him into prominent notice as a MURVIEDRO. [SAGUNTUM.] linguist: on the recommendation of Mr. Salt, envoy to MUS. [MURID.E.) Abyssinia, he was applied to by the Marquis Wellesley, as MU'SA, IBN NOSSEYR, Governor of Mauritania. the only person in the British dominions qualified to trans- The origin and genealogy of this conqueror are differently late a letter written in Geez, from the governor of Tigré to stated by the Arabian writers. Some make him the son of liis Britannic Majesty; and he performed the task in the Nosseyr, son of Abd-el-rahman, son of Zeyd, of the tribe of most satisfactory way. The following year a vacancy oc- Bekr; others assert that he belonged to the illustrious tribe curred in the chair of Oriental languages in the university of Lakhm; while there are not wanting genealogists who of Edinburgh, of which the town-council of the city are the deny his ever having had any connexion with either of the patrons. The income from this chair was small; the above-mentioned tribes, and suppose him to be the son of gross emoluments of the present professor, who was a a liberated slave of Muawiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan, the first competitor with Murray, and afterwards his successor, are khalif of the race of Umeyyah in the East. All however considerably short of 300l. per annum. It was however agree that his father Nosseyr was a mauli, or adherent of perfectly suited to Murray's taste and habits: it brought Muawiyah, that he served under his banners against Ali, him to Edinburgli, where his literary labours could be both and, as a reward for his services, was raised to ihe post of assisted and valued; and there was a great probability commander of the khalif’s body-guard. that some other situation would soon, as at present, be con- According to all accounts, Músa's birth is placed in the



year 19 of the Flight (A.D. 640). He seems to have made | remained untouched. He laid siege to Seville, which he his first campaigns under his father, and to have been pre- reduced in a month (July, 712). Carmona and other neighsent at almost all the battles then fought by the Moslems. bouring cities shared the same fate. Thence he passed His bravery and the military talents which he displayed on into Lusitania, and, almost without halting in his rapid several occasions made him a favourite with 'Abd-el-'azíz march, seized on Niebla, Beja, and other considerable Ibn Merwan, a prince of the royal family then governor of cities (August, 712). His victorious career was stopped for Egypt, who attached him to his person, raised him in com- a time before the walls of Merida, which he reduced, after mand, and, having previously obtained leave from his bro- an obstinate defence on the part of the garrison, towards ther the khalif, appointed him general of the armies destined the end of November, 712. From Merida Músa marched to achieve the conquest of Africa, in the year 79 of the to Toledo, where, having had an interview with Tarik, he Flight (A.D. 698-9). What the first expeditions of Músa publicly reproached him with his disobedience, caused him were, is not satisfactorily ascertained. The Arabian writers to be beaten with rods, confiscated his property, and had say, in vague terms, that he pushed his conquests far into him cast into a dungeon, where he remained until orders the West, and penetrated into the interior of Africa, return- came from the khalif to release him, and give him, as being with a rich spoil and thousands of captives. But he fore, the command of one of the divisions of the army. seems to have achieved nothing brilliant until the year 88 The remainder of Spain was speedily subdued. Tárik, (A.D. 707), when the khalif Al-walid named him governor at the head of his troops, marched eastwards, and, after reof Mauritania, with instructions to complete the conquest of ducing the intermediate provinces, laid siege to Saragossa. the country:

Músa took a northern direction, reduced Salamanca, adMúsa took his departure from Egypt at the head of a vanced as far as Astorga, and thence, returning to the numerous army, and, partly by persuasion, partly by force, Douro, followed the course of that river to Seria, passed the succeeded in reducing to obedience the motley tribes that mountains, and arrived in sight of Saragossa, which Tarik inhabited the northern shores of Africa. He seems to was then investing, and which surrendered in July, 713.. have experienced no difficulty in uniting under his standard From thence Tarik proceeded to Valencia, which, togemen whose habits were not dissimilar from those of the ther with Murviedro, Xativa, and other considerable cities Arabs, and who, relying on antient traditions current among of those districts, were reduced with amazing rapidity; them, believed themselves to be sprung from the same stock while Músa himself, after detaching some forces under the as their invaders. [BERBERS.) Under such a belief, which command of his son Abdulaziz to subdue and plunder the Músa dexterously tried to strengthen, whole tribes flocked plains of Murcia, marched towards the Pyrenees, reduced to his banners, embraced the religion of the Prophet, and, on his passage the cities of Calahorra, Lerida, Barcelona, led by his lieutenants, marched to new conquests. Tan- and, crossing that mountain barrier, penetrated into giers, Arsilla, and Ceuta, three insulated fortresses which France. still held out for the Goths, were speedily reduced; a fleet How far Músa advanced into that country is not satiscommanded by Abdullah, Músa's eldest son, scoured the factorily ascertained. According to Al-makkari, an Arabian Mediterranean, and ravaged the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, writer, who compiled a history of Spain from the best sources and Mallorca ; and in the year 91 of the Flight (A.D. 709) (Arab. MSS., in the Brit. Mus., 7334), Músa subdued not the whole of northern Africa, from the Pillars of Hercules only Narbonne, but the greatest part of the province known to the delta of Egypt, acknowledged the laws of the by the name of Gallia Gothica; but, as other Arabian conqueror.

historians are silent on the subject, and as the Christian At this critical moment, when the restless ambition of chroniclers of France have not made the slightest mention the African governor had been stimulated by so much of this invasion, we are authorised in thinking that, if Músa success, a favourable occasion presented itself to satisfy his did really cross the Pyrenees, his invasion was unattended appetite for conquest. Gothic Spain was a prey to the with any important results. On his return from this exinost horrible anarchy. After the death of King Wittiza, pedition to the Pyrenees, a messenger from the khalif AlRoderic, the son of a provincial governor, had usurped the walíd, who now became alarmed at Músa's increase of throne to the prejudice of Eba and Sisebuto, the two sons power, reached his camp, and summoned him, together of that monarch, who had taken up arms in support of their with Tarik, to the royal presence, rights. Unable however to keep the field against Roderic, Tarik hastened to obey the orders of the khalif, and dethe sons of Wittiza and the noblemen who followed their parted immediately for the East (Sept., 713); but Músa, party (among whom was a certain Julian or Ilyán) de- who, if any faith can be placed in the Arabian writers, har spatched a messenger to Músa, inviting him to invade Spain, conceived the ambitious project of subduing Gaul, Italy, and and promising to aid him in his enterprise.

Germany-and forcing his way from Spain to Constantinople, No sooner was Músa made acquainted with the divi- thus connecting the eastern and western possessions of the sions among the Goths, than he eagerly seized on the oppor- | Arabs-refused to comply with the summons. Having tunity of interfering in them. By his orders Tarif Ibn prevailed upon the envoy Mugheyth to accompany him in Málik, one of his servants, made a slight incursion in the his conquests, by promising him a large share of the spoil, month of Ramadhan, A.H. 91 (July, A.D. 710), and re- he directed his course towards Asturias and Gallicia, which turned to Africa loaded with spoil. A second expedition, the Moslems had not yet visited. But his reluctance to commanded by Tárik Ibn Zeyad, landed on the coast of obey the imperial mandate added to the suspicions already Spain, in April, 711, and two months afterwards (MOORS] entertained about his views, which were represented as Roderick was defeated and killed in the battle of Gua- aiming at independence, and a more peremptory order was

sent for his return. The khalif's second messenger, whose On the news of this signal victory reaching Africa, Músa, name was Abú Nasr, reached him at Lugo, in Gallicia, who was far from expecting so complete success, felt a caught the bridle of his horse, and, in presence of the army, desire to share in the laurels reaped by his lieutenant; and commanded him to repair to Damascus. Músa did not while he hastily made the necessary preparations to cross venture to disobey the order of the khalif, and, entrusting over into Spain, he sent orders to Tarik not to move from the government of Spain to his son Abdulaziz, reluctantly his position, and to wait for further instructions. But the commenced his journey, in March, 714. Arabian general had gone too far to be stopped by a mere On arriving in Africa, where he made some stay, he con message from his master. Eager for plunder, and bent on firmed his son Abdullah in his government of Cairwán, the subjugation of the whole country, he penetrated into gave to his son Abdulola the command of Tangier and the heart of Spain, and, before his master Músa had set other important fortresses on the coast, and taking the road his foot on the peninsula, the opulent city of Toledo, the to Egypt, proceeded to Syria with a numerous escort, and capital of the Gothic monarchy, together with an immense long trains of camels heavily laden with the spoil of the booty, had fallen into his hands,

conquest, besides being followed by thousands of capAt this period Músa arrived in Spain, breathing venge- tives, among whom were 400 Gothic nobles, sumptuously ance against the man who, by disobeying his commands, had arraved. deprived him of so rich a harvest of glory and wealth. He Músa did not reach Syria until the end of 714 or the landed at Algesiras, in June, A.D. 712, at the head of 18,000 beginning of 715. Carik had arrived many mo his before,

He took with him three of his sons, Abdulaziz, and not only had justified himself against the charges Merwán, and Abdulola, leaving his eldest son Abdullah to brought against him, but had succeeded in throwing all the govern Africa in his stead. His first step was to subdue such blame upon Músa. To this must be added that Al-walid provinces as, by Tarik's precipitate march upon Toledo, had I was then suffering under an acute disease, which soon



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