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C O NT ENTS.

LECTURE I.

INTRODUCTORY.

- Page Necessity of prior explanations, and of understanding ideas

by signs—Difficulties attending the study of hieroglyphics —Illustrations—Requisites for understanding hieroglyphics—Rosetta stone—Necessity of knowing the language, history, and customs of the old Egyptians—Ancient historians, Herodotus, Diodorus, Strabo, Manetho— Animals—Deities—Religious doctrine—Egyptian dynasties—Antiquities—Thebes—Memphis—Karnac—Louqsor—Abydos, &c.—Belzoni—Cailliaud—Champollion— Conclusion - - - - 1

LECTURE II.

Opinions of the ancients concerning the nature and use of hieroglyphics—Erroneous judgment of the moderns— Scarcity of monuments—The Isiacal table—Horapollo— Hermapion—The Rosetta stone—Discoveries made by M. de Sacy, by Mr. Ackerblad, and Dr. Young—Enchorial or Demotic alphabet—Attempt at decyphering hieroglyphics—Manner of counting numbers—Interpretation of names—Reflections - - - 49

LECTURE III,

Continuation of the same subject—Discovery of the name of Cleopatra by Mr. Bankes—Means by which it was obtained—Champollion's publications—Lettre à M. Dacier

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- Precis du systeme hieroglyphique — Hieroglyphical Alphabet-Number of characters—Their meaning—Attempt to account for their multiplicity and differenceIllustrations-Mode by which the Egyptians formed their hieroglyphics—Disposition of them-Examples General rules-Application of Champollion's alphabet to the reading of the names of the Egyptian sovereigns—Under the Romans—the Greeks-the Persians—the Pharaohs -Coincidence between the Bible and some of the Egyptian legends--Observations

79

LECTURE IV.

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Division of hieroglyphics-Figurative and symbolic hiero

glyphics explained Legends of some of the principal
deities-- Ammon-Phtha-Neith-Smé-Saté-Rhe, or
Phre - Isis — Osiris-Character of this latter in the
Amenti—Account of the thirty-two regions in which the
souls of the dead might be confined—Mode by which they
were tried—Important tenet it inculcated—Origin of Tar-
tarus, Elysium, Pluto, Cerberus, Acheron, Charon, &c. • 116

LECTURE V.

Continuation of the same subject-Exhibition of the mode

by which the souls of the dead entered the AmentiFurther examination of hieroglyphics-Explanation of some of the most important grammatical forms—Genders Number—Verbs—Pronouns—Mixture of hieroglyphicsLegends - Names of individuals — of the Pharaohs— Mystic titles which invariably preceded their historical name-Explanation of some most commonly used-Coincidence of the Egyptian inscriptions with the names of some of the kings mentioned in the Bible

150

Page LECTURE WI.

Continuation of the same subject—Ramesses the Great— The Sesostris of the Greeks—Rames-Mei-moun—Legend, exhibiting the name and mystic titles of this Pharaoh round the cover of the Sarcophagus in the Museum at Cambridge—Explanation of the legend—Antiquity of the monument—Tomb of the Pharaoh Ousirei opened by Belzoni–Legend of his mystic titles and historical name— Reflections on the chronology of the Septuagint and the Hebrew text—Table of Abydos—Discoveries made by Champollion, confirming the canon of Manetho—The Hyk-shos, or the Shepherd kings—Reflections—Plan of an expedition—Important results that might be expected

from it—Extract from Dugald Stuart - - 189

LECTURE VII.

History of figurative hieroglyphics — Their general use amongst mankind—Explanation of the Mexican mode of writing by representation of the object—Alterations introduced by the Egyptians—Causes which must have produced them—Attempt at explaining some of the chaTacters - - - - - 229

LECTURE VIII.

Continuation of the same subject—Simplicity of the original figures and language of mankind—Hebrew alphabet— Chinese characters—Words mostly monosyllables—Examples–Formation of dissyllabic and trisyllabic words— Examples—Similarity found in most of the Oriental alphabets—Mode by which figures became arbitrary marks— Their shapes—Specimens of the Chinese and Egyptian– Names attached to each, generally imitative—How expressed in writing—Examples—Difference of hieroglya

phics—Joining of sounds—Analysis of them—Discovery Page of the alphabet—Generally attributed to the Egyptians— Remarkable passage of Plato—Consequences arising from it—General remarks - - - - 263

LECTURE IX.

Continuation of the same subject—Opinion of those who ascribe the invention of the alphabet to the Antediluvians—Scientific and literary productions of the old Egyptians—Books of Hermes—A short enumeration of their several classes, and of the priests who were to cultivate each of them—A further account of the scientific productions of the Egyptians—Authorities of the classic writers —Libraries—Of Osymandias—Alexandria—An account of them—General observations - - - 297

LECTURE X.

Different appellations by which Egypt has been called by the ancients—Origin of the name of Egypt—How called by the natives—Geography of Egypt—Its natural and political boundaries—Short account of the Oasis, and of the Egyptian colonies on the eastern shores of the Red Sea—Curious answer of the oracle of Ammon—The Nile —Different names by which it was known—Its course and inundation—Division of Egypt—Attempt at ascertaining when it was first made—Difference between Modern and Ancient Egypt—Mistakes of the ancients—Causes which produced them—Alterations produced by the Greek writers in the Egyptian names—Mode by which they have been recovered - - - – 336

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