Extinctions in Near Time: Causes, Contexts, and Consequences

Framsida
Ross D.E. MacPhee, Hans-Dieter Sues
Springer Science & Business Media, 9 nov. 2013 - 394 sidor
"Near time" -an interval that spans the last 100,000 years or so of earth history-qualifies as a remarkable period for many reasons. From an anthropocentric point of view, the out standing feature of near time is the fact that the evolution, cultural diversification, and glob al spread of Homo sapiens have all occurred within it. From a wider biological perspective, however, the hallmark of near time is better conceived of as being one of enduring, repeat ed loss. The point is important. Despite the sense of uniqueness implicit in phrases like "the biodiversity crisis," meant to convey the notion that the present bout of extinctions is by far the worst endured in recent times, substantial losses have occurred throughout near time. In the majority of cases, these losses occurred when, and only when, people began to ex pand across areas that had never before experienced their presence. Although the explana tion for these correlations in time and space may seem obvious, it is one thing to rhetori cally observe that there is a connection between humans and recent extinctions, and quite another to demonstrate it scientifically. How should this be done? Traditionally, the study of past extinctions has fallen largely to researchers steeped in such disciplines as paleontology, systematics, and paleoecology. The evaluation of future losses, by contrast, has lain almost exclusively within the domain of conservation biolo gists. Now, more than ever, there is opportunity for overlap and sharing of information.
 

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Cretaceous Meteor Showers the Human Ecological Niche
1
Prehistoric Extinctions on Islands and Continents
17
The Interaction of Humans Megaherbivores and Habitats
57
Forward and Backward
71
Toward a New Perspective
77
Empirical Evidence for Mammoth Killing by Clovis
84
A Comparison of Methods for the Probabilistic Determination
95
Putting North Americas EndPleistocene Megafaunal Extinction
105
Introduced Predators and Avifaunal Extinction in New Zealand
189
57
224
An Overview
239
A European Perspective
257
A Preliminary Listing of the Freshwater Fishes
271
Notes on Data Compilation
285
Notes for Tables
301
The Last Five Hundred Years of Mammalian
333

EndPleistocene and Cenozoic Extinction Rates
117
Differential Extinction across the Size Spectrum
125
Discussion
133
Rates Patterns and Processes of Landscape Transformation
145
Achieving Site Integration
155
Extinctions and Local Disappearances of Vertebrates in the Western
165

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