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mies, who has improved the life of mankind, lord of the feasts of thirty years; like Vulcan the mighty king, like the sun, the mighty king of the upper and lower countries; the offspring of the parent-loving gods, approved by Vulcan, to whom the sun has given the victory; the living image of love, the offspring of the sun, Ptolemy, the everliving, beloved by Vulcan, the god illustrious, munificent; the son of Ptolemy and Arsinoe, the parent-loving gods; the priest of Alexander and the saviour gods, and the brother gods, and the gods beneficent, and the parent-loving gods, and the king Ptolemy, the god illustrious, beneficent, being Aétus, the son of Aëtus; Pyrrha, the daughter of Philinus, being the prize-bearer of Berenice the beneficent; Areia, the daughter of Diogenes, being the bearer of baskets of Arsinoe the brotherloving; Irene, the daughter of Ptolemy, being priestess of Arsinoe the parent-loving; it was this day decreed by the high-priests, the prophets, those who enter the sacred recesses to attire the gods, the wing-bearers, and the sacred scribes, and the rest of the priests who came from the temples of Egypt, to meet the king at the assembly of the assumption of the lawful power of king Ptolemy, the ever-living, beloved by Vulcan, the god illustrious, munificent, succeeding his father; and who entered the temple of Memphis, and said: Whereas king Ptolemy, the ever-living, the god illustrious, munificent, son of king Ptolemy and queen Arsinoe, the parent-loving gods, has given largely to the

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temples of Egypt,” &c. Thus enumerating all the warlike and benevolent deeds of Ptolemy, which they now wish to remunerate by ordering, “ that the honours at present paid to king Ptolemy be augmented greatly ; that there shall be erected an image of king Ptolemy the ever-living, the god illustrious and munificent, which shall be called sacred to Ptolemy, studious of the prosperity of his country; to Ptolemy, who has fought for Egypt, and to the image the greatest god of the temple shall offer the trophies of victory, in each and every temple, in the most conspicuous place in the temple; all which things shall be arranged according to the custom of Egypt.”

Then follow the ceremonies which are to be observed, the appointment of the time in which they are to be performed, and of the priests who are to celebrate these ceremonies “ with sacrifices, libations, and other honours ;” permitting

" that the same festival may be celebrated with proper honours by other individuals,” and that they may consecrate, in like manner, a golden shrine to the god illustrious and munificent, with due respect, keeping it in their houses, observing the assemblies and feasts, as appointed, every year; which shall be done in order that it may be made manifest that the inhabitants of Egypt honour the god illustrious and munificent, as it is just to do.”

And the whole concludes by ordering that “this decree shall be engraved on a hard stone, in sacred characters, in common characters, and in Greek;

and placed in the first temples, and in the second temples, and in the third temples, wherever may be the sacred image of the king, whose life is for ever.” | Such are the contents of this curious monument, which, in the hands of our learned men, has turned out to be the link that connects the antiquities of Egypt with our own times. It belongs to a species of monuments which were by no means uncommon in Egypt. M. Champollion, in his first letter to the duke of Blacas, gives an account of a group now existing in the Museum of Turin, representing the Pharaoh Horus, one of the princes of the eighteenth dynasty, and of his daughter Tmauhmot, at the foot of which there is an inscription of twenty-six lines, in hieroglyphical characters; which, as is the case with the Rosetta stone, is a decree, or a resolution, adopted by authority, enumerating all the benefits which king Horus had done to Egypt, and ordering that his image, as well as that of his daughter, should be placed in a conspicuous part of the temple, there to receive the honours which are specified in the decree; and concluding with an order to the priests, who are to take care of these images, and to perform, in their honour, some peculiar ceremonies. Of this monument I shall have to speak more at length ; I mention it here, merely to shew that decrees and inscriptions like that exhibited by the Rosetta stone, were by no means of rare occurrence. For the inscription engraved round

the throne of Horus is perfectly similar to that of the Rosetta stone, in favour of Ptolemy Epiphanes, both in regard to the general divisions of the two texts, and the employment of the same principal ideas, is a striking proof that the Egyptians, from time immemorial, had adopted the custom of preserving the memory of the religion and piety of their sovereigns, and of the benefits which they had bestowed on the people. This curious fact shews also that the worship of kings, and a priesthood attached to this worship, in Egypt, had preceded, by centuries, the arrival of Alexander; and that the Grecian princes who, after him, reigned over that country, endeavoured as much as possible to follow the customs which had been sanctioned by a long series of ages, without making any alteration in the form of government, as well as the religion, which the Pharaohs had introduced.

But to return. The method pursued by our learned men in this herculean task of decyphering the Rosetta stone, deserves to be noticed : it may serve to give you a proper idea of the infinite labour to which they have been obliged to submit; a labour which at first seemed calculated to deter the most indefatigable scholar. Figure to yourself, for a moment, the fashion introduced of writing the English language with the omission of most of its vowels, and then suppose our alphabet to be entirely lost or forgotten, a new mode of writing introduced, letters totally different from those we

use, and then conceive what our labour would be, if, after the lapse of 1500 years, when the English language, by the operation of ages, and the intercourse with foreigners, was much altered from what it now is, we should be required, by the help of a Greek translation, to decypher a bill of parliament written in this old, forgotten, and persecuted alphabet, in every word of which we should find, and even this not always, the regular number of consonants, but most of the vowels left out. And yet this is precisely what our learned antiquarians have been obliged to do. The Egyptians, like most of the Orientals, left out many of their vowels in writing. The enchorial, or demotic alphabet, which they used, has been laid aside since the second or third century of our era. From that time to this, that is, for nearly 1600 years, the Coptic alphabet has been used; and yet in this Coptic language, and in these very enchorial or demotic characters, was engraved on the Rosetta stone the inscription which they have decyphered. The method, therefore, followed by these learned men, in so arduous an undertaking, deserves to be noticed. A short account is given by Dr. Young himself, in the fourth volume of the Supplement of the Encyclopaedia Britannica: the only fault it has, is, that after the manner of great discoverers, he has made it too short. I shall endeavour to supply the deficiency. From the concluding line of the Greek inscription, it was natural to suppose that the three in

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